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Full text of "The journal of Thomas Chalkley. To which is annexed, a collection of his works"

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Columbia Slnitiersfftj) 








Blessed is the man who walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor 
standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful ; but 
his deligh is in the law of the Lord, an4 in his law doth lie meditate botlj 
day and night. 

PSALM i. I, 2. 






a 3'^ : 



,^ THE 









The christian experiences of the faithful, being useful 
to direct such as are desirous of following them in the 
paths of true religion and virtue, and their good exam- 
ples shining with the greatest clearness, when they have, 
with the flesh, put ofi:' all human infirmities; justice to 
the memory, and a concern for the benefit of their sur- 
vivors, demand our grateful remembrance of them, and 
the contributing our endeavours to render their labours 
useful to posterity. 

These considerations engage us to preface the writ- 
ings of this our esteemed friend and elder in the truth, 
with this testimony concerning him. 

He was a member of our monthly-meeting above forty 
years, so that some of us had opportunities of being inti- 
mately acfjuainted with him, and of knowing his fidelity 
and diligence in promoting the cause of truth, and the 
edification of the church of Christ ; this having been the 
principal engagement and concern of his mind, and which 
he preferred to any other consideration ; as will evidentiv 

appear to those, who with an honest and unprejudiced 
intention, peruse the journal of his Hfc and travels. 

B}' this it will appear, that he was, in the early part 
of his life sensibly aftectcd with the visitation of divine life 
and grace, and, by adhering thereunto, was preserved 
from the vanities and follies which often divert and alien- 
ate the minds of youth from the due remembrance and aw- 
ful regard of their Creator ; so that he was enabled to 
bear a testimony of christian patience and self-denial in 
his youthful days, and, by keeping under that exercise, 
as he advanced in years, attained to further knowledge 
and experience in the work of religion, in which he had 
a sight of the necessity of keeping in a state of humility,^ 
and of bearing the cross of Christ, which mortified him to 
the \Aorld ; so that the loss many sustain by the anxious 
pursuit of the lawful things thereof appearing to him, he 
^vas concerned to avoid it, and in obedience to the pre- 
cept of Christ, to seek lirst the kingdom of God, and his 
righteousness, having faith in his promise, that all things 
(necessar) for him) should be added. 

Thus the love of God inlluencing his mind, and open- 
ing his understanding, he became concerned for the gen- 
eral good of mankind, and receixed a gift of the ministry 
of the gospel of Christ, before he had attained the age of 
twenty-one years ; in the public exercise of which, he 
boon after travelled through many parts of Englarid, and 
into Scotland, and the next year, 1697, he c.ime to visit 
friends in this and the adjacent provinces of America, 
where his ministry and conversation were to the comfort 
antl edification of the faithful, (as some of us can with 
satisfaction declare, from our knowledge and remem- 
brance of him at that time); and the near fellowship and 
union he then had with friends here, (we believe) con- 
tributed to his more speedy determination of settling 
among us, which he afterwards thought it his duty to do, 
though the leaving his parents and relations (as he after- 
wards expressed was no small cross to him, being of a 
dutiful and affectionate disposition. 

After fixing his residence among us, he persevered in 
his concern and laijour for the edification of the churches, 

and gathering people to faith and dependance on the in- 
ward teachings of Christ, and for that purpose only he 
travelled many long journies and voyages through the sev- 
eral English colonies on this continent, and most of the 
islands in the West-Indies, and in Europe, through En- 
gland, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Holland, Friesland, 
and several parts of Germany, and the adjacent northern 
kingdoms ; and in many of these places his ministry and 
religious labours where blessed with tlie desired success, 
of which there are yet some witnesses living, and otherss 
who were convinced of the principles of truth by his 
means, became serviceable members of the church, and 
continued therein to the end of their lives. 

But as the wise king Solomon formerly observed, that 
one event cometh to the righteous, and to the wicked, so 
it happened to this good man, who met with various losses 
and disappointments in his temporal estate ; after which, 
the circumstances of his affairs engaged him to under- 
take some business, in the management of which he was 
obliged to cross the seas frequently : this, however, did 
not abate his zeal and religious care to make use of all 
opportunities of visiting tlie meetings of friends, when 
among them, and of calling, at other times, to such who 
might be accounted as the outcasts of Israel, and the dis- 
persed of Judah, or as sheep not yet of the fold of Christ ; 
and his services of that kmd are worthy to be commemo- 
rated, having been often productive of good effects. 

His patience was remarkable in disappointments and 
afflictions, of which he had a large share ; and his meek- 
ness, humility and circumspection, in the general course 
of his life and conversation were conspicuous and exem- 
plary; and as he frequently exhorted and admonished oth- 
ers to the observation and practice of the many excellent 
precepts and rules of Christ our Lord and Law-giver ; and 
more especially those expressed in his sermon on the 
mount, (which contains the sum of our moral and relig- 
ious duties) so he manifested himself to be one of that 
number, whom Christ compared to the v/ise builder, Avho 
bid a sure foundation ; so that his building stood un- 
shaken by the Aarious floods and winds of tribulations and 
temptations he met vx^ith, both from ^vithin and without. 

He was a lover of unity amongst brethren, and care- 
ful to promote and maintain it, showing the example of a 
meek, courteous, and loving deportment, not only to 
friends, but to all others, with whom he had conversation 
or dealings ; so that it may be truly said, that few have 
lived so universally beloved and respected among us : 
and it was manifested this did not proceed from a desire 
of being popular, or to be seen of man : for his love and 
regard to peace did not divert him from the discharge 
of his duty in a faithful testimony to those who professed 
the truth, that they ought to be careful to maintain good 
works ; and he was often concerned zealously to incite 
and })ress friends to the exercise of good order and dis- 
cipline established in the wisdom of truth, by admon- 
ishing, warning, and timely treating with such as fell 
short of their duty therein, and by testifying against those 
who, after loving and brotherly care and endeavours, 
could not be brought to the sense and practice of their 
duty ; and thereby he sometimes shared the ill-will and 
resentment of such persons. 

The several essays he wrote on religious f^bjects at 
sea, are further proofs that his mind was principally en- 
gaged in the great business and concern of religion ; 
and as he continued under the same engagement to the 
end, we are fully persuaded the words, with which he 
concluded his last public testimony in the island of Tor- 
tola, may be truly and properly applied to him, that he 
liad fought a good fight, and had kept the faith, and we 
doubt not, he now enjoys a crown of righteousness. 

Much more might be truly said of his integrity, faith- 
fulness and worth, but we do not think it necessary ; 
our chief intention being to express our respectful re- 
membrance of him, and our unity with his labours and 
services, and in order to assure those, to whom he was 
not personally known, of the truth of what he hath him- 
self wrote of his life and travels ; for we believe, as he 
was a man signally influenced with the spirit of universal 
love and good will to mankind, this was his chief mo- 
tive for writing ; and ^\"e are sincerely desirous that his 
good design may l)e answered, and that the glory of 
every good and pcrlect w.ork may be attributed to that 

Divine Power alone, which can qualify others to supply 
the places of those faithful ministers and servants of 
Christ, who have been of late years removed from among 
us, and are of that number, of whom it is written, 
*' Blessed are the dead, which die in the Lord, from 
henceforth ; yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest 
from their labours, and their works do follow them." 

Signed on behalf^ and hij appointment of the Monthly- 
Meeting of Friends in Philadelphia^ the tiventy- 
eighth day of the second mouthy 1749, by 


1 1 1111111 11 ■ww m i niiiii will I I i n w I 'III ni III! 1 1 1 111! iiiiiiiiiiii III III! I M l I ■ \ n v iii i w i m g in 






Having great cause to acknoxvledge the regard and pxotec- 

tioii of Divine Providence in the several stages of 

my life, I think it may he of service to others, 

to leave behind me the following account of 

my life and travels. 

1 WAS born on the third day of the third month, 1675, 
in Southwark, t\nd descended of honest and religious 
parents, who were very careful of me, and brought me 
up in the fear of the Lord; and oftentimes counselJLd 
me to sobriety, and reproved me for wantonness ; and 
that light spirit, which is incident to youth, they -were 
careful to nip in the bud: so that I have cause to bless 
God, through Christ, on the behalf of my tender parents. 
And I may not forget the dealings of God with me in 
my very tender years. When between eight and ten 
years of age, my father and mother sent me near tv. o 
miles to school, to Richard Scoryer, in the subvn^bs of 
London. I vvcnt mostly by myself to the school ; and 
maffy and various were the exercises I went through, by 
beatings and .stonings along the streets, being distin- 


guishcd to the people, by the badge of plainness which 
my parents put upon me, of what profession I was: di- 
vers telling me, " it was no more sin to kill me than it 
Was to kill a dog." 

About this time the Lord began to work strongly on 
my mind by his grace, insomuch that I could not for- 
bear reproving those lads who would take the name of 
the Lord God in their mouths in vain, reminding them 
of the third commandment, " Thou shalt not tiike the 
name of the Lord thy God in vain, for the Lord will not 
hold him guiltless that takcth his name in vain ;" and of 
Christ's saying, " every idle word that men shall speak, 
they shall give an account thereof in the day of judg- 
ment;" for which I was mocked and derided by some, 
Mi(.] otliers would sometimes refrain from such bad 
words Avhen I reproved them. 

One time 1 remember I was amongst some men, one 
of whom I had reproved, and he told the rest of it, and 
turned to me, and said, " that I A\'as no christian," and 
asked me, " v.hen I said tlie Lord's prayer;" I asked 
him, if he said it. He said yes. I then asked him, how 
he could call God Father, and be so wicked as to swear 
and take God's name in vain ; Vvhich I had heard him 
often do ; and I told him ^vhat Christ said to the Jews, 
" }ou are cf your father the devil, because his works ye 
do ;" and that those that did the devil's work could not 
nuly call God Father, according to Christ's doctrine. 
So l)eing convicted in their consciences that what I said 
Was true, they v\'ere all silent, and wondered that I<, 
bei'.ig so youn.g, sh.ould speak in such a mailner ; in 
which I remember I had great peace and good satisfac- 
tion: and from thenceforih these men let me alone. 

jNotwithstanding I hated to hear wicked words, I loved 
play exceedingly, being persuaded that there was no 
hi.rm in that, if we used no bad words. One time I 
was at ])lay at a neighbour's house with the children, 
and in the midst of mv sport I was reached with stronj* 
conviction, insomuch that I could not forbear weeping. 
The children's mother observing that I wept, faid, 
** ^vhy do you Avcep, Tommy ?" I told her I could not 


tt^l, except it was because I was a naughty boy. *' Oh!" 
said she, *' don't believe him, for that's the devil tells 
you so, for } ou are the best boy in all our street." But 
I knew I was told the truth by conviction, and that she 
was mistaken : for I plainly understood by clear con-^ 
viction, and by the holy scriptures (which I had beeu 
trained up in the reading of) that I was too vain and 
wanton ; for I io^ed music, dancing, and playing at 
cards, and too much delighted therein betimes, and was 
followed Avith the judgments of God therefor in the se- 
cret of my soul. What I did in those sports and gan^cs;- ' . ' 
I always took care to do out of the sight, and -withoiiligkfc 
the knowledge of my tender parents; for I was afraid ^^PPfcl^ 
their reproofs and corrections, the Avhich I was sure to ^ 
have, if they had any intelligence of it. 

I remember that, unknov/n ro my parents, I had bought 
a pack of cards, with intent to make use of them when 
I went to see my relations in the countrj/, v/here there was 
liberty in the family so to do, at a place called Woodford, 
about seven miles from London, where I got leave some-, 
times to go ; and at the time called Christmas,, I went 
to see them, and five miles on my way went to a meeting, 
at a town called Wanstead , at which meeting, a minister 
of Christ declared against the evil of gaming, and panic 
ularly of cards; and that the time which j)eo])le pretend 
to keep holy, for Christ's sake, many of them spend 
mostly in wickedness, sports, and games ; even some 
pretending to be religious ; and, generally speaking, 
more sin and evil is committed in this time, than in the 
like space of time in all the } ear besides ; so that the 
devil is served instead of honouring Christ. From this 
meeting at Wanstead, I went to the house of my rela- 
tions, where the parson of the next paiish lodged that 
night, who used to play cards with them sometimes; 
and the time drawing near that we were to go to our 
games, my uncle called to the doctor (as he called him)> 
to me, and to my cousin, to come and take a game at 
cards ; at which motion I had strong convictions upon 
me not to do it, as being evil ; and I secretly cried to the 
Lord to keep me faithful to him ; and lifting up my 



eyes, I saw a bible lie in the window, at tlie sight of 
which I was glad. I took it. and sat down, and read to 
myself, greatly rejoicing that I was preserved out of the 
snare. I'hen my uncle called again, and said, " Come, 
doctor, you and I, my wife and daughter, will have a 
game at cards, for I see my cousin is better disposed.'* 
TiKn he looked upon me, imd said, " He was better dis- 
posed also." So their sport for that time was spoiled, 
and mine in that i^ractice for ever; for I never (as I re- 
mcraijer,) played with them more, but as soon as I came 
home, offered my new and untouched pack of cards to 
|ie fire. And of this I am certain, the use of them is of 
iV^il consequence, and draws away the mind from heav- 
en and heavenly things ; for which reason all christians 
ought to shun them as engines of Satan . and music and 
dancing having generally the same tendency, ought 
therefore to be refrained from. The sentiments of the 
Waldenses, a people in great esteem among protestants, 
arc worthy the consideration of all true protestants and 
christians; which were, " Tliatasmany paces, or steps, 
as a man. or woman takes in the dance, so many paces or 
steps they take tovv^iiids helk" 

I very well remember the work of God upon my soul, 
when I wim about ten years of age ; and particularly at a 
certain time when I had been rebelling jgainst God and 
my parents, in vanity and lightness : and as I had of- 
fended both, so I was corrected bv both: for I had not 
Oiily the anger of my parents, but the Lord frowned upon 
ine, insomucli, that 1 trembled exceedingly, and was as 
though I liearda vocal voice say to me, " VVliat will be- 
come of tliee this night, if I should take thy life from 
thee?" At AA'hich I was amazed, and in great fear. 
Then I covcp.anted wi'h (}od, that if he v/ould be pleased 
to spare niy life (for I thought God would have taken my 
life from me that ^'ery moment), I would be more solder, 
and mind his R-ar more than I had done before. 

Nevertheless, I broke covenant with God my Maker, 
m} adversary templing me so to do, telling me I was but 
a child, . nd it v/as natural for children to be brisk and 
play, and that God would wink at my childhood and 


youth, and it was time enough for me when a man, to 
become reHgious. But still God followed me with his 
chastising rod, and often put me in mind of my covenant 
that I made with him in my distress ; and that he had 
granted my request which I then made to him ; and un- 
less I would take up a cross to my own corrupt will and 
inclinations, he should take me out of the world. Then, 
Oh, then ! I cried. Lord help, or I die ! Save me, or I 
perish for ever ! I cannot keep thy covenant, nor do thy 
will, without thy help and assistance ! And, indeed, if the 
Lord had not helped, I had been undone for ever. 

So I continued bowed down in my mind, calling on 
the Lord ; thinkincr and meditating: on heaven and heav- 
enly things : but as I am sensible I had an inward ene- 
my that always sought my hurt and overthrow, I have 
cause to bless God, who by his grace (as mine eye was 
turned to it) helped me to do his will, as he was pleased 
to manifest it to me, so that thereby some change was 
wrouijht on me both inwardly and outwardly. 

And I then began to deliglit in reading and sobriety, 
which before \\'ere irksome to me : and when I read 'he 
Holy Scriptures, I desired that God would open them to 
my understanding, which he did to my edification many 
times. 1 also begged earnestly of the Lord, that he 
would be pleased to be with me, and make me like to 
those his children and servants, of whom I read in the 
Holy Scriptures, who faithfully served him all their 
days. And when I read of the crucifixion of our blessed 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, it would break my soul 
into tenderness. I thought it was enough to awaken 
and humble any soul that was well meaning, and any 
sense of the power, love, and grace of Christ. Thus I 
went on for several years, feeling that peace which pass- 
eth natural understanding, which many times accom- 
panied my poor and needy soul : and being advanced to 
about fourteen or fifteen years of age, I remember that I 
used to shun the cross of spea^- ing in the plain language 
(which I always read in the Holy Scri])tures) to those 
whom I conversed with, except my fiither and mother, 
who uould uQt allow me to speak otherwise : I was con- 


rictcd in my conscience tliat it was not right to pla}' the 
hypocrite alter that manner ; and on a certain time I had 
occasion to speak with an officer, a great man in our 
neighbourhood, and my heart moved within me for fear 
I should shun the cross of Christ ; for it was Christ's 
language to all, as we may read in the New Testament ; 
and the Scriptures, from Genesis to the Revelations, 
speak thee and thou, to a single person in a general way. 

So I took up the cross, and said thee to him; and he 
was much affronted, and said, " Thee ! what dost thou 
thee me for ?" I soberly asked him if he did not say thee 
|o his Maker in his prayers ? and whether he was too 
good, or too great, to be spoke to in the same language 
m A\'hich he addressed the Almighty ? unto which he 
made no reply, but seemed to fall from his passion into 
admiration, as one smitten in himself. And he bore mc 
respect ever after ; and I greatly rejoiced that I was 
preserved faithful. Though it may look a little thing to 
some, vet I found it good (as the Scripture saith) not to 
despise the day of small things. 

Aiiout the twentietli year of my age, I was pressed and 
carried on board of a vessel belonging to a man of war. 
I was ]:>ut down into the hold in the dark, not having any 
thirig to lie upon but casks ; and what made it worse to 
me, I was among wicked, debauched men ; and as we 
were shut up in darkness, so was their conversation dark 
and hellish. In the morning, for which I longed more 
than the watclnnen, the lieutenant called us up on deck, 
and examined us, whether we w^ere willing to serve the 
king ? he called me to him, and asked me, if I was will- 
ing to serve his majesty ? 1 answered, that I was willing 
to serve him in my business, and according to my con- 
science ; but as for war or fighting, Christ had forbid it 
in his excellent sermon on the mount ; and for that rea- 
son 1 could not bear arms, nor be instrumental to destroy 
or kill men. Then the lieutenant looked on me and on 
the peo])le, and said, " Gentlemen, what shall we do 
with this fellow? he swears he will not fight." The 
commander of the vessel made answer, " No, no, he 
uiil neither swear nor fight." Upon which they turned 


me on shore. I was thankful that I was dehvered out 
of their hands ; and my tender parents were glad to see 
me again. 

Now as I s:rew in \ears, the world beran to take too 
much root in me ; i-nd my unwearied enemy would tell 
me that it was lawful enough (and indeed I see that he 
hurts many with lawful things, with v/hom he knoweth 
the unlawful things will not take) and here I had been 
lost if God had not been graeious to me. But he, in 
whose presence I deiiglited, withdrew, and deprived me 
of that enjoyment which was graceful and comfortable 
above all things to my soul. Then did I pray, witli 
tears, Oh, that it might be with me as it was at other 
times before ! and I was willing to let the world go, ra- 
ther than grace and God's glory. The Psalmist saith, 
*' no good thing will he withhold from them that walk 
uprightly." Psal. Ixxxiv. 11. 

Aijout this time there was a great concern on my 
mind, rightly to distinguish between the voice of Christ, 
and the whisperings of Satan ; and thus it opened to me : 
that Christ, the truth, always speaketh good, and for a 
good end, and that there is divine life to the soul in this 
speaking ; but the devil never speaks good, unless some- 
times for a bad end, and then not good in reality, only 
coloured with good or fair shew. 

And keeping under this exercise, the Lord appeared 
to me again, and many times refreshed my heart with 
his goodness. And when I was in my business amongst 
men, I did witness the Holy Ghost, the comforter, to be 
near me ; which was more to me than all the world, or 
the riches, glory and beauty of it ; the love of God being 
so sweet to my soul and spirit, my breathings, prayers 
and supplications, were to the Lord, that my neighbours, 
acquaintance, and relations, might also partake of the 
like precious faith and love which I enjoyed ; and that 
the children of men might answer that great and good 
end for which the Lord did create them ; which is, that 
glory, honour and praise, might ascend and be given t© 


I had such a sense and fear of dishonouring God, that 
I often, with tears, cried. Never let nie live to dishonour 
jthee. Oh ! it had been better for ine that I had never 
been born, or my mother's womb had been my grave, 
ithan that I should live to dishonour thee, or wilfully re- 
j^roach the name of Christ, who, with the Father, is only 
ivorthy of di\dne honour. 

In this concern I felt the gospel power of our Lord 
•lesus Christ to work upon my soul, and the word of God 
V.-as as a seed in my heart, growing, and opening in me, 
speaking to me, and making my understanding fruitful in 
th.e tilings of his kingdom ; and in that ability which was 
given me of God, through his grace and holy spirit, I 
exhorted peo])le to repentance and amendment of life ; 
and I always humbly desired the help and divine influ- 
ence of God's eternal word therein. Oh ! I did fervently 
pray, that I might minister the gospel in the power of 
Jesus ; for I clearly discerned, in the light of the Son of 
God, that all .ministering out of Christ's power, was 
neither edifying nor efficacious imto souls: therefore I 
did earnestly beseech God for the continuance of the gift 
of his spirit, that I might be enabled to preach the gospel 
in the. power of Christ Jesus. The concern that was 
upon mc on this account at that time, is hard to be ex- 
pressed in words. 

The latter end of the year 1695, my father sent me into 
Essex, on some business, which, when I had accomplish- 
ed, 1 visited some meetings of friends there, and my 
mind being much affected with the apprehensions of an 
impending storm (the nation being about this time threat- 
ened with an invasion from France, in favour of the late 
king James, so that there was expectation of much blood- 
shed and confusion in the land) I wrote^ a letter to my 
parents, and another to friends of the evening meeting 
(kept weekly at my father's house) expressing my thank- 
fulness to the Almighty, in remembrance of the many 
pr^^^cious visitations oi divine love and favour we had been 
partakers of, to the uniting our hearts to him, and to one 
another; and mv earnest jDrayers and supplications, that we 
might be preserved in true love, and the unity of the spir- 


it, which is the bond of everlasting peace ; and that the 
world might be made sensible of this true peace, which 
abounds in those who love and fear the Lord, and truly 
believe in the name of Jesus. Oh ! surel} , they would 
then depart from sin, and abandon iniquity, by which 
they incur the wrath of the Lord, and provoke the just 
one to anger ; so that the line of confusion seems to be 
stretched over the city and nation, and the eye of the 
faithful seeth it to the grief of their souls. Yet the 
mercy of the Lord, even of the just God (who will ren- 
der a just reward to every one according to his deeds 
done in the bod\ ) is stiii handed forth to the land. Oh ! 
that the inhcbitants thereof would consider their ways, 
and be wise, and turn to the Lord with unfeigned re- 
pentance, while the day of mercy lasteth, before it be 
said, now h is hid from thine eyes ; fcf the Lord, even 
the God and Father of Sj^irits, hath said, " My spirit 
shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh.'* 
Gen. vi. 3. 

On the expiration of my apprenticeship, having serv- 
€d my father faithfully seven }'ears, I entered more 
strongly into covenant with my heavenly Father and 
miaster, to serve him all my days, through his assistance ; 
and was soon after drawn forth, in the spirit and love of 
Christ, to visit the meetings of friends westward from 
London, viz. through Surry, Sussex, Hampshire, Wilt- 
shire, Devonshire, and Cornwall to the L'u^d's-end ; in 
which journey I was accompanied by William Koniould. 
At one of our meetings at Falmouth, in Cornwall, t\vo 
men (called gentlemen) came from the inn to hear the 
strangers ; and after meeting, they said they could take 
their oath that I was a Jesuit, and tliat they had heard 
me preach in a Romish chapel in France ; which was 
utterly false ; for 1 never was in France in my life. Be- 
sides, had I been a papist, or popishly inclined (which I 
was not) I was too young to be i. Jesuit. 

Indeed, I thought I was mean for the work of the min- 
istry, but the good remembrancer brought those truths 
to my remembrance, which strengthened me in the work 
and service of God. The spirit brealheth where it list- 



tth; outof thcmoiithsof biibcsand sucklingsthou liastpcr- 
fccitd praise, &.c. \\ c liaviiig great peaee in (>ur labours 
in tliis journey, and being edified therewith, returned to 
liOndon, after ab(;ut fotir months absence troni home. 

And alter I had been two weeks at liome, my dear 
ip.other departed this life, in a sweet fraiae of spirit, prais- 
inp; the Lord. She w^as one who hved the life of the 
rii hteous, and A\hose latttr end was like tlieirs, and left 
a good report behnid her, being weil beloved (I think I 
may safeh say) by all otir neighbours ; not only by those 
of otH' ow n societ\ , but others also, to \\ horn she w as oft- 
en "^ery helpful. 

So I went to my calling, and got a little money, 
(a little being enough), which I was made willirig to 
spend freely, in the work and service of my great 
master, Christ Jesus. And about this time I was con- 
cerned to travel into the north of England, and part 
of Scotland, which I did in that ability God gave me ; 
and that dispensation w hich I had freely received, I free- 
h handed forth to the people, devoting my strength and 
time to serve him (that had done so much for me) ; and 
I had the satisfaction to find divers confessing the truth, 
as it is in Jesus. In this journey I was from home about 
four months, being mostly alone as to any \ oke-fellow 
in that work, travelling many hundreds of miles, being 
as far as Edinburgh, in Scotland, where our meeting was 
in the street, we being locked out of our meeting-house 
by the then power, and great numbers of peoi)le were 
there. This news being carried to the provost of the 
city, he said, " The quakers would do more hurt out 
of doors than w ithin," and he ordered friends their 1 ey. 
Since which I have understood that friends in that city 
have enjoyed their meetings in the meeting-house ; and 
sometimes when the rabble have disturbed friends, the 
magistrates have sent officers to disperse them. 

Now, after I had visited the chiu-ches of Christ in di- 
vers parts of England, and had many sweet seasons of 
God's love, and many good opportunities with my friends 
and others in this nation ; (the word of life being de- 
clared in the simplicity of the gospel, in several places 


people were very open-hearted, and received the testimony 
of iL with gladness). And after I had been at my father's, 
and at my calling', a little after this north-country jour- 
ney, I found myself engaged in the love of the gospel to 
visit friends in America ; and having acquainted my 
friends and relations of my mind (they being willing to 
give me up) in order for the voyage, friends of ihe 
monthly-meeting gave me a certificate, and I had an- 
other from the meeting of the ministers in London. 

My father, and several other friends with me, took boat 
from London, and accompanied me to Gravesend, on 
the 21st of the tenth month, 1697 ; and I went on board 
the ship Josiah, Thomas Lurtiiig, master, and sailed that 
day from Gravesend, and got to the Downs the next 
day, where we tarried some days for a fair wind ; in 
which time several others, that were concerned in the 
same gospel-labour, came on board, viz. Thomas Turner, 
William Ellis, and Aaron Atkinson. In about four 
days time the wind was fair for us, and we set sail, and 
in a little time we got out of sight of the land ; soon after 
which the wind was contrary, and we proceeded but a 
small distance for several weeks ; the weather was rough 
and the sea boisterous, so that with the motion thereof, 
most of the passengers were sick. In this time we lost 
a lad, that fell into the sea (as he was drawing a bucket 
of water) and was drowned ; the ship running swiftly, 
he could not be saved, although it was speedily endeav- 
oured. Several others died before we got over ; but for 
the most part we were healthful. The Lord be praised, 
he was, is, and will be, with those that faithfully serve 
him to the end. 

We were three ships in company, but by the distress 
of weather, soon after we came out, we parted. After 
we had been at sea about eight weeks (on the 25th of 
the 12th month) we saw two vessels astern of us. One 
of them came up with us, and the people hailed us, 
and told us they came from Bristol, and had been out 
ten weeks. The other came up with us next day. 
T ic people informed us they had been at sea seven 
weeks, aiid that they had a dreadful time of it. She had 


lost part of her topmast, and her spritsail topmast was 
gone. She was a new ship, and never at sea before, be- 
longing to London, and bound for Virginia, as near as 
we eould unelerstand : our ship lost none of her tackling, 
through the great mercy of God to us, though the wind 
and sea was wonderful high at times ; the mate told me, 
I might go to sea all my life, and not see the like ; he 
said he had been at, or used to the sea, twenty years, and 
never saw it so rough and high JDcfore. We had meet- 
ings twice a week, several of which were comfortable 
and refreshing meetings, to which most of the passen- 
gers, beirig in all about sixty in number, sometimes came; 
and several of them uere affected with the sense of truth, 
and the Lord strengthened our faith and hope in him. 

Oh I for ever blessed be the living and eternal God, 
who kept my soul above the fear of death, hell, and the 
grave ; for my trust was in him, and he did bear up my 
spirit above the waves of the sea ; and, in the time of toss- 
ing with tempests, I was comforted and cheerful, prais- 
ing the Lord in m}' heart, both in the day time, and in 
the night season. 

I was much concerned in my mind for many of the 
passengers, who, with the second mate, and several of 
the seamen, were very sick (by some it was thought neaf 
unto death) I cried to the Lord to heal them, in the name 
of his dear Son, and that it might be a means to convince 
them of the efficacy of love to, and faith in Christ Jesus, 
the physician of value ; and the Lord was pleased to heal 
them. The mate of the ship desired that I would come 
and pray b'^^ him. I went to him, and prayed in the pow- 
er and name of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the Lord help- 
ed him, that he said he was fine and easy, and thanked me 
for my love ; and in a little time he recovered. Several 
otlicrs of the seamen and passengers I was instrumental 
to help in their sickness. The Lord blessed my endeav- 
ours in supplicating him on their beh;ilf, and adminis- 
tering what I had to them. One of the seamen said, he 
was bound to pray for me as long as he lived, and that 
the Lord would bless me. Another of the p-issengers 
said, that I was tlie blessed doctor (for there was not a 


sui*£^eon, or doctor in the ship). I was very free to com- 
mviJiicute of what I had to any sick person in the ship, 
and several blessed the Lord on my behalf. Indeed I 
thoii,^ht I could scarce do enough for any that were in 
distress. I write not thus, I might seem popular, 
but with my mind bowed before the Lord. Many times 
in this voyage there were consultations in my mind, 
whether I had best write a memorandum hereof; but at 
last conceiving in my spirit that it might strengthen and 
excite love to God, and faith in his beloved Son, in true 
believers, I wrote as aforesaid ; and then I was satisfied, 
and gave the glory to God. 

Before we came to the land, we saw a ketch, which had 
saved the lives of some that belonged to a ship that 
was a little before foundered in the sea ; who said also, 
that a fleet of New- England ships which had been upon 
that coast, by stormy weather were forced to Barba- 
does ; and within a few days after we saw the land of 
Virginia, and also a New-England ship, which sailed or 
came from England three weeks before us. We arrived 
within the Capes of Virginia the 31st of the 1st month 
1698, and overtook the John and Margaret, a ship that 
came out of the English channel with us (the master, 
Thomas Salmon, being dead) and the next day we anchor- 
ed our ship at the mouth of Patuxent river, in Maryhmd, 
where our boats were hoisted out, and we were ro\\'ed up 
Patuxent river twelve miles, to Arthur Young's house, 
where we lodged that night ; and for our preservation and 
safe arrival, we blessed the Lord our God, and my spirit 
praised him who lives for ever and ever. Our voyage 
Was above twelve weeks, it being then winter time, and 
for the most part the winds so high, that the ships could 
carry but little sail, which made our voyage the longer. 

About four days after we landed, we had a meeting 
near Patuxent river ; and a blessed one it was ! when it 
Avas ended, we went (that night) to Daniel Rawling's, and 
from thence to the C lifts, to Richard John's, a friend, that 
came with us from England, at whose house we had a 
meeting, wherein God's presence was powerfully felt. 
We had several meetings on that side the bay, called the 


Western -shore, and then we sailed over to the east side of 
Chesapeak-bay,with Thos. Everden, in his sloop; wen: to 
his house, had a meetinj^, where many people came. Here 
we met with our friends Jonathan I'yler, Henry Pa} ton, 
and Henry Payton's sister. While I was at this friend's 
house, there was one Robert Cathing, who being very ill, 
sent for Thomas Everden, and he (not being very well) de- 
sired me to visit the sick person. So I went, and the man 
was near to death. Howbeit, he said he was comforted 
much with the visit, and that he never had received so 
much benefit by the parish priest in his life ; although, 
said he, it cost me dear for what I had ; and if ever I 
live to get over it, by the assistance of God, I shall have 
nothing to do with them more. But, he said, he should 
not live three days. And before the end of three days 
he expired. He desired (if I were not gone) that I would 
be at his funeral. On notice hereof, about ten friends 
went ; and there was a great many people, among whom 
we had a good opportunity, and many weighty truths 
were opened to them in the love of God ; and some of 
them were tender and wept ; and the most, if not all (I 
think I may say) were solid and weighty. 

From Thomas Everden's house we went to George 
Truii's, at whose house we had a meeting. This friend 
and I went to an Indian town not far from his house, be- 
tause I had a desire to see these people, having never 
seen any of them before. When we came to the town 
they were kind to us, spoke well of friends, and said they 
would not cheat them, as some others did. 

Fi'om George Truit's, in Maryland, we went down 
to Virginia; and in Accomack and Northampton counties 
wc had large meetings, and I hope they were effectual 
to many ; I think my hope is not without ground. In 
those parts we had several meetings, where ^ve were in- 
fo) nied friends had not had any before. And really I 
cannot but bless the Lord for the opportunities we had 
with the people ; for the goodness of God, through Christ 
our Lord, was great, both to us and them, and with 
tears thev did acknowledge the truth. Now Thomas 
Turner, who had hitherto accompanied me, went by tliq 


sea- side the nearest way to Philadelphia ; and afterwards 
I had a nieetnig at George Truit^s brother's, and on the 
first-day, another near the court-house, and went to Tho- 
mas Everden's, and so to Leven Denwood's and thence 
to Nanticoke river, and visited friends up the bay until 
I came to the river Choptank, about which there is a 
pretty many friends. So I went on, and took the meet- 
ings till I came to Philadelphia, in and about which place, 
and in other parts of the province of Pennsylvania, I had 
many large and precious meetings, the power of the eter- 
nal Son of God being wonderful ; in which power we 
many times blessed his name together. It was much in 
my heart to exhort friends to love God, and to unity one 
with another, without which there is no fulfilling the law 
or gospel. There are many friends in that province, 
and many sober young people, which greatly rejoiced 
my spirit, so that for their encouragement, the Lord open- 
ed my mouth in a prophetic manner to declare unto them 
the blessings which he had in store for them, on condi- 
tion of their w^alking in the truth. Glory to God on high! 
untruth decays, and the branches of it mightily wither; 
the darkness is much past, and the true light shineth 
gloriously in many souls. Oh ! powerful praises be given 
to God, who is light for ever. 

From Philadelphia I went to Burlington, and so on to 
Crosswicks, where Ave had a large meeting under th6 
trees, where some were convinced of the truth. From 
hence I went to Shrewsbury, and had meetings there : 
from Shrewsbury we went (mostly by water) to Wood- 
bridge and Staten Island, from thence to Long-Island, 
being accompanied by several friends. On Long Island 
we had several large and good meetings, wherein Christ 
was preached freely ; and after we had been two weeks there, 
we went on board a sloop bound for Rhode- Island, and by 
the way we touched at Fisher's and Block-Islands, and 
on the first-day morning We set sail from Block-Island to 
Rhode-Island, the yearly-meeting being just over when 
we got there. That evening we sailed over to Connan- 
icut- Island. On the third day of the week had a meeting 
there, and from thence we went over to Narraganset, and 


bad a meeting-, arid so over to Rhode- Island again, (where 
Ruth Fn , a sober young woman, was convineed, and 
remained a friend till hei deatli). Here I met with sev- 
eral travelling frierids. From this island we went over to 
the main, and had a large meetir.g on first-day, at a place 
called Greerwich. It was thought there were about five 
hundred people, and many of them were tender. We 
went over the same night to the island ; and after several 
open times with friends and others on Rliode-Island,about 
twelve friends of that island went with me to Warwick 
and Providence yearly -meetings, in our friend Borden's 
boat. We set sail about noon, and having but little 
wind, it was late in the night before we got there, and 
very dark, insomuch that we could neither see nor know 
one another, but only by our speech, and the darkness 
occasioned us to run our vessel against the rocks ; but at 
last we got ashore (with our horses) and after going over 
a very dirty slough, we entered a dismal wilderness ; so 
that these difficulties occasioned our not getting to thq; 
friend's house till the next day, which being the last 
day in the week, we had a meeting ; and on the first- 
day we had a very large and satisfactory meeting. Many 
of us were so united in the love of God, that it was hard 
for us to part one from another. 

From Providence I went to Boston and Salem, where 
I had meetings, and from thence to Hampton. In those 
parts God Almighty hath shortened the power of perse- 
cutors, and hath brought his righteous judgments upon 
them for their unrighteousness. Oh ! that New- Eng- 
land's professors might live in the sense of the same, and 
repent. I being a stranger and traveller, could not but 
observe the barbarous and unchristian-like welcome I 
had in Boston, the metropolis of New-England. Oh I 
what pity (said one) it was, that all of your society were 
not hanged with the other four !* In the eastern part 
of New- England, God hath a seed left of his people. 

* Marmaduke Stevenson, WiU'iam Robinson, Mary Dyer, and William 
Ledra, who were put to death in 1659 and 1660. 


From thence I returned in order to get a passage to 
the isle of Nantucket ; and from a place called Cushnet, 
wc sailed over to the said island in about ten hours, where 
we tarried several days, and had five meetings. The 
people did generally acknowledge to the truth, and many 
of them were tend^^r- hearted. Some of the ancient peo- 
ple said, that it was never known that so many people ' 
were together on the island at once. After the first 
meeting was over, one asked the minister, (so called) 
whether we might have a meeting at his house ? he 
said, with a good will, we might. This minister had 
some discourse with me, and asked. What induced me 
to come hither, being such a young man ? I told him 
that I had no other view in coming there, than the good 
of souls, and that I could say with the apostle that a ne- 
cessity was laid upon me, and wo would be to me if I 
did not preach the gospel. Then, said he, I wish you 
would preach at my house in God's name. So next day 
we had a meeting at his house ; and on first-day we had 
the largest meeting that we had on the island. It was 
thought that there were above two hundred people. The 
Lord in his power did make his truth known to the praise 
of his name. Oh ! how was my soul concerned for that 
people ! The Lord Jesus did open my heart to them, 
and theirs to him. They were also loving and kind to 
us. The chief magistrate of the island desired that I 
would have a meeting at his house, there being no settled 
meeting of friends before I came ; and after meeting lie 
disputed about religion with me. I thought we were both 
but poor disputants ; and cannot remember all that pass- 
ed between us, but that in the close of our dispute, he 
said, I disputed with your friends in Barbadoes, and they 
told me, that we must eat the spiritual flesh, and drink 
the spiritual blood of Christ : And, said the governor, 
did ever any one hear of such flesh and blood ; for is it 
not a contradiction in nature, that flesh and blood should 
be spiritual ? Oh ! surely, said I, the governor has for- 
got himself; for what flesh and blood was that which 
Christ said, except ye eat my flesh, and drink my blood, 
ye have no life in you. Why, said he, I do not tliink 



they were to gnaw it from his iirnis and shoulders. I' 
then told him, he had answered himself. 'J'hus our dis- 
pute ended. And from that time forward they have con- 
tinued a meeting", and there is no\v a meeting-house, and 
a yearly meeting for worship ; it is a groA\ing meeting 
tp this day, and several public friends are raised up 
amongst tilt m, "who preach the gospel of Christ freely. 
At this time a friend was convinced, whose name 
was Starbuck, \\ho became \ery serviceable, and livedand 
died an eminent minister of Christ on that island. Sev- 
eral scores of them came and accompanied us to the 
water-side ; and when we embarked on board our sloop, 
they desired that I would come and visit them again. So 
I recommended them to the grace of our Lord Jesus, 
and we parted in great love and tenderness. In the even- 
i]ig of the next day we got to the main land, where Ave 
were gladly received. Now it was in my heart again to 
visit the eastern parts of New- England before I left Amer- 
ica ; therefore I went to Boston ) early-meeting, thence 
to Lynn and Salem, where we had a sweet comfortable 
time ; likewise to the yearly -meetings, at Dover, and so 
to Piscataway, where we had several meetings, which 
were prohtable opportunities to many. From Piscata- 
way, James Goodbridge and I went over to the Isle of 
Shoals ; we had with us a church-member of the Presby- 
terians, whose brother invited her over A\ith us to the 
said island, to the meeting which was at his house ; and 
while he was talking with her in the yard or garden, I 
saw a bible, and took it, and read therein. When she 
came into the house, she asked me, What I did with that 
book ? I told her, if she was offended I would lay it 
down. No, no, said she, don't think to come oft' so, 
for }ou disown or deny that book. I told her she Avas 
mistaken ; and asked who told her so. Why, said she, 
our minister in his juijpit. I replied, that it was a great 
abuse upon us, for I had been trained up from my child- 
hood in the reading and i^elief of the scriptures, and my 
fiither and mother were friends, (that is Quakers.) She 
willing to try me further, said. Did your fother and moth- 
er suffer yoii to read the bible when you were a little boy ? 


Yes said I, and gave me corrt ction when I was not so 
willing to read therein as they would have me. Tlien, 
said she, our minister has belied you ; and since you say 
so, if it please God, I will go and hear you. She went 
with us to meeting ; and after it was over (going home) 
one asked her, how she would answer it to their minis- 
ter for going to meetings. Siie replied, it was truth she 
had heard, and she would stand by it through the grace 
of Christ, and need not be ashamed of it, though we are 
of ourselves but poor weak creatures. This woman was 
sober and religious, and one of good report. By the 
foregoing we may see how skinders flow from some pul» 
pits : the more is the shame and pity. We went on, 
and preached the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ, in that 
ability he gave us, with which the people were affected. 
and would have had us tarry longer, but we could not, 
although they much importuned us, because we had ap- 
pointed a meeeting at Oyster river. After we had had 
several meetings, about Piscataway and Dover, we went 
to Hampton, where we had meetings ; and at Salisbury 
we had a large open meeting, as it was supj^osed, of 
about three hundred people, which was at this time ac- 
counted a great concourse of people thereabouts ; also at 
Jamaica and Haverhill we had meetings, and from thence 
Ment to Salem and L} nn again, where we had good ser- 
vice for truth ; and then to Boston, and had a meeting at 
the meeting-house, and another at a friend's house in the 
evening, at which there vvere many people. From Boston 
I went to visit friends about Cape-Cod, till I came again to 
Rhode-Island. By the way I met with A.iron Atkinson, 
who was on a visit to friends in New- England. I had 
several good opportunities, and powerful meetings, in 
those parts, and tru h wrought a tenderness in divers at 
Rhode-Island. The presence of him, who said. Where 
two or three are met in my name, there am I in the 
midst of them, being sensibly witnessed by many; 
for he was with us of a truth. From thence I went 
round the Narraganset country, and had meetings at sev- 
eral places, and was acconij^anied by John Rodman, 
and William Beackiey, through Connecticut to Long- 


Island, which is accounted two hundred miles ; we had 
oiit niectiiig by the way, in which Christ was preached 
to them, as he is the Light of the world, at a place 
wl'.ere we were told there never was a friend's meeting 
before. I came to Long- Island about two weeks belore 
the general meetii g, and visited friends in several pU.ces 
on this island, as at Hampstead, Jerusalem, Jericho, 
and Bethpage, where there were large meetings, and 
uuich openness among the people, and some were con- 
vinced. We had a meeting at a place called Matinico<:k, 
where I met wilh some of the people called Ranters, 
who disturbed our meeting. I may say as the apostle 
Paul (only altering Ephesus to Matinicock) that I fought 
With beasts there ; and thence I travelled to New- York, 
where we had two meetings ; from thence we went to 
ll I Jerseys, and there we had several serviceable meet- 
ings that were large; and so to Penns\ Ivania, where 
there are many very large meetings of friends, and the 
Lord is wilh his people there, and prospereth them s]Hrit- 
ually and temporally. Here I met with m}' dear friend 
W m. Lilis. From Philadelphia, Rich. Gove, of that city, 
and 1 traveliedtoJViar} land, and visited friends on the west- 
ern shore, and from ihenee to Vu'ginia- In Virginia, near 
JjiiTies' river, I met w ith an aged friend whose name was 
Wm. Pprier. He was ninet} -two years of age, and had 
then a du lighter two years old.* We had several meet- 
it igs there amongst friends and others, many being well 
satisfied concerning the truth, atid spoke well of it. 

And after we had had several good and open nicetings 
in \ irgiiiia, we lound ourselves clear of America, and in 
order lor our passage, we agreed with our friend F. 
Johnson, on board the Elizabeth arid Mary, to carry us 
for England, 

* Some years afier, I saw him, and he was weeding' Indian corn with a lioc. 
Hi was iiboiit 106 years ot" ..g-e, and i' (i ipw , ds of He\c'!ity children, 
gi-;i dcii idren, ;vnd gicat-j^ran -children. We were divers fViei ds of us to 
see him, and 1 «■ preaciicd to us a short, but vo-y ;dlt i ling- seimon,, a.T. ;iear as I remember, verbatim, tlius : " Friends, you are curm- to see 
inc In the hive ot G(.d. God is love, ;ind th.ose that dwell m God, dwell in 
lo\e. I ilia '; God, i fc;! ' s divine liu- everyday ;.nd e^e^y niglu." He lived 
to seeliis above mentioned daughter married, and died, aged lOr years. 


On the 11th of the first month, 1698-9. we were ac- 
companied on board by several friends, who abode with 
us all night ; and the next day, being the first day of the 
week, we had a little comfortable meeting, and then part- 
ed in much love, having the evidence of the power of the 
Almighty with us. We waited for a fair wind until the 
20th of the aforesaid month, and left the Capes of Vir- 
ginia that day, and at night we got our ship into a sailing 
posture ; and I was glad in my spirit, that I was setting 
my f ice towards my native land ; and more glad that I 
was returning with peace in my bosom. Oh! the power 
and presence of him who said. Go, teach all nations, was 
sweet to my soul at that time, and now in some measure 
I enjoyed the fruits of my having laboured in that ability 
God had given to me. Glory to God, through Christ, 
who is worthy for ever ! The presence of God was with 
us on the great ocean, and we were strengthened through 
his goodness wonderfully. We had several good meet- 
ings on board our ship, and were opened in the love of 
God, to the poor seamen very largely. 

When we launched forth into the deep, we were sev- 
eral ships in company ; but we had been but a little time 
at sea, before we lost sight of them all. Several ships 
passed by us about a week after we sailed ; and about 
this time we saw a very large whale, which lifted itself 
part out of the water, with his mouth open, which looked 
like the entrance of a large cave. We likewise saw sev- 
eral other large sea-fish, such as grampusses, sharks. Sec. 
all which shew forth the wondrous works of the great: 
Creator of all things. Elizabeth Webb, and Elizabeth 
Lloyd went over with us in this vessel, both virtuous 
women. About two weeks the winds ^vere mostly fair 
for us, in which time we got finely on our way ; but for 
above a week afterwards the winds were mostly con- 
trary, and the ship had a great motion, which caused 
some of us to be sea-sick, especially Elizabeth Lloyd '^S 

* She was the daug-hter of Thomas Lloyd, late deputy-governor of Penn- 
sylvania. She lived and died a virtuous woman ; and, I think, generally he- 


who was but wcukl_y. One nis;ht our sailors thought that 
an enemy or pirate was near us, m ho fired two guns, and 
so passed by us ; but it beina- night, we could not cer- 
tainly know what she was. 1 rather judged it might be 
some ship in distress, for we saw one of the ships that 
evening that came out with us, and the next morning we 
could see none at all, and there was hardly any wind that 
night, so I feared that our companion had sprung a leak 
and foundered ; and when I toid our master my opinion, 
he said, he feared the same likewise. Now, tor two 
weeks time, or thereabouts, we beat about the sea, and 
made little progress. Howbeit, we had several good 
meetinjjs, ^^ herein we tcave o'lorv to God, our Saviour ; 
and for e\ er let it ascend, saith my soul, to him over all ! 
After contrary winds, about two weeks, the wind sprung 
11 1") westerly, and was fair for several days ; in \\ hich 
time we got finely on our way again, 'and left the West- 
ern IsKmds about two day's sail behind us; and then the 
wnid A\as contrary agAin. Contrary winds are commonly- 
tedious at sea, but especially to those that know not 
\^1iere t6 stay their minds ; but we being several friends 
of us on board, that were passengers, had oftentimes good 
meetings several times a week ; and if any of our ship's 
company came to meeting, they always were sober, and 
sometimes tender ; and truly God's love was extended 
to^^-ards them. And when it was not our meeting days, 
we spent not our time idl\ , but for the most part in read- 
ing the holy scriptures, and writing, Sec. in which we 
were at sundry seasons greatly refreshed, strengthened, 
and comforted. Oh ! my soul ! glorify God thy Maker, 
and Christ th}- Saviour forever, in the sense of his good- 
ness ar.d mere}-, both by sea and land, by night and by 
day ! Afrer we had been almost seven weeks at sea, we 
thought that we were near the land, but we sounded sev- 
eral days, and found no bottom, although we let out 
abundance of line, I thjnk aboAC three hundred yards. 

lovcrl 1)\- :tll ^vhn were .-ic(|ua\ntc(l w-th licr. A\Micn slie died she was tlic: 
wifcot' ;);iniclZ;Kliar\, ii iiurtliaiU of Boston, New-Eng-land, well known, and 
much bc-lovcd thcix*, for her piely and virtue. 


About ihis time our doctor dreamed a dream, which 
was to this effect ; him^^elf related it to me ; he said, 
" He dreamed that he went on shore at a great and spa- 
cious town, the buildings whereof were high, and the 
streets broad ; and as he went up the street he saw a 
large sign, on which was written, in great golden letters, 
SHAME. At the door of the house to which the sign 
belonged, stood a woman with a can in her hand, ^vho 
said unto him, Doctor, will you drink ? he replied, with 
all mv heart, for I have not drank any thing but water a 
great while, (our wine and cider being all spent, having 
had a long passage) and he drank a -hearty draught, which 
h'^ said, made him merry; so he went up the street reel- 
ing to and fro, when a grim fellow coming behind him, 
clapped him on the shoulder, and told him, that he ar- 
rested him in the name of the governor of the place. He 
asked him for what ; and said. What have I done ? He 
answered, for stealing the woman's can ; the can he had 
indeed, and so he was had before the governor, which 
was a mighty black dog, the biggest and grimmest that 
ever he saw in his life ; and witness was brought in against 
him by an old companion of his, and he was found guilty, 
and his sentence was to go to prison, and there lay for 

He told me this dream so punctually, and with such 
an emphasis, that it affected me with serious sadness, and 
caused my heart to move within me ; for to me the 
dream seemed true, and the interpretation sure : I then 
told him he was an ingenious man, and might clearly see 
the interpretation of that dream, which exactly answered 
to his state and condition, which I thus interpreted to 
him : " This great and spacious place, wherein the 
buildings were high and the streets broad, is thy great 
and high profession : the sign, on which was written 
shame, which thou sawest, and the woman at the door, 
with the can in her hand, truly represents that great, cry- 
ing, and shameful sin of drunkenness, which thou know- 
est to be thy great weakness, which the woman with the 
can did truly represent to thee ; the grim fellow who ar- 
rested thee in the devil's territories, is death, who will 


assuredly arrest all mortals ; the governor whom thou 
sawest, representing a great black chjg, is certainly the 
devil, who after his servants have served him to the full, 
wil! torment them eternally in hell." So he got up, as it 
were in haste, and said, God forbid ! it is nothing but a 
dream. But I told him it was a very significant one, 
and a warning to him from the Almighty, who some- 
times speaks to men by dreams. 

In seven weeks after we left sight of the land of Amer- 
ica, we saw the Scilly islands, and next day saw the land 
of England, which was a comfortable sight to us ; in 
that God Almighty had preserved us hitherto, and that 
we were so fir got on our way. We drove about the 
channel's mouth for several days for want of wind ; after 
which, for two days the wind came up, and we got as f:u' 
up the channel as Limebay, and then an easterly wind 
blew fresh for several days, and we turned to windu^ard, 
but rather lost than got on our way, which was tiresome 
and tedious to some of us. 

Nov\^ about diis time, being some days after the doc- 
tor's dream, a grievous accident happened to us. We 
meeting with a Dutch vessel, in Limebay, a little above 
the Start, hailed her, and she us. They said they came 
from Lisbon, and were bound for Holland. She was 
loaded with wine, brandy, fruit, and such like commodi- 
ties and we having little but water to drink, by reason 
our passage was longer than we expected, therefore we 
sent our boat on board, in order to buy us a little wine 
to drink with our water. Our doctor, and a merchant 
that was a passenger, and one sailor, went on board, 
where they staid until some of them were overcome with 
wine, although they were desired to beware thereof; so 
that when they came back, a rope being handed to them, 
(they being filled with wine unto excess) were not capa- 
l3le of using it dexterously, insomuch that they overset 
tht boat, and she turned bottom upwards, having the 
doctor under her. The merchant caught hold of a rope 
called the main-sheet, whereby his life was saved. The 
sailor not getting so much drink as the other two, got 
nimbly on the bottom of the boat, and floated on the 


water till such time as our other boat was hoisted out, 
which was done with great speed, and we took him in ; 
but the doctor was drowned before the boat came. 
The seaman that sat upon the boat saw him sink, but 
could not help him. This was the greatest exercise that 
we met with in all our voyage ; and much the more so, 
as the doctor was of an evil life and conversation, and 
much given to excess in drinking. When he got on 
board the aforesaid ship ; the master sent for a can of 
wine, and said, doctor, will you drink ? He replied, yes, 
with all my heart, for I have drank no wine a great 
while. Upon which he drank a hearty draught, that 
made him merry (as he said in his dream)* ; and not. 
withstanding the admonition which was so clearly mani- 
fested to him but three days before, and the many pro. 
mises he had made to Almighty God, some of which I 
was a witness of, when strong convictions were upon 
him, yet now he was unhappily overcome, and in drink 
when he was drowned. This is, I think, a lively re- 
presentation of the tender mercy, and just judgment of 
the Almighty to poor mortals ; and I thought it worthy 
to be recorded to posterity, as a warning to all great 
lovers of wine and strong liquors. This exercise was 
so great to me, that I could not for several days get 
over it ; and one day while I was musing in my mind 
©n those things relating to the doctor, it was opened to 
me, that God and his servants were clear, and his blood 
was on his own head ; for he had been faithfully warned 
©f his evil ways. 

We were obliged by contrary winds to put into Plym- 
outh harbour, and from Plymouth I went by coach to 
London, where I was gladly received by my relations 
and friends. In this journey I travelled about 2000 miles 
by land, and 6000 by water. I got to the yearly meetinp- 
of friends in London, in the year 1699 (which was large) 

* This relation of the doctor's drerim, wlien I was at Barbadoes, I had oc- 
casion to write about to a friend in Ireland, which he t^ot pi nted thi iv, wlii«Il 
J^ the same With this in substance, only this is somswhat fuller and liu-jfer. 


arcl was at di^"crs public meetings fcr the worship of 
Ainiighly Gud. I may triuy say, the Holy Ghost was 
amongst us, blessed be God our Suviour for evermore. 
In this year I thought it my place to enter into a mar- 
ried state, and I acquainted my fatlier of my design, 
and that I inciined to make choice of Martha Betterton, 
a religious young woman, whom I entirely loved for that 
piet} , virtue, and modesty, which I beheld in her : I 
was in the twenty -fourth year of n^y age, and she in her 
twenty-first. I likewise acquainted her father and moth- 
er with my intentions, to which both our parents con- 
sented ; her father saving (when I spoke to him) go to- 
gether, and the Lord bless }ou together. And my fath- 
er said, it I was \\orth my weight in gold, she deserved 
me. The heartintss of both our fathers in this matter, 
was more to me than a portion of silver or gold, of which 
we had but very little; but our love to each other was 
very great, and being well and honourably grounded, it 
was not easily shaken. So after consent of parents, wc 
proposed our intentions of marriage to the monthly meet- 
irigs unto which we belonged ; and because I had been 
travelling in America, I had certificates from my breth- 
ren there, not only of my industry and labour in the min- 
istry, with the good effects thereof, but also of my 
clearness in relation to marriage ; and after having twice 
published our intentions, we had liberty of the said meet- 
ing to proceed to the solemnization of our marriage, 
which was accomplished at Devonshire-house, in London, 
at a meetifig appointed for that end, on the 28th day of 
the seventh mon-h, in the aforesaid year, in the presence 
of many hundreds of people, and many worthy brethren 
and elders. A day of days it was to my soul ! wherein 
I was made sensible of the love and goodness of God in 
a particular manner, which to me was an earnest of our 
future well-doing. My dear wife was one who truly 
loved and feared God, and had an excellent gift of the 
ministry given unto her, and was serviceable therein. 
[A paper coming to my hands of her own hand- writing 
ai\d composing, I transcribe it here. She calls it, an 
account of the exercise of Martliu Betterton, viz. ' ' As. 


I was walking in the city of London, with a concern on 
my mind, in beholding the abominable pride of the peo- 
ple ; it opened upon my mind in this wise : Wo, wo ! to 
the crown of pride ! And then I was deeply bowed in my 
spirit before the Lord, and it was said to me, I will yet 
spare a little longer ; I have sheep which I will gather 
home to me, and there shall be one shepherd and one 
sheepfold. Then I said in my heart, Oh! Lord, shall I 
be one of thy sheep belonging to thy sheepfold of eternal 
rest. And again it was answered me. My sheep hear 
my voice, and they follow me. Then a cry was raised ia 
me, Cause me to hear thy voice ; and not only so, but 
enable me to obey the same. And then this charge was 
returned to me. Be thou faithful."] 

Soon after I was married, I had a concern to visit 
friends in the counties of Surry, Sussex, and Kent, which 
I performed in about two weeks time, and came home 
and followed my calling, and was industrious therein ; 
and, when I had gotten something to bear my expenses, 
and settle my wife in some little business, I found an ex- 
ercise on my spirit to go over to Ireland, to visit our 
friends and brethren on that island, in which William 
Townshend accompanied me, and friends in that nation 
were generally satisfied with our service among them. 
When we had been from home about ten weeks, and had 
visited most parts of that nation, having had many meet- 
ings among friends, and others, we found freedom in our 
minds to return home, which we did, being comforted in 
our service, and blessed the name of the Lord. 

After some few months, I acquainted my wife and my 
father, with her father and mother, that I thought it my 
duty to go over and live in America. To which propo- 
sal my father consented, though with tenderness of heart, 
considering that I must be so far separated from him. I 
also laid it before the monthly meeting of friends, at 
Horsley-down, in Southwark, of which meeting I was a 
member, who consented to it, though somewhat unwilling 
to part with us, and gave us their certificate, to let our 
brethren know that we were in love and unity with them, 
and walked according to our profession. And when we 


were ready, and in order for going, we agreed for the 
frt ight ci our goods and servants, with John Snowdtn, 
and thtm on board the Josiah, bound lor Mary- 
land. When the ship was at Gravescnd, and ready to 
sail, several of our dear relations and friends accompanied 
us to the ship, on board of which we had a good meeting, 
and took our solemn leave of one another, as never ex- 
pecting to see each other any more in this world. It was 
a solenm time indeed ! We prayed for one another, and 
so parted, our ship sailing that evening, and we got to 
INiargate-road, where we anchored, and the wind sprung 
tip very fresh, and bievv tempestuously, so that we broke 
our cable, and iost our best bower anclior, and diove vio- 
lently towards the Goodwin Sands. We let go our sheet 
anchor, and three more, which were all we had, but they 
did not stop her ; upon which the master ordered the 
carpenters to stand by the mainmast, with their axes upon 
their shoulders, and when he gave the word, then they 
were to cut the mast. The people in the ship (there 
being divers passengers), were in a great consternation, 
expecting nothing but death: but, for my part, being ex- 
ceedingly sea sick, and having been in many storms, I 
was not so much surprized with this, the sailors some- 
times making a great noise M'hen there is but little danger; 
but there was more danger than I was aware of, as ap- 
peared afterwards. One of the passengers came weeping, 
and said, our case was very bad. The doctor also came 
in the same manner ; and cried. Oh ! Mr Chalkley we 
are all dead men ! Then I thought with myself, I would 
go out on deck, and see what the matter was ; and when 
on deck, I went to the pilot, who had the lead in his 
hand, and he sounded, and cried out. Lord have mercy 
upon us ! she is gone, she is gone, she is gone! by 
V hich I perceived that we were very near the Goodv\^in 
S.nds, on which many ships have been lost with all their 
crews. In this sense of danger I sent for the passengers 
into the cabin, and told them that I thought it would be 
well for us to sit still together, and look unto, and wait 
upon God, to see what he would !>lc ise to do for I's; ihat, 
if death came, we might meet him in as good a frame of 


mind as we could, and that we might not be surprised 
be;, orid measure ; and as we were thus composed in our 
minds, a concern came upon my dear wife, and she pray- 
ed to God, the Father, in the living power and sense ot 
his Son ; and he heard from his holy habitation, and an- 
swered the prayer : for immediately after the wind abat- 
ed, ar.d our anchors held us. This was a great deliver- 
ance, which is not to be forgotten. When we saw the 
longed-for morning, we were very near the sands and the 
sea ran prodigiously high, and broke upon them might- 
ily, so that we were forced to leave our cables and an- 
chors, and make the best of our way to Deal, as well as 
we could. One of the owners being on shore, and see- 
ing us in distress, sent off a cable and anchor to us ; and 
we anchored before Deal with our new cable and anchor, 
and sent a boat for our other anchors and cables, when it 
was calm, which brought them to us. Ar.d after we 
had supplied ourselves with what we wanted, we put ^o 
sea again, and had fair winds till we got as far as the 
Western- Islands, where captain Cant, being in company 
with us, spoke with our captain in the evenmg, and the 
two captains concluded it would be stormy that night, 
which happened accordingly. They took in their sails, 
and we all but our mainsail ; notwithstanding which, the 
storm was such, that we lost our main-mast, sprung the 
head of our fore-mast, and broke our cross-jack yard, 
and thus lay rolling upon the sea for about two weeks : 
the ship Bristol-merchant coming by in that time, lent 
us a spare top-mast, of which we made a main-mast, and 
a top-mast of our top-gallant -mast, and so refitted out 
as well as we could, and h..d a pretty good pass- 
age afterwards. We were about eight weeks from the 
Land's-End to the capes of Virginia ; had meetings twice 
a week on board, and they helped to stay our minds on 
our Maker, though our bodies were tossed to and again 
on the mighty waters. We went on shore at Putuxent 
river, and went by land to Herring bay, where I, my 
wife, and fl^mily, tarried that winter ; and I, with my 
three servants followed my calling. In the spring we 


transported ourselves, our goods, and servants, from 
Maryland to Pennsylvania, where we intended to settle, 
when we came from our native country. At Pniiadei- 
phia I boui^ht a lot of ground upon the river Deiaware, 
and there I followed my calling th :t summer ; and in the 
fall I had an inward call to visit friends in Barbadoes, 
which I proposed to our monthly meeting, and they cer- 
tified on my behiilf that they had unity with me in my pro. 
posal, conversation, and ministry ; so I took ship at Phil- 
adelphia, about the twentieth of the seventh month, 1701, 

on board the Abraham, Street, commmder, and 

was about a month on our voyage ; (Josiah Langdale was 
with me). We had several good meetings in the ship 
to our satisfaction ; and were well received, and had 
many meetings at Barbadoes, which were often very large 
and open, and some of the people loving and tender. 
We had several meetings at Bridge-town, Si^eight's- 
town, the Spring, and the Thickets, and at Pumpkin- 
hill; and after behig there about six weeks, we went in a 
sloop to Bermuda, where we found but very few friends, 
yet had meetings in several places, and at the houses of 
some people who were not of our profession ; and the 
longer we tarried, the larger our meetings were ; and 
many began to be affected and spoke well of us and our 
devotion, but some were disturbed, and spoke to the 
governor to break up our meetings ; which at the de- 
sire of one of the inhabitants we had appointed at his 
house : upon which he sent orders by one of his colonels 
to break up our meeting, which troubled divers sober 
people. After this I met with the governor at the house 
of one judge Stafford ; and he being a moderate man, 
we had the following discourse, viz. 

Gov. How do you like our country ? We are but a 
little spot in the sea. 

T. C. I like it well for its moderate climate. If the 
people were moderate also, it would be well. 

Gov. Doth it answer your end in coming ? 

T. C. My end in coming, was to visit the people in 
christian iove. 


Gov. Do you think the people will be brought over? 

T. C. If they are brought to truth and righteousness, 
it will be well for them. That is the end of our coming. 

Gov. If you had acquainted me with your design, 
when you first came, you had done well. It was your 

T. C. If we had known the governor's will herein, or that 
thou wouldest have spoken with us, we should have readi- 
ly answered it : but knowing nothing of it, we could not 
tell but that it might be taken for rudeness in us, con- 
sidering our homeiy way and manner of addressing such 

Gov. Then your design in coming here was to preach. 
Had you no other end ? 

' T. C. Yes. As we found a concern upon us to 
preach, and a desire in the people to hear. 

Gov. Why do you not tarry with them ? that looks 
strange. Here the people are aftected with you, and 
you go away and leave them : upon my word I blame 
you for that. 

T. C. We do not direct them to men, but to the Lord 
Jesus Christ, their teacher, and bishop of their souls. 
And why should our leaving them look strange to the 
governor? for it was the practice of the apostles of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, and his own practice and command 
to his followers. And further, the apostles (which word 
signifies ambassadors or messengers) say, follow us, as 
we are followers of Christ. And they travelled up and 
down the world preaching the gospel ; and our great 
Lord himself had not whereon to lay his head. 

Gov. The apostles were inspired men : inspired by 
the Holy Spirit to preach the gospel. I suppose you do 
not pretend to be inspired. 

T. C. Every true christian ought to pray for the 
pouring out of the Holy Spirit, or Holy Ghost upon him* 
The church of England * also prays for it, the receiving; 
of which is inspiration. 

Of whifih church the govemor was a member 


Gov. Your reasons being grounded on scripture, you 
'are well grounded ; for no man can deny the scriptures. 
Tj^cu you say } ou are inspired ? 

T. C. I hope 1 am. I pray for it with great earnest- 

Gov\ Then it is but ask, and have, you think. 

T. C. If we ask in faith, without wavering, we shall 
receive, according to the doctrine of Christ and his apos* 
tits in the New Testament. 

Gov. Well, If any have a desire to hear you, you may 
preach and welcome. 

After I had this discourse with the governor, it was 
reported, on the island, that the governor had given us 
a license to preach, which report was not true, further 
than the aforesaid discourse, and then we had larger 
meeti'.'gs than before. We had a meeting at judge Staf- 
ford's house, and one at a house not far from his. 

It is observable that this island hath formerly been a 
very healthy and fruitful place. Red- cedar, or sweet- 
wood, is all the timber they have in the island, with which 
they build their houses, make their liousehold goods> 
build their ships and sloops, and make their fires ; s« 
that there is continually a fragrant and pleasant smell, 
which we could smell at sea sometime before we saw 
the land ; and it is yet a pretty healthy and fruitful isl- 
and, but not so healthy and fruitful as formerly. In one 
of the meetings I v/as concerned to let them know, that 
it was the evil of their ways and doings that had caused 
the Almighty to withhold from them the fruits of the 
earth, and to make their island more unhealthy than 
formerly it was. After meeting, the judge told me I 
had said truly, for that was the cause ; and if I had 
spoke more to thiit matter, or on that subject, I had done 
well. Several were convinced at this time on this island. 

Soon after an opportunity offered, in a sloop belong- 
ing to this island, that was bound for Philadelphia, in 
\\ hich we (being clear) embarked, and on our voyage had 
indifferent eood weather, only one hard gale of wind, 
which caused us to hand our jib. A mulatto man named, 
Stavo, (the master's servant) went out upon the bowsprit 


iio hand the sail, and there came a sea and waslicd him off; 
and the vessel ran over him ; and, in all probabilit} , he 
had certainly been drowned, had he not been a good 
swimmer; for he swam, as we judged, three quarters of 
a mile, before he got to the sloop, it not coming into 
any one's mind to lower the sails, until I sharply or- 
dered it to be done, which they then did readily ; and 
the course of the vessel being stopped, he soon got on 
board, having stripped himself of his clothes in the sea, 
and brought them in his mouth. I was very thankful 
for the poor fellow's life, and praised the Lord in the 
secret of my soul for his preservation. In about two 
weeks time we arrived at Phikdelphia, and 1 hid great 
peace in my labours in this visit, in which I Avas from 
home about five months. The friends of Barbadoes 
were so well satisfied with this labour of love, that they 
certified the same by way of certificate, more than is 
proper for me to mention. But though they thought so 
well of me, yet I had occasion to thiak very meanly of 
myself, for I was emptied to exceeding great spiritual 
poverty at times. 

After I came home from Barbadoes and Bermuda, I 
followed my calling, and kept to meetiiigs diligendy ; 
for I was not easy to be idle, either in my spiritual or 
temporal callings; and, at times, travelled in the work of 
the ministry in our own province, in which there are 
many large meetings of friends, and they increase and 
multiply from time to time. Since my settling in this 
province, m hich is now about a year, some hunch'eds of 
people are come here to settle, and divers meeting-houses 
are built ; and I do certainly know from above, that this 
province of Pennsylvania, and city of Phikidtlphia, will 
flourish both s])iritually and temporally, if the inhabit;.; .its 
will love, and live, in righteousness, and in the fear of 
God; otherwise the hand that planted them can soon 
pluck them up. After some time, I was drawn forth to 
visit friends in Maryland, Virginia, andNorth-Caroiina, 
and went with the unity of friends, having their certifi- 
cate ; according to the good order establish', d among us ; 
so about the 26th of the 1st month, 1703, I went 



through Maryland, and visited friends in Virginia and 
Korth-Curolina, to the river Pamlieo, where no travel- 
ling, publie friends, that ever I heard of, were before, 
and we hdd several meetings there on each side of the 
river. One day going out of our canoe through a marsh, 
I trod on a rattle-snake, w Inch is accounted one of the 
most poisonous snakes ; but it only hissed at me, and 
did no harm. This was one deliverance, among many, 
which the Loid, by his providence, wrought for me ; 
and I bless his holy name for all his mercies. In going 
to, and coming from this |)lace, we lay two nights in the 
woods, and I thi.k I never slept better in all my life. It 
Was the eighth hoiu- in the evening, when I laid down on 
the ground, one night, my saddle being my pillow, at 
the root of a tree, and it was four o'clock in the morning 
when they called me. When I awoke, I thought of 
good Jacob's Iodising he hcd on his way to Padan Aram, 
when he saw the holy vision of angels, with the ladder, 
whose top reached to heaven. Very sweet was the love 
of God to my soul that morning, and the dew of the ever- 
lasting hills refreshed me ; and I went on my way, prais- 
ing the Lord, and magnifx ing the God of my salvation. 
In this journey I met with another remarkable deliver- 
ance, goiiigover a river eight miles broad, we put our 
horses, we being eight men and seven horses, into two 
canoes tied toirether, and our horses stood with their 
fore feet in one, and their hind feet in the other. It was 
calm when we set out, but when we were about the mid- 
dle of the river, the wind rose, and the seas ran high, and 
split one of our canoes, so that with our hats we were 
obliged to cast out the water ; and with much difficulty, 
at last, all of us, with oiu' horses, got safe on shore, 
through the good pro\idence of God. And on our re- 
turn through North- Carolina, we had several large meet- 
ings, and an open time it was ; as also at Nansemond and 
Chockatuck, and se\'eral other places in Virginia ; and 
when my service was o\ er in those t^vo provinces, I went 
back to Maryland, and visited meetings there, and then 
went home. As near as I can compute it, I rode about 
a thousand miles in this iournev ; after which I staid at 


. home, following my business, in order to the maintenance 
of my fumil}', Ijeing blessed with a wife, children, ser- 
vants, and other things; for which I am truly than:s-i'i.iL 
While 1 was at home I visired the neighbouring m et- 
ings, as I found a con ern on nvy mi;;d ; and on the 6th 
day of the third month, 1704, I laid before our qu:irter!y 
meeting of ministers and elders, an exercise th:it was 
upon my mind, to visit our friends' meetings on Long- 
Island, Rhode- Island, and in New- England, and the 
places adjacent; from which quarterly meeting I had a 
good certificate, which I thought it my duty to endeav- 
om- to live up unto ; and being accompanied by several 
friends to Burlington and Croswicks, Joseph Glaster 
behigmy fellow-labourer in the work of the gospel: at 
the two aforesaid jilaces, we had meetings, and then we 
travelled to New- York and Long- Island, where we had 
divers meetings ; as at Flushing, Westbury, Jerusalem, 
Jericho, Bethpage, Matinicock, and also at West- Chester, 
on the main ; and from thence we travelled to Rhode- 
Island yearly meeting, which was large and serviceable to 
many. From hence Joseph Glaster went towards Bos- 
ton, the inland wa}-, and I went by the sea side ; and we 
met together, after I had been at meetings in divers 
places, viz. Dartmouth and Nantucket-Island, at which 
island there are large meetings, people there being most- 
1}' friends, and a sober growing people in the best things ; 
though not of our society when they first received the 
truth, yet they received it with gladness ; and although 
divers of the people called Presbyterians were very cruel 
in their expressions, and bitter in their spirits against us, 
yet there were some who went under that name, who 
were more open and charitable towards us, and received 
us gladly with tenderness ; and at some places we had 
meetings at their bouses to our mutual satisfaction. We 
likewise had meetings at Suckanuset, Scituate, and Sand- 
wich. About this time the Indians were very barbarous 
in the destruction of the English inhabitants, scalping 
some, and knocking out the brains of others, men, wom- 
en, and children, by which the country was greatly alarm- 
ed, both night and day; but tlie Great Lord of all was 


pleased wonderfully to preserve our friends, especially 
thoht \\ho kept fcithlul to their peaceable prir.ciple, ac- 
cording to the doctrine of Christ in the hoh scriptures, as 
recorded in his excellent sermon which he preached on 
the Mount, in the 5fh, 6th, and 7th chapters of Ma- 
thew, which is quite oj:)posite to killing, revenge, and 
destruction, even of our enemies : and because our 
fritiids could not join with those of fightiiig principles 
and practices, some of them were put into prison ; divers 
people railing, and speaking very bitterly against their 
peaceable neighbours, ar.d wishing the quakcrs might be 
cut ufF. 

Some of the New- England priests and professors were 
so bitter against friends, tha! instead of being humbled, 
urder the mighty hand of God upon them, in suffering 
the Indians to destroy them, they expressed their enmity 
against the poor quakers, on a day appointed for humili- 
ation and a fast ; and particularly in a sermon preached 
by one of their priests, which he divided into three 
hetids, viz. First, That the judgments of God were upon 
them, in ietiirig loose the savage Indians to destroy them. 
Secondly, In that he withheld the fruits of the earth 
from thtm (for there was great scarcity). Thirdly, That 
the quakers prevailed, and were suffered to increase so 
much among them ; >vhich he said, was worse than the 
Indians destroying of them, and gave this absurd reason 
for it ; the Indians destroy our bodies, but the quakers 
destroy the soui^." This is an abominable falsehood; 
for it is sin that destroys the soul : and such as those 
that preach to the people that there is no freedom from 
it in this M'orld, contradict Christ's doctrine, " Be ye per- 
fect," &c. And that of the apostles, " He that is born 
of God cannot sin." And thus their blind guides mis- 
tr^ke light for darkness, and darkness for light. Amonp- 
the many hundreds that were s-lain, I heard but of three of 
our friends being killed, whose destruction was very re- 

* This priest was soon after killed by the Indians, as I was told by a min- 


marlcable, as I was informed (the one was a woman, the 
otiier two were men). The men used to go to their la- 
bt>\ir without any weapons, and trusted to the Almig-hty, 
aiic' depended on his providence to protect them (it be- 
in,c: their principle not to use weapons of war, to offend 
others, or defend themsehxh) but a spirit of distrust tak- 
ing place in their minds, they took weapons of war to de- 
fend themselves ; and the Indians, who had seen thvOi 
several times without them, and let them alone, saying, 
*' They were peaceable men, and hurt nobody, there- 
foTc they would not hurt them ;" now seeing them have 
guns, and supposing they designed to kill the Indians, 
they therefore shot the men dead. The woman had re- 
mciiied in her habitation, and could not be free to go to 
a foj'ified place for preservation, neither she, her son, 
nor d-.ughter, nor to take thither the little ones; but 
tlx jjoor woman after some time began to let in a slavish 
ferir, and did advise her children to go with her to a iort 
not far from their dwelling. Her daughter i )eing one that 
trusted in ihe name of tlie Lord, the mighty tower to 
which the lighttousfiee and find safety, could not con- 
sent to go with her ; and havmg left a parti ;^u-ar accoinit 
hi v letter to her children of her and their preservation, 
I think it worthy to be inserted here in her own words. 

When the cruel Indians were suffered to kill and 
destroy, it was shewn me, that I must stand in a testi- 
mom for truth, and trust in the name of the Lord, that was 
a strong tower, and we should wait uj)on him. And I 
often desired my mother and husband to sit down, and 
wait upon the Lord, and he would shew us what we 
should do : but I could not prevail with him, but he 
would say it was too late now, and was in great haste to 
be eone ; but I could not go with him, because I was 
afraid of offending the Lord : but still he would say I 
was deluded by the devil, so that my mother would oft- 
en say, " a house divided could not stand ;" and she 
could not tell what to do, although she had most peace 
in staying, yet she had thoughts of moving, and said to 


me, " C)\i]d, canst thou certainly say it is revealed to thee 
that we should stay; if it be, I would willini^ly siu}, if 
I was sure it was the mind of God." But I beihg young-, 
was afraid to speak so high, said, mother, I can say that 
it is so with me, that when I think of staying and trust- 
ing in the name of the Lord, I find great peace and com- 
fort, more than I can utter, with a belief that we shall 
be preserved ; but when I think of going, Oil ! the trou- 
ble and heaviness I feel, with a fear some of us should 
fall by them ! And my dear mother sighed and said, 
*' She could not tell what to do." But I said to them, 
if tliey wouid go, I would be willing to stay alone ; if 
they found freedom, I was very willing, for I was afraid 
of offendiug the Lord. But still my poor husband would 
say, " I took a wrong spirit for the right." And he 
would say how I should know, " For if 1 was right, 
I would be willing to <"ondescend to him." And then 
I said, in condescension to him I would move ; but I 
hoped the Lord would not lay it to my charge, for was 
it not to condescend to him, I would not move for the 
world, and after 1 had given away my strength, in a lit- 
tle time there came men from the garrison, with their 
guns, and told us, " They came for us," and told us, 
*' The Indians they thought, might be near;" and then 
away we u ent, and my mother went in ^vith my brother- 
in-law, although I persuaded her not to do it. But she 
said, " Why, my child is there ; and may not I be with 
her as well as thee ?" And so we went along to Hamp* 
ton, to my husband's brother's. But, Oh ! the fear and 
trouble that I felt ! and told my husband it seemed as if 
we were going into the mouihs of the Indians. And the 
next day was the first day of the week ; and our dear 
friend, Lydia Norton, came with my dear mother ; and in 
her testimony, she said there was there that Avas very 
near to her life, that was very near to death. Oh ! then 
I was ready to think it would be me, because I believed 
we had done amiss in moving, and great trouble was I in, 
and told dear Lydia of it ; but she comforted me as much 
as she could, and said, " She did not think it would be 
me." And my dear mother went to my sister's again, to 


the garrison, where she found herself not easy ; but, as 
she often said to many, that she feh herself in a becloud- 
ed condition, and more shut from counsel than ever she 
had been since she knew the truth ; and being uneasy, 
went to move to a friend's house that lived in the neigh- 
bourhood ; and as she was moving, the bloody cruel In- 
dians lay by the way, and killed her. Oh ! then how did I 
lament moving ; and promised if the Lord would be 
pleased to spare my life, and husband, and children, and 
carry us home again, I would never do so more. But, 
Oh ! the fear, and trouble, and darkness, ihat fell upon me, 
and many more at that time ! and three or four of us 
kept our meeting : but although we sat and Avaited as well 
as we could, yet we sat under a poor beclouded condi- 
tion, till we returned home again, then did the Lord 
please to lift up the light of his love upon our poor souls. 
Oh ! then I told my husband, although he had built a lit- 
tle house by the garrison, I could not move again. So 
he was willing to stay while the winter season lasted, 
but told me he could not stay when summer came, for 
then the Indians would be about; and so told me, that if 
I could not go to the garrison, I might go to a friend's 
house that was near it. And I was willing to please him, 
if the Lord w^as willing ; and then applied my heart to 
know the mind of truth, and it was shewed me, that if I 
moved again, I should lose the sense of truth, and should 
never hold up my head again. Oh! then I told my hus- 
band, he must never ask me to move again, for I durst 
not do it. Still he would say it was a notion, till our 
dear friend Thomas Story came, and told him, " That 
he did not see that I could have a greater revelation than 
I had." And satisfied my husband so well, that he never 
asked me more to go, but was very well contented to stay 
all the wars ; and then things were made more easy, and 
we saw abundance of the wonderful works, and of the 
mighty power of the Lord, in keeping and preserving of 
us, when the Indians were at our doors and windows, 
and other times ; and how the Lord put courage in you, 
my dear children, do not you forget it, and do not think 
^t you were young, and because you knew little^ so you 


feared nothing, but often eonsider how you striid at home 
alone, when we went to meetings, and how the Lo.d 
preserved you, and kept you, so that no hurt came upon 
you • :md I leave this charge upon yo\i, live in the fear 
of the Lord, and see you set him always before your 
e} es, lest you sin against him : for if I had not feared the 
Lord, and felt ihe ccmiforts of his holy spirit, I couid 
never have stood so great a trial, ^vhen so many judged, 
and said I was deluded, and that all the blood of mv hus- 
band -Hid children, would be required at my hands ; but 
the Lord was near to me, and gave me strength and 
courage, and faith to trust in him, for I know his name 
to be a strong tower, yea, and stronger than any in the 
world; for I have oftentimes fled there for safety. Oii ! 
blessing, and honour, and everlasting high praises, be 
given to the Lord, and to his dear Son, our Saviour and 
mediator, Christ Jesus. Amen. 


A neighbour of the aforesaid people told me, that as he 
was at work in his field, the Indians saw, and called him, 
and he went to them. They told him, that they had no 
quarrel with the quakers, for they were a quiet, peaceable 
people, and hurt no body, and that therefore none should 
hurt them. But they said, that the presbyterians in these 
parts had taken away their lands, and some of their lives, 
and would now, if they could, destroy all the Indians. 

Those Indians began about this time to shoot people 
down as they rode along the road, and to knock them in 
tlie head in their beds, and very barbarously murdered 
many : but we travelled the country, and had large meet- 
ings, and the good presence of God was with us abun- 
diintly, and we had great 'nward joy in the Holy Ghost 
in our outw^ard jeopardy and travels. The people gen- 
erally rode and went to their worship armed, but friends 
went to their meetings without either sword or gun, hav- 
ing their trust and confidence in God. 

After havincT had ciiv( rs |2:ood mt eiirgs in those east- 
ern parts oi New-Lugiand, I returned to Salem, Lynn, 


Boston, and so on towards Rhode- Island, and? at divers 
adjacent places ; as in the Narraganset country, we had 
divers meetings ; also, at Dartmouth, Sandwich, and 
Scituate. As I was entering into the town of Boston, in 
company with many others, a man rode up to me, and 
asked in a scoffing manner, " Whether I saw or met 
with any quakers on the road ?" I pleasantly told him, 
we should not tell the presbyterians, lest they should hang 
them. He not thinking of such an answer, went sneak- 
ingly away. 

Now having thoroughly visited friends in those part;^ 
in company with my friend Thomas Story, I travellea 
through Connecticut government, and had several meet- 
ings in that colony; and came to Long. Island, where^ 
we had divers meetings to the satisfaction of ourselves 
and friends. From Long- Island, after we were clear of 
the service and exercise of the work of the ministry, and 
had visited friends' meetings as we travelled, and in di- 
vers places found openness among the people, who were 
not of our profession (who sometimes came in great num- 
bers to our meetings, and several were convinced in a 
good degree, and man}'- comforted, strengthened, and 
edified, in Christ our Lord), we came to Philadelphia, 
the place of our habitation. Let his name, saith my 
soul, have the praise of all his works for ever. 

After being at home some time, I visited friends' meet- 
ings in our county, and several parts of New-Jersey,. 
Maryland, and the Lower Counties on Delaware. At 
Jones' I appointed a meeting at a public-house near the 
court-house, general notice being given thereof, there 

eame one Crawford, a priest, with many of hisr 

hearers, and in the beginning of the meeting he read a 
sermon, as they called it, which was a transcript of the 
works of some of our adversaries, which we desired to 
have from them to answer. They said, " If I would 
answer it myself I should have it." The which I toid 
them I should, if they would let me ; but though they 
promised it, they did not perform, but were worse than 
their word. We heard them read it over patiently; and 
after they had done, we had our meeting. The auditorj' 



was large, and most of tlie magistrates were at it. Tlic 
priest's reading, and my testimony, occasioned this meet- 
ing to hold long ; after Avhich, as we were getting ou 
horseback, the priest cried out among the people, 
" That he did not think we would go a^\ ay so sneaking- 
ly." We having twenty miles to ride that night, and he 
near his home, he having the advantage in that respect, 
some thought it made him the bolder, for he let me get 
on horseback before he uttered that sneaking expression. 
I told him to challenge was enough to set a coward to 
work, and we were no cowards ; for he knew we could 
venture our lives for our religion, which I questioned 
whether he would do for his ; so I dismounted, and he 
having the bible open in his hand, I being near him, 
chanced, against my will and knowledge, to touch it with 
my foot. " Look you, gentlemen," soys he, " he 
tramples the word of God under his feet." For which 
gross abuse, his own hearers openly rebuked him, and 
put him to shame. Then he said, " He w^ould prove us 
no ministers of Christ." I bid him prove himself one, 
and he would do the business. " Well," says he, " how 
shall we know who are Christ's ministers ?" Why, said 
I, in answer to him, art thou willing to be tried by Christ's 
rule, for he hath given us a plain rule to know them b}'. 
" What is that rule ? let us hear it," says he. It is short, 
but full, namely. By their fruits you shall know them : 
for men do not gather grapes of thorns, nor figs of this- 
tles : wherefore by their fruits they are known. " I de- 
ny it," says priest Crawford, (for that was the name he 
went by here, he going by another elsewhere), *' that 
they are known by their fruits.'' I answered, then tliou 
deniest the plain and naked truth of Christ. So I called 
aloud to the people to take notice what a blind guide 
they had ; and indeed he was wicked, as well as blind, 
and his fruits not good; which may make one suppose, 
that he was not \\'illing to be tried by his fruits : for soon 
after news came that he had a wife in England, and as he 
had another here, his fruits were wicked with a witness ; 
and according to Christ's doctrine, no good could spring 
from his ministry, therefore he proved himself by his evil 


deeds, to be no minister of Jesus Christ. Near the 
aforesaid place we got a meeting settled, which is called 
Little-creek meeting ; and about the same time a meeting 
was established, and a meeting-house built at Duck- 
creek. The people in those parts about this time began 
mightily to see through the formal preaching of such as 
preach for money or hire, who love the hire, though they 
do not love to be called hirelings. 

In the year 1706, having some concerns in the prov- 
ince of Maryland, I had divers meetings as I travelled 
on the road, as at Nottingham, Elk-river, North-east, 
Susquehannah, Bush and Gun- powder rivers ; at some 
of which places I do not know that there had been any 
meetings before. At one of these meetings were one 
Edwards a priest, and a lawyer, the attorney- general, 
and several of the justices of the peace. The priest was 
angry, and said, " It was an unlawful assembly, the house 
not being licensed by law." The justices told him, 
*' That he and his people being there to hear, if any un- 
warrantable or false doctrine was preached, he had a fair 
opportunity to lay it open before all the* people." So 
they desired him to hear patiently and quietly. He seem- 
ed to like the proposition, and sat down by me. We had 
not sat down long before I stood up, and spoke to the 
people some considerable time ; and the lawyer sat op- 
posite to me, and took what I said in short hand, for 
about half an hour ; but growing weary, he laid down 
his pen, and took out of his pocket a bottle of liquor, or 
spirits, and said, " Come friend, here is to thee (or you) 
you have spoke a great while, you need something to re- 
fresh you." So I made a stop, and said to the people, 
here is your minister, and here is some of the fruits of 
his ministry, of which he and all sober people may be 
ashamed. And then I went on again without any op- 
position till I had done , but afterwards they w^ere in a 
rage, and threatened what they would do to me, if ever 
I came to have a meeting any more there. But I told 
them if they had. power to take our lives from us, they 
were not dear to us for the sake of Christ and his gospel; 
and that we did not matter their threatenings. I desired 


the lawyer to give me a copy of what he had written ; 
he went about it, but did not do it; neither was he candid 
in penning my words ; for several of the people then pre- 
sent did bear witness he had not wrote it verbatim, nor 
truly taken the sense of what I spoke, wherefore I charged 
him to be just, otherwise he had many witnesses against 
him ; at which the priest bent his fist, and held it up to 
me, but did not strike me, and away they went in a fret. 
Soon after we had another meeting at the same place, 
which was large and quiet. The man of the house be- 
ing an attorney at law, had got his house licensed, and 
though die priest and lawyer threatened hard, they came 

Aquila Paca, high-sheriff of the county, living at thfe 
head of Bush-river, near the main road, built a meeting- 
house, at his own charge, and had it licensed, at which 
we had many good meetings. About this time also was 
built a meeting-house at a place called Nottingham, which 
is a large meeting, and greatly increases. 

When I was travelling in those parts, I had a concern 
on my mind to visit the Indians living near Susquehan- 
nah, at Conestogoe, and I laid it before the elders of 
Nottingham meeting, with which they expressed their 
unity, and promoted my visiting them. We got an in- 
terpreter, and thirteen or fourteen of us travelled through 
the woods about fifty miles, carrying our provisions 
with us, and on the journey sat down by a river, and 
spread our food on the grass, and refreshed ourselves and 
horses, and then went on cheerfullv, and with good will, 
and much love to the poor Indians ; and when we came, 
they received us kindly, treating us civilly in their way. 
We treated about having a meeting with them in a relig- 
ious way, upon which they called a council, in which 
they were very grave, and sjioke one after another, with- 
out any heat or jarring ; (and some of the most esteem* 
ed of their women do sometimes speak in their councils). 
I asked our interpreter, why they suffered or permitted 
tlie women to speak in their councils ? his answer was, 
" That some women are wiser than some men." Our 
interpreter told me, that they had not done any thing for 


many years, without the counsel of an ancient grave wo- 
man ; who, I observed, spoke much in their council ; for 
I was permitted to be present at it ; and I asked, what it 
was the woman said ? he told me she was an empress ; 
and they gave much heed to what she said amongst them; 
and that she then said to them, *' She looked upon our 
coming to be more than natural, because we did not come 
to buy, or sell, or get gain, but came in love and respect 
to them," and desired their well-doing both here and 
hereafter ; and further continued, " That our meetings 
among them might be very beneficial to their young- 
people," and related a dream which she had three days 
before, and interpreted it, viz. " That she was in Lon- 
don, and that London was the finest place she ever saw, 
it was like to Philadelphia, but much bigger, and she 
went across six streets, and in the seventh she saw Will- 
iam Penn preaching to the people, which was a great 
multitude, and both she and William Penn rejoiced to 
see one another ; and after meeting she went to him, 
and he told her, that in a little time he would come over 
and preach to them also, of which she was very glad. 
And now she said her dream was fulfilled, for one of his 
friends was come to preach to them." And she advised 
them to hear us, and entertain us kindly ; and according- 
ly they did. Here were two nations of them, the Senecas 
and Shawanese, W^e had first a meeting with the Sene- 
cas, with which they were much affected ; and they call- 
ed the other nation (viz. the Shawanese.) and interpreted 
to them what we spoke in their meeting, and the poor In- 
dians (particularly some of the young men and women) 
were under a solid exercise and concern. We had also 
a meeting with the other nation, and they were all very 
kind to us, and desired more such opportunities ; the 
which, I hope Divine Providence will order them, if 
they are worthy thereof. The gospel of Jesus Christ, 
was preached freely to them, and faith in Christ, who was 
put to death at Jerusalem, by the Hnbelieving Jews ; and 
that this same Jesus came to save people from their sins, 
and by his grace and light in the soul, shews to man his 
«ins, and convinceth him thereof, delivering him out oT 


them, and gives inward peace and comfort to the soul 
for well-doing, and sorrow, and trouble for evil-doing ; 
to all which, as their manner is, they gave public assents; 
and to that of the light in the soul, they gave a double 
assent, and seemed much affected with the doctrine of 
truth ; also the benefit of the holy scriptures was largely 
ojDened to them"*. 

After this we returned to our respective habitations, 
thankful in our hearts to the God and Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. Several of the friends that went with me, 
expressed their satisfaction in this visit, and offered them- 
selves freely to go again on the like service. 

I aho was concerned soon after to visit the people 
about Egg-harbour and Cape-may, and had divers meet- 
ings amongst them, and several meetings were settled in 
those parts, and the people somewhat reformed from what 
ihey had been before they were visited by friends, as 
themselves told me, after a meeting which we had with 
them, that they used to spend the sabbath days in sport- 
ing and vanity until friends came among them, and now 
they meet together to worship God, and his Son Jesus 
Christ. At our coming amongst them, some backsliders 
nnd apostates were displeased. One, in a very bitter spirit, 
called Its, cursed and cruel devils. Another wrote against 
us. To him I sent an answer, for which he scandalized 
ine in one of his almanacks, and publickly belied me in 
jiriiit ; which lies I swept away with " A Small Broom,' 
printed in this year 1706, to which I never understood that 
he returned any answer, nor that he wrote against friends 
afterwards, though he had made it his practice before for 
several years. 

At Little Egg-harbour lived a friend whose name was 
]£dvvard Andrews, who, as himself told me, had been a 
leader of the people into vanity and folly, as music, danc- 

* 11 h \vortliy ofnoticc, that at tlic first settling of Pennsylvania, William 
l*enn took great care to do justice to the Indians, and boug-lit his land of them 
to their satisfaction, and settled a trade with them ; so that whereas the Indi- 
:uis were destructive to the other colonies, they were helpful to Pennsylvania; 
t\}n\ to llvis day they love to hear the name of William Penm 


jng, he. but the good hand of the Lord being upon him, 
wrought a wonderful reformation in him, and made him 
an instrument to lead people into truth and righteousness, 
and gave him an excellent gift of the ministry of the gos- 
pel of Christ ; so that he was made instrumental in the 
gathering of a large and growing meeting, most of the 
people thereabouts being convinced, and a great reform- 
ation and change wrought in their conversations. This 
friend told mc, that when he was very rude and wild, he 
was mightily reached unto, at the meeting we had under 
the trees at Crosswicks*, so that he could not go on with 
his vanit}^ as before, after which he had strong convic- 
tions on him, which wrought conversion in thg Lord's 
time, after he had gone through many and deep inward 

After these several journies Avere over, and I had 
cleared myself, I was some time at home, and followed 
my business with diligence and industry, and throve in 
the things of the world, the Lord adding a blessing to my 
labour. Some people would tell me that I got money 
for preaching, and grew rich by it ; which, being a com- 
mon calumny cast upon our public friends that are trav- 
ellers, I shall take a little notice of it, and leave it to pos. 
terity. That it is against our principle, and contrary to 
our known practice and rule to take money for our 
preaching the gospel of Christ, and the publishing of 
salvation through his name unto the people; for accord- 
ing to Christ's command, we, receiving it freely, are to 
give it forth freely : and I can say, without vanity or 
boasting, I have spent many pounds in that service, be- 
sides my time, which was, and is, as precious to me, as 
to other people : and rising early, and laying dow n late j 
many days riding forty, fifty, and sixty miles a day, which 
was very laborious and hard for my flesh to endure, be- 
ing corpulent and heavy from the twenty- seventh year of 
my age) ; and I can truly say, that I never received any 
money or consideration on account of tiiese services,. 

See page 15. 


either directly or indirectly ; and yet, if any of our min- 
isters are necessitous or poor, we relieve them freely, 
not because. they are preachers, but because they are 
needy ; and when we have done those things, we have 
done but our duty : and well will it be for those that 
have discharged themselves faithfully therein ! Such will, 
besides the earnest of peace in their own souls in this 
world, have a blessed reward in the glorious kingdom of 
the Lord and his Christ in that world which is to come. 
It is well known that I have spent much of my time, 
since I have been free from my apprenticeship, in travel- 
ling and preaching the gospel, being out often many 
months, and sometimes a whole year, and more ; and at 
intervals I have been apt to think the time long, till I 
got to my business and family ; and so have divers 
times made more haste than I should have done, which 
has brought trouble on my mind, and is a trouble to me 
unto this day ; which may be a caution to those who 
travel in the work of the ministry hereafter, not to make 
too much haste from the work of Christ ; and yet there 
ought to be discretion used ; for a minister may stay 
too long, as well as return too soon, which may be per- 
ceived as we keep the eye of our mind to our Divine 

After I had staid at and about home for some con- 
siderable time, a weighty concern came upon me to visit 
friends in the West-Indies, and some parts of Europe, as 
it might please the Almighty to open my way ; and as it 
was to be a long travel, both by sea and land, and hazard- 
ous, by reason it was war time, and many privateers out 
at sea, I settled my affairs by will, and otherwise, that if 
I should not live to come home again, things relating to 
my outward affairs might be done honourably and well : 
for at this time, as at many others, I can truly say I gave 
up my life freely for my Holy Master's sake, and in his 
cause, who said. Go teach all nations, &c. 

On the 29th of the sixth month, 1707, I had a certifi- 
cate from the monthly-meeting of friends at Philadelphia, 
signifying their unity with my undertaking, and desires 
ibr my welfare ; and a tender concern was on my mind 


that I might live according to what my brethren had cer- 
tified concerning me. I likewise laid my exercise before 
the general meeting of ministers and elders, held for the 
provinces of Pennsylvania and New-Jersey, on the 22d of 
the seventh month, who also signified their fellowship 
with my intended travels and journey, and recommended 
me to the grace of God, and in much love and tenderness 
I parted with my dear and loving wife, and my near and 
affectionate friends and brethren. 

I had for my companion and fellow-labourer in the 
work of the gospel, my dear friend, Richard Gove, who 
also had the approbation and unity of friends in this jour- 
ney and undertaking. 

We went on board a sloop at Philadelphia, bound for 
Barbadoes, John Knight, master, abouf. the 27th of tlie 
eighth month, in the aforesaid year. 

After a few days sailing down the river Delaware, we 
put to sea, and in about a month's time we came within 
sight of Barbadoes, where we met with a privateer, 
which chased, and had like to have taken us ; but the 
good providence of God preserved us out of the hands 
of those enemies ; for ever blessed be his name ! in this 
chase the seamen were uneasy, and belched out wicked 
oaths, and cursed the quakers, wishing all their vessels 
might be taken by the enemy, because they did not car- 
ry guns in them : at which [evil] I was grieved, and be- 
gan thus to expostulate with them : do you know the 
worth of a lAan's life ? (guns being made on purpose to 
destroy men's lives). Were this ship and cargo mine, so 
far as I know mine heart, I do ingenuously declare, I 
had rather lose it all, than that one of you should lose his 
life : for I certainly knew they were unfit to die. Lives ! 
say they, we had rather lose our lives than go to France. 
But, said I, that is not the matter ; had you rather go to 
hell, than go to France ? they being guilty of great sins 
and wickedness, and convicted in their own consciences, 
held their peace, and siud no more about the poor qua- 
kers ; and when we got within gun shot of a fort on Bar- 
badoes, the enemy left chasing us. 


Next morning early we safely arrived at Bridgetowo, 
m Barbadoes, where our friends gladly received us ; 
amongst whom we laboured in the work of the gospel 
for about two months ; and from thence, after having 
had divers good and edifying meetings, for the wor- 
ship of God, we sailed for Antigua, and stayed some 
days there, having meetings, and visiting our brethren. 
From Antigua we sailed for Nevis, but the wind being 
contrary, we put in at Montserrat, an isle that hath a 
great mountain in it, on the top of Avhich is a hot spring 
of water, which boils up, and the mire of it is clear brim- 
stone ; some of which we carried on board our vessel ; 
the which is admirable, and shews the wonderful works 
of God. They say that the spring is hot enough to boil 
an egg. From this island we sailed to Nevis, and had 
meetings with those few friends that were there, with 
whom we parted at the sea shore in great love and ten- 
derness: after which we sailed to an island called Anguil- 
la, and were civilly treated there by the generality of the 
people ; as also by the governor, George Leonard, at 
whose house we had meetings. I remember that after 
one meeting the governor went into his porch, and took 
the bible, and opened it, and said, " By this book, if 
people believe the holy scriptures, I am able to convince 
the world, and prove, that the people called quakers, are 
the people of God, and that they follow the example and 
doctrine of Christ, and the practices of, the apostles and 
primitive christians, nearer than any people in the world ;'* 
(i. e. generally speaking). At this island several people 
were heartily convinced, and did confess to the truth, 
among whom a meeting was settled. Here was never 
any friend before, as the inhabitants said. I intreat the 
Lord Jehovah to preserve the sincere hearted among 
them in his holy fear whilst they remain in this world ; 
and not them only, but all that love and fear him, ia 
all kindreds and nations, and amongst people of all pro- 
fessions whatsoever. This, in the universal spirit of 
God's divine love, is the desire of my soul. Back from 
Anguilla we went to Nevis, and from Nevis to Antigua ; 
and iiotwitlistanding our sloop was a dull sailer, yet we* 


were preserved from the enemy, to the admiration of our- 
selves, friends, and others, our course being in the very 
road of the privateers. Just as we got into the harbour 
and were landed, a privateer came by with a prize along 
with her, as we supposed, which excited our thankfulness 
to the Lord for our preservation. Here we met with the 
packet-boat bound for Jamaica, and thence for England, 
We staid a little at the island called St. Christopher's. 
In our way to Jamaica we saw a small privateer, that gave 
us chase, and it being calm, she rowed up towards us. 
The master prepared the vessel to fight, hoisting up his 
mainsail, and putting out our colours. In the interim 
some Avere bold and some sorrowful. One came to me, 
asked, " What I thought of it ? and what I thought of 
the quakers principles now ?'' I told him I thought I was 
as willing to go to heaven, as himself was ; to ^vhich he 
said nothing, but turned away from me. Another asked 
ine, " What I would do now?" I told him, I would 
pray that they might be made better, and that they might 
be made fit to die. Then in the midst of their noise and 
hurry, in secret I begged of the Almighty, in the name, 
and for the sake of his dear Son, that he would be pleased 
to cause a fresh gale of wind to spring up, that we might 
be delivered from the enemy without shedding blood, 
well knowing that few of them were fit to die, and even 
whilst I was thus concerned, the Lord answered my de- 
sire and prayer, for in a few minutes the wind sprung up, 
and we soon left them out of sight, our vessel sailing ex- 
traordinary well, and the next day we got to Jamaica, and 
had divers meetings, viz. at Port-royal, Kingston, Span- 
ish-town, &c. At a meeting at Spanish-town, there were 
divers Jews, to whom my heart was very open, and I 
felt great love to them, for the sake of their fathers Abra- 
ham, Isaac, and Jacob, and they were so affected with the 
meeting, that they sent us some unleavened cakes, made 
with fine flour and sweet oil, it being a festival time with 
them. We had a meeting at Port-royal, in a place where 
the earthquake had destroyed a large building, in which 
meeting I had occasion to remind them of the righteous 
judgments of God, which had been justly inflicted on- 


them for their sins and wickedness. Some wept, and 
some were rude. The people here, as I was informed, 
were generally very wicked. After having had divers 
meetings, the packet in which we had taken our passage, 
being obliged to stay but ten days, we went off sooner 
than we otherwise should have done, and solemnly takmg 
leave of those friends that were there, we went on board 
our vessel, in order for England, by God's permission. 
Wf got readily through the windward passage, which is 
between the islands of Cuba and Hispaniola ; and divers 
tiines after wc left Jamaica, we were chased by several 
sliijjs, but they could not come up with us. One ship of 
twenty-eight guns gave iis chase after a great storm, ^ and 
was almost up with us before we could well make sail ; 
they' being eager of their prey, sent their hands aloft to 
let their reefs out of the topsails, in order to make more 
speed, and came running mightily towards us, and gain- 
ed much upon us; we fearing to make sail by reason of 
the storm, and the sea running very high, and our masts 
being therefore in danger, we were some time in doubt 
whether wc should escape or not : but whilst we w ere in 
this consternation, down came the French ship's three 
topmasts at once, so we escaped, and left her, and went 
rejoicing on our way, that we were thus delivered. This 
was one of the great and remarkable deliverances among 
the many I met with, by the good hand and pro\ idence 
of the Lord, my great and good master, whom I hope to 
serve all m}'; days. 

After having been at sea about six weeks, we be- 
gan to look out for land, and in tw o or three days 
we sounded, and found ground at about ninety fath- 
oms ; after which we saw two French privateers, that 
gave us chase about four o'clock in the morning, and 
pursued us A'igorously ; but sailing better than they, we 
run them out of sight by eight o'clock the same morning, 
and in about two hours after we saw the land of Ireland ; 
it being misty weather, \v ith rain and wind, our master 
thought it best to lay by and forbear sailing, that coast 
being rocky and dangerous, by which means the two 
ships that gave us chase came up w ith us, and found 


US not in sailing order, and were within gun-shot of us be- 
fore we Avere a^\ are of it. What to do now we could not 
tell, until they began to fire at us ; but in this emer- 
gency and strait, our master resolved he would rather run 
the vessel on shore than they should have her, she be- 
ing richly laden with indigo, silver, and gold, reckoned 
to the value of fifty thousand pounds. In this strait, we 
must either fall into the hands of the French, who were 
our enemies, or run among the rocks ; and we thought 
it best to fall into the hands of the Almighty, and trust 
to his providence ; so towards the rocks we went, which 
looked Avith a terrible aspect. The native Irish seeing 
us, they came down in great numbers, and ran on the 
rocks, and called to us, saying, " That if we came any 
nearer we should be dashed in pieces." Then our mas- 
ter ordered the anchor to be let go, which brought her 
up before she struck ; and with much ado, he put his 
boat out into the sea, and put in all the passengers, in 
order to set them on shore, the waves running very high, 
so that it looked as if every wave would have swallowed 
us up ; and it was a great favour of Providence that we 
got to land in safety. The privateers not daring to come 
so near the shore as we did, after firing at us, went away, 
and our master carried the ship into the harbour of Kin- 
sale, in Ireland. Thus through many perils and dangers 
we were preserved, and got safe on the Irish shore, for 
which, and all other the mercies and favours of the Most 
High, my soul and spirit did give God glory and praise ! 
in this voyage we were about seven weeks at sea. 

When I came from my home at Philadelphia, I did 
intend (the Lord permitting) to visit friends in Ireland, 
and being accidentally cast on shore there, I thought it 
my place first to go through that nation. I had been in 
Ireland about nine years before, and then being but 
young, and now being more grown in body, my old ac- 
quaintance and friends did not at first know me ; but we 
were kindly and lovingly received by our friends and 
brethren in that nation, where there is a great and nu- 
merous people, that serve and worship the Father in 
spirit and in truth, and who have divers good and 


wholesome orders established amongst them, in the uni- 
ty and fellowship of the gospel. In this nation we had 
many and large meetings after our landing, visiting friends' 
meetings along to the north, many, not of our society : 
coming to them, among \vhom we often had good ser- 
vice, to our and their satisfaction, as they often declared, 
Richard Gove being still with me. Friends from their 
national meeting, certified to our brethren in America, of 
our service and labour of love among them, after we had 
tra^ elled several hundred miles, and visited friends' meet- 
ings generally, and some other places wliere it was not 
Vsual. While I was in Ireland, under a concern for the 
prosperity of truth and religion, I wrote an exhortation 
to the youth, and others, which was afterwards printed 

We took ship in the North of Ireland, at a town call- 
ed Donaghadee, being accompanied with divers brethren, 
who brought us on our way after a godly sort. We got 
to Port-Patrick, in Scotland, after about five hours sail, 
in order to visit those few friends that were scattered 
about in that part of the nation. People in those parts 
looked very shy on us, and did not care to discourse with 
us on matters civil or religious, which I thought unrea- 
sonable. The first town or city we came to, in which 
we had a meeting, was Glasgow, (accounted the second 
city in North-Britain) where, in our meeting for the wor- 
ship of the Almighty, we were shamefully treated by the 
people, who threw dirt, stones, coal, &c. amongst us, 
and by divers other actions unbecoming men, though 
heathens or infidels, much more people professing Chris- 
tianity ; so that I was constrained to tell them, that though 
I had preached the gospel to many heathens, and to di- 
vers Jews, as also to Indians and Negroes, and had trav- 
elled in many countries and nations in the world, in sev- 
eral quarters thereof, and many thousands of miles, yet 
I must needs say, that I never met with the like incivili- 
ties, and such scurrilous treatment, no not in all my trav- 
els. I also told them, that I had preached the gospel of 
Christ among their brethren in New- England, and in 
Boston, where they formerly hanged the quakers, and 


cruelly persecuted them for their religion, and yet they 
did not treat us so brutishly even there. And further I 
told them, that I lived in those parts of America, and what 
account I should have to carry home to their aforesaid 
brethren, of our treatment in Glasgow, the second city 
m Scotland. I desired them to consider of it, and be 
ashamed, if they had any shame. This a little abashed 
them for the present, but afterwards they were as bad as 
ever. There were at this meeting divers collegians, who 
were very rude. I asked if that was their way of treat- 
ins: stranarers ? and that I believed their teachers in the 
university did not allow of such ill manners, by which 
they scandalized themselves, their city and country. From 
this city we went to Hamilton and Gershore, where 
they were more civil. At Gershore a man of letters, and 
sober conversation, begged that I would pray to the Al- 
mighty, that he would establish him in the doctrine which 
he had heard that day. This being rare in those parts, 
therefore I thus minute it here. We went on towards 
the north of Scotland, to Aberdeen, and thereabouts, 
where there is a tender hearted people, among whom we 
had several large gatherings, and some that were not of 
us, expressed their satisfaction. In the north I met with 
a gentleman, who coming from a nobleman's house, join- 
ed me, and asked me, *' If I knew Robert Barclay ?'* I 
said not personally, but by his writings I knew him well. 
He told me, " That he (Barclay) had not left his fellow 
in Scotland," We afterwards travelled southward, where 
there were but few friends, and small meetings ; yet we 
may say, that the goodness, love, and presence of him, 
who said, where two or three are gathered in my name, 
there am I in the midst of them, was oftentimes witnessed 
to be with us, blessed be his holy name. Oh ! that the 
children of men would praise him in thought, word, and 
deed, for he is worthy. So in great reverence and holy 
fear, we travelled along towards South-Britain, had sev-^ 
eral meetings at Edinburgh, and divers other places ; al- 
so at Berwick upon Tweed, where there were many sol- 
diers, who were very rude. The devil hath had many 
battles with usj eyer skiQes we were a people, in order to 


hinder US in our worship, but we generally came off with 
victory, as we did here also, through faith in his name, 
who hath loved us, and manifested himself to us. Those 
rude soldiers thro wed their hats into the congregation, 
in order to disturb us, and hinder us in our service, but 
were at last ashamed and disappointed. 

At this place my dear friend and fellow-traveller, 
Richard Gove, and I parted ; I was for going by the east 
sea coast up to London, and he inclined towards Cumber- 
land, after we had travelled about a year in the work of 
the ministry, in great love and true friendship, in which 
work we were true helpers one of another ; and as wc 
had laboured together in the work of Christ, so we part- 
ed in his love. Now from Berwick I travelled along to 
Newcastle ; had one meeting by the Avay, and several 
good meetings at Newcastle, Sunderland, Shoten, and 
Durham, and several other places in the bishoprick of 
Durham. The winter coming on apace, it began to be 
bad travelling; and I being already much spent by it, 
designed to go speedily up to London ; and taking some 
meetings in my way, as at Stockton, Whitby, Scar- 
borogh, Burlington, Hull, and Brigg, and so on through 
Lincolnshire, where I went to visit a friend that was pris- 
oner in the castle of Lincoln, because for conscience sake 
he could not pay an ungodly priest the tythes of his la- 
bour. From Lincoln I proceeded to Huntingdon, about 
which place we had several large meetings, so on to Bal- 
dock, where I met with my father and John Gopsil, who 
came from London to meet me, which was a joyful meet- 
ing, for I had not seen my father for about nine years. 
The love and tenderness between us, and the gladness in 
seeing each other again, cannot well be expressed, but I 
believe it was somewhat like Jacob and Joseph's meeting 
in Egypt ; it was affecting and melting ; blessed be the 
Almighty that gave me once more to see my tender and 
aged parent ! So from Baldock we went to Hitching, and 
had a meeting there, as also at Hertford, from whence, 
with several friends, I went to Enfield, where I met with 
my dear and only brother George, and there were with 
us several of rny relations, and divers others of our 


friends : we were heartily glad to see one another. From 
Enfield we went forward to London, and by the way we 
met with several friendsof the meeting of Horsleydown, to 
which I did belong from my childhood, who came to 
meet me, and accompanied us to London. 

I stayed in and about the city most of the winter, visit- 
ing meetings when I was well and in health ; for through 
often changing the climates, I got a severe cold, and was 
ill for several weeks, so that I was not at any meeting, 
which time was very tedious to me ; not so much be- 
cause of my illness, as that I was deprived of divers op- 
portunities and meetings, which are in that city every 
day of the week except the last. When I was a little 
got over this illness, I went into Hertfordshire, and some 
parts adjacent, and had meetings at Staines, Langford, 
Uxbridge, Walford, Hempstead, Bendish, Albans, Mar- 
ket-Street, Hitching, Hertford, Hodgdon, and then re- 
turned again to London. 

After I had been at London a while, I visited several 
other country meetings, as Winchmore-Hill, Tottenham, 
Wansworth, Plaistow, Deptford, and Eppiug, and then 
staid about London some weeks, waiting for a passage 
for Holland, which I intended to visit before I left my own 

And on the 14th of the first month, 1708-9, I, witlj 
my companion, John Bell, after having acquainted out 
friends and relations, (having their consent) and taking 
our solemn leave of them, we went down to Gravesend, 
and staid there two or three days for a fair wind. We 
went on board the ship Ann, John Duck, Master, bound" 
for Rotterdam, in company with a fleet of vessels waiting 
for wind, &c. When the wind was fair we sailed for the 
coast of Holland, and when we arrived on that coast tne 
wind was contrary, and blew very hard, so that some of 
the ships in company lost their anchors, but in a day or 
two we all arrived safe at Rotterdam, in Holland : (we 
were but two days on this passage). On the first day 
morning we went to meeting at Rotterdam, where friends 
have a meeting-house ; and v/e stayed at this city seven of 
eight days, and had six or seven meetings, and were com_r 



fortcd with our brethren and sisters, and greatly refreshed 
hi the Lord Almighty. At this city we spoke without 
an interpreter, because the most in the meeting understood 
Englisli. From Rotterdam A\e travelled by the Track- 
scoot, a boat, being drawn by horses, which is a pleas- 
ant easy way of travelling, to a large town called Harlem, 
wliere we had a meeting, and speke by an interpreter ; 
to which meeting came divers of those people called me- 
nonists : they were very sober and attentive, and stayed 
all the time of the meeting, and spoke well of it. From 
Harlem, we went to Amsterdam, the metropolis of Hol- 
land, where friends have a meeting-house. Here we had 
several meetings, and stayed about a week. On the iirst 
day we had a large meeting, to which came many people 
of divers persuasions and religions, as Jews, papists, and 
others ; and we had a good opportunity among them, 
and several were tender. A Jew came iiext day to speak 
with us, and did acknowledge, " That Christ was the 
minister of that sanctuary and tabernacle that God had 
pitched, and not man; and that he was sensible of the 
ministry of Christ in his soul; and, (said he) my heart was 
broken while that subject was spoken of in the meeting.'^ 
I was glad to see the man tender, and reached ; but, too 
generally speaking, the poor Jews, the seed of good Ja- 
cob, are very dark and unbelieving. I have met with but 
very few of them in my travels, that have been tender ; 
but I do love them for Abraham's, Isaac's, and Jacob's 
sake. At this meeting, William Sewel, (the author of 
the history of the rise and progress of the people called 
quakers), a tender-spirited upright man, interpreted for 
me. From Amsterdam wc went to North- Holland, and 
John Claus and Peter Reyard went with us to interpret 
for us ; so by boat, or scoot, we travelled to a town called 
Twisk, where we had two meetings, friends having a 
meeting-house there ; from Twisk we went back again 
to Amsterdam, and had two large meetings there on the 
first day, and second day in the evening we went on ship- 
board, in order to cross the South Sea to Herlingen, at 
which ]:)lacc we had tw-o meetings, and we and friends 
were glad to see one another : and, indeed, we being as 


one family all the world over, are generally glad to see 
each other. From this place we travelled eastward 
• through East-Friesland, and went through several great 
towns and cities until we came to EmBden, the chief 
city in East-Friesland, where we had a comfortable 
meeting by the bed-side of one of our friends that lay 
sick ; and several of her neighbours came in and stayed 
till the meeting ended ; some of them were very tender 
and loving, and wished us well, and were w ell satisfied. 
After meeting we set forward for Hamburgh, it being 
four days journey by waggon, and passed along through 
divers towns and cities : we also travelled through the 
city of Oldenburg, and a place of great commerce called 
Bremen. A magistrate of this city took notice of us, 
joined himself to us, and went with us to the inn, and 
then very lovingly took leave of us, and desired God to 
bless us. The people at our inns were generally very 
loving and kind to us, and some would admire at my 
coming so far only to visit my friends, without any views 
of advantage or profit outwardly. When we got to Ham- 
burgh we had a meeting at Jacob Hagen's, and those 
that were there, were well satisfied with the doctrine of 
truth, blessed be God, who, I may say, was with us at 
that time and place ! At Hamburgh there was at meeting 
one who had preached before the king of Denmark ; 
who, as I understood by our interpreter, was turned out 
of his place, for preachmg the same truths that we had 
preached there that day ; at which meeting, were papists, 
iutherans, calvanists, menonists, Jews, &c. All of them 
were sober, and generally expressed their satisfaction. 
I had so much comfort in that meeting, that I thought 
it was worth my labour in coming from my habitation, 
the answer of peace was so much to my soul, that I 
greatly rejoiced in my labour in the work of Christ. 
From hence I travelled to Frederickstadt, it being two 
days journey, where friends have a meeting-house. We 
stayed about ten days, and hatd nine meetings in this 
city. Some of the meetings were very large, and the 
longer we stayed, the larger they were. This Freder- 
ickstadt is a city in the dominions of the duke of Ho], 


stein, and was the farthest place we travelled to east- 
ward ; and from hence I wrote a small piece, called, 
** A loving invitation unto young and old in Holland and 
elsewhere;" which was translated into the German and 
Low- Dutch languages : and divers impressions of them 
were also printed in England. 

We travelled in this journey through some parts of 
the emperor of Germany's dominions, as also of the kings 
of Denmark and Swedeland, and of the duke of Olden- 
burg's, and prince of East-Friesland's territories, besides 
some parts of the Seven Provinces of the United States. 
We parted with our friends of this city of Frederickstadt, 
in much love and tenderness, and with our hearts full of 
good will, one towards another, and so went back to the 
city of Embdcn a nearer way, by two days journey, 
than to go by Hamburgh. We crossed the rivers Eyder, 
Elfc, and Weiser ; over which last we were rowed by 
three women. The women in those parts of the world 
are strong and robust, and used to hard labour. I have 
seen them do not only the work of men, but of horses; it 
being common with them to do the most laborious, and 
the men the lightest and easiest work. I remember that 
I once saw near Hamburgh, a fair, well dressed woman, 
who, by her dress, or appearance, was a woman of some 
note, and a man, whom I took to be her husband, walk- 
ing by her, and she was very great with child, and the 
way difficult, being up a very steep hill, and he did not 
so much as offer his hand, or assistance to her ; which, 
however it might look to a man of that country, seemed 
very strange to me, being a Briton. For my part, I 
thought it unmanly, as well as unmannerly : on which 
I observe, that I never in any part of the world, saw 
women so tenderly dealt by as our English, or British 
women, which they ought to value and prize highly, and 
therefore to be the more loving and obedient to their 
husbands, the indulgent Englishmen; which indulgence 
I blame not, but commend, so far as it is a motive to stir 
them up to love and faithfulness. 

In this journey between Frederickstadt and Embden^ 
we htid four days hard travelling, and were twice over* 


turned out of our waggons, but we got no harm, which 
was admirable to us ; for once we fell, waggon and all, 
over a great bank, just by the side of a large ditch, and 
did but just save ourselves out of the ditch. The next 
time we overset upon stones : we wondered that none of 
us were hurt, particularly myself, I being much heavier 
than any of the rest ; but through the mercy of God, wc 
got well to Embden the second time, and had a meeting 
upon a first day, and immediately after meeting, we took 
ship for Delfzeel, which was from Embden about nine or 
ten English miles, by water, and with a fair gale of wind, 
got there in less than two hours time. We spoke by 
interpreters all along, and were divinely helped to preach 
the gospel to the satisfaction of others, and our own com- 
fort ; and the friend who interpreted for us, was sensible 
of the same divine assistance, to his admiration, for 
which we were all truly thankful. But, notwithstanding 
we were so opened, to the satisfaction of ourselves, our 
friends, and the people, yet we were sometimes emptied 
to exceeding great spiritual poverty, and in the sense of 
our want and need, we did many times pour out our 
souls and spirits in humble prayer and supplication to the 
Most High, for his help and strength, that it might be 
made manifest to us in our weakness ; and we found him 
a God near at hand, and often a present help in the need- 
ful time, and had a sweet answer to our prayers. Oh ! 
that my soul, with all the faithful, may dwell near to him, 
in whom alone is the help, and strength of all his faith- 
ful servants and ministers ! Amen. 

From Delfzeel we went to Groeningen, the chief city 
in Groeningland, and so on to a river called the Wonder, 
and to a town named Goradick, where we had a meeting 
with a few friends there, and some of their neighbours 
came to the meeting. It was to us a comfortable meet- 
ing, and they were glad of it, they being but seldom visit- 
ed by friends. From this place v/e travelled by waggon 
to Hervine, where we lodged that night, and next day 
went by waggon to Leuwarden. It happened that we 
had generally very fine weather while in those open wag- 


gons, in which we travelled several hundred miles, so that 
JacoJD Clans, our companion and interpreter, though he 
had travelled much, said he never had observed the like 
before ; which observation I thought good to make, with 
thanks to the Almighty. 

From the city of Leuwarden, we came by water to 
Herlingen, where friends were glad to see us, and wc 
them. We had a meeting in friends* meeting-house, 
and a good comfortable one it was, blessed be the Lord 
for it ! From hence we crossed the South Sea, and had a 
contrary wind, which made our passage long and tedious. 
We were two days and two nights on this water before 
we got to Amsterdam, in all which, and the next day, 
I tasted no food, being three days fasting. I was willing 
to keep my body under, and found it for my health, 
neither had I any desire for food in those three days, in 
which time we had two meetings. We arrived at Am- 
sterdam about the sixth hour, on the first day morning, 
and had two meetings at Amsterdam that day, which 
were quiet, and many people came to one of them : but 
we could not be clear without going again to North- 
Holland ; so from Amsterdam we went to Horn, where 
we had a meeting in the collegian's meeting-house, and 
it was to satisfaction : the people were very loving, and 
divers very tender, even more than we have usually seen. 
They desired another meeting, but our time would not 
admit of it, we having appointed a meeting at Twisk the 
next day, which we had in the meeting-place, as also 
another at a friend's house. The next day we returned to 
Amsterdam, and had a meeting, which began about the 
fifth hour, which was the last meeting we had in this city, 
and I hope it will not easily be forgotten by some. After 
it wc solemnly took our leave of friends, and departed for 
Harlem, where we were well refreshed in the love and 
life of Christ Jesus, our dear Lord, and good Master. 
From Harlem we went with several friends to Rotterdam, 
where we had two meetings, and in the evening we went 
to visit a friend that was not well, with whom we had a 
meeting, and affecting time, ^d the sick friend was com- 


forted and refreshed, and said, she was much better than 
before; and we were edified, and the Lord our God 
praised and magnified over all, who is blessed for ever. 

In those parts, viz. Holland, Friesland, Germany, &:c. 
we travelled 972 English miles, all in waggons and ves- 
sels. We came not on a horse's back all the time. It 
was about nine weeks that we stayed in those countries, 
travelling therein, and getting meetings where we could, 
which were to the number of forty-five, thus accounted : 
at Rotterdam 10 ; Harlem 3 ; Amsterdam 10 ; Twisk 
4 ; Herlingen 3 ; Horn 1 ; Hamburgh 1 ; Embden 2 ; 
Frederick stadt 10; Goradick 1. 

All these are large cities, except Twisk and Gorac 

From Rotterdam we took ship for London, and on the 
30th of the 3d month, 1709, we sailed down the river 
Meuse to the Briel, in the ship Ann, John Duck, mas- 
ter, but he miss?ng the convoy, we took our passage in 
the packet; and so from Helvoctsluys we sailed over to 
Harwich, and thus safely arrived in our native land, 
blessing Almighty God for his many preservations and 
deliverances by sea and land. 

About this time (after a long continuance of war) there 
was great talking of peace ; but the old enemy to peace, 
truth, and righteousness, broke it off by his evil work- 
ing in man : neither can there be any lasting peace, until 
the nations come to the witnessing of the peaceable gov- 
ernment and spirit of our Lord Jesus Christ, to be set 
up and established in themselves. The Lord bring it to 
pass, if it be his blessed will, with speed, for his holy 
name's sake! Amen. 

As I have had great peace and satisfaction in my trav- 
els in Holland and Germany, so, for exciting others un- 
der the like exercise, I may truly say, that there is en- 
couragement for faithful ministers to labour in the work 
of the gospel : for I know not that I ever met with more 
tenderness and openness in people, than in those parts of 
the world. 'J'here is a great people which they call me- 
nonists, who are very near to truth, and the fields are 
•^hite unto harvest among divers of that people, spirit- 


ually speaking. Oh! that faithful labourers, not a few^, 
might be sent of God Almighty into the great vineyard 
of the world, is what my soul and spirit breathes to him 

After lodging one night at Harwich, we came to Ips- 
wich, and from thence to Colchester, and stayed there 
the first day, and had two meetings; and had a meeting 
at Birch and Coggsheal, and then back to Colchester, 
^vhere we took coach for London, to the yearly meeting 
of friends, which was very large. I gave some short ac- 
count of my travels to the said meeting, with which friends 
Avere satisfied, and made a minute thereof. I had been 
about twenty months from my habitation, and from my 
dear and affectionate wife, and from any manner of trade 
and business, either directly or indirectly, being all that 
time wholly given up in my mind to preach the glorious 
gospel of God our Saviour, without any outward con- 
sideration whatever, taking my great Master's counsel, 
As I had freely received from him, so I freely gave : and 
had that solid peace in my labours that is of more value 
than gold, yea, than all the world. 

From the yearly meeting I travelled through some parts 
of most of the counties in England, and also in Wales : 
in which service, I laboured fervently, and often travel- 
led hard, in body and mind, until the next yearly meet- 
ing, 1710, having travelled that year about two thousand 
five hundred miles, and had near three hundred public 
meetings, in many of which there were much people^ 
and oftentimes great openness. I being at so many friends 
houses, and at so many meetings, if I was to be partic- 
ular in the same, it would be too voluminous, for which,, 
and some reason beside, I only give a general account 
thereof here. 

In this year (1710) my dear friend and fellow-travel- 
ler, Richard Gove, departed this life, at Uxbridge about 
fifteen miles from London, at our friend Richard Richard- 
son's house. He died of a consumption. We travelled 
together in great love and unity, and the Lord blessed his 
work in our hands. We were in company in the West- 
India islands, Ireland, and North-Britain, till we came to 


Berwick on Tweed. We met together again at London, 
and he visited some other parts of Britain, in the time I 
was in Holland and Germany. He was an inoffensive, 
loving friend, and had a sound testimony, which was ser- 
viceable and convincing, and was well beloved in Phila- 
delphia, where he lived. He left a good savour and report 
behind him (I think) wherever he travelled in the world. 

Now at this general meeting in London, I had a good 
opportunity to take my leave of my dear friends and 
brethren in my native land, not expecting to see it, or 
them, any more in this world. Oh ! I may truly say, it 
was a solemn parting ! it was a solemn time tp me in- 
deed. After the yearly meeting was over, I took my 
passage in the Mary-Hope, John Annis, master, bound 
for Philadelphia ; and on the 29th of the fourth month, 
1710, at Gravesend, after having taken a solemn leave 
of our relations, and several of my dear friends, we set 
sail, and overtook the Russia fleet at Harwich, and so 
joined them, and sailed with them as far as Shetland, 
which is northward of the isles of Orkney. We were 
with the fleet about two weeks, and then left them, and 
sailed to the westward for America. In this time we 
had rough seas, which made divers of us sea-sick. Af- 
ter we left Shetland, we were seven weeks and four days- 
at sea before we saw the land of America, and glad we 
were when we got sight thereof. In this time we had 
divers sweet and solemn meetings, on first days and fifth 
days, wherein we worshipped and praised the great Je- 
hovah, and many things were opened in the spirit of 
love and truth, to our comfort and edification. We had 
one meeting with the Germans or Palatines on the ship's- 
deck, and one who understood both languages interpret- 
ed for me. The people were tender and wrought upon, 
behaved sober, and were well satisfied : and I can truly 
say, I was well satisfied also. 

In this voyage we had our health to admiration ; and 
I shall observe one thing worthy of my notice. Some 
of my loving and good friends in London, fearing a sick- 
Jiess in the ship, as she was but small consideriiig there 



were so many souls on board her, being ninety-four in 
number, they, for that and other reasons, advised me 
not to go in her; for they loved me well, and I took it 
kindly of them: but I could not be easy to take their 
advice, because I had been long from my habitation and 
business, and which was yet more, from my dear and lo\ - 
ing wife; and notwithstanding the vessel was so full and 
crowded, and also several of the people taken into the 
ship in the river Thames, yet they mended on board the 
vessel apace, and were soon all brave and hearty, being 
perfectly recovered at sea, and the ship, through the 
providence of the Almighty, brought them all well to 
Philadelphia, in the seventh month, 1710. I think I 
never was in a more health}' vessel in all my time, and I 
thought this peculiar favour worthy to be recorded by 
me. We had a very pleasant passage up the river Del- 
aware, to our great satisfaction, the Palatines being won- 
derfully pleased with the country, mightily admiring the 
pleasantness and the fertility of it. Divers of our peo- 
ple went on shore, and brought fruit on board, which 
was the largest and finest they had ever seen, as they 
said, such as, apples, peaches, &c. 

I was from my family and habitation, in this journey 
and travel, for the space of three years, within a few 
weeks ; in which time, and in my return, I had sweet 
peace to my soul ; glory to God for ever more ! I had 
meetings every day when on land, except second and 
seventh days, (when in health, and nothing extraordinary 
hindered), and had travelled by sea and land fourteen 
thousand three hundred miles, according to our English 
account. I was kindly and tenderly received by my 
friends, who longed to see me, as I did them, and our 
meeting was comfortable and pleasant. 

After this long travel and voyage, I staid at home, and 
looked after the little family which God had given me, 
and kept duly to meetings, except something extraordi- 
nary hindered. Divers people, when I came home^ 
raised a false report of me, and said, I had brought 
home a great deal of money and goods, that I got by 
preaching ; which was utterly false and base ; for I 


brought neither money nor goods, so much as to the \'ahie 
of five pounds, except my wearing apparel ; so much the 
reverse, that I borrowed money at London to pay for my 
accommodations home, the which I faithfully remitted 
back again to my friend that lent it to me, to whom I 
was much obliged for the same : and if I might have 
gained a hundred pounds per annum, it would not have 
tempted me to undertake that, or such another journey. 
Soon after my return home again, I visited a few neigh- 
bouring meetings, which were large and edifying, friends 
being glad to see me again returned home from that 
long journey. And I did, as I had reason to do, bless 
the holy name of the Lord, for his many preservations 
and deliverances by sea and land. 

After some stay at Philadelphia, I went down with 
my wife and family into Maryland, to a corn-mill and 
saw- mill, which I had there, in order to live there some 
time, and settle my affairs : and after being there some 
time, my dear wife was taken ill of a sore disease, which 
some thought to be an ulcer in the bladder, and I had her 
up to Philadelphia, she being carried as far as Chester in 
a horse-litter, where she continued for some months, in 
much misery, and extreme pain, at the house of our very 
kind friends, David and Grace Lloyd, whose kindness to 
us, in that sore, trying, and exercising time, was great, 
and is not to be forgotten by me, while I live in this 
world. From Chester we removed her again in a litter, 
being accompanied by our friends, to Philadelphia, where 
she continued very ill all that winter, often thinking that 
death tarried long, and crying mightily to the Lord, 
" Oh! Come away, come away !" This was her cry day 
and night, till at last she could speak no more. As we 
lived together in great love and unity, being very affec- 
tionate one to another ; so, being now left alone, I was 
very solitary, and sometimes sorrowful, and broken into 
many tears, in the sense of my loss and lonesomeness. 
This, my dear wife, was a virtuous young woman, and 
one that truly feared God, and loved his dear Son ; from 
whom she had received a good gift of the ministr}', and 
was serviceable to many therein. I had five children by 


her, four sons and one daughter, all whom I buried be- 
fore her, under three years old. At the yearly meeting 
before she died, she was so wonderfully carried forth in 
her ministr}', by the divine grace, that divers of her 
friends believed she was near her end, she signifying 
something to that effect in her testimony, and that she 
should not live to see another yearly meeting : and so it 
came to pass ; for she died before another yearly meet- 
ing, being aged about thirty -five years, and a married 
woman about thirteen years. Her body was carried to 
friends' meeting-house, in Philadelphia, and buried in 
friends' burying- ground, being accompanied by many 
hundreds of our friends, in a solemn manner: and my 
heart was greatly broken in consideration of my great 
loss ; and being left alone, as to wife and children, I many 
times deeply mourned, though I well knew my loss was 
her's and their gain ! 

Here I shall end the first part of the journal of some 
part of my life and travels, omitting many meetings, and 
lesser journies, which I performed : and the accounts 
here given have been mostly general, not descending into 
Tnany particulars ; though the adding some things might 
have been instructive and agreeable : the whole being 
intended as a motive to stir up others to serve, love, and 
faithfully follow, and believe in Christ, 

•y • ^« 








1 NOW gave up my time mostly to travelling, for about 
the space of two years, in which I visited the meetings of 
friends in the provinces of Pennsylvania, East and West- 
Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, and North- Carolina, and 
back again to Philadelphia, and then to New- Jersey again: 
also to Long-Island, Rhode-Island, Conanicut-Island, 
Nantucket- Island, and New-England, and through those 
parts on my return to Philadelphia. In these provinces, 
&c. I travelled some thousands of miles, and had many 
large meetings, some in places where there had not been 
any before, and some were convinced, and many would 
acknowledge to the testimony of truth, which was de- 
clared by the help and grace of Christ; and many times 
my heart was, by the assistance of that grace, wonderful- 
ly opened to the people. If I should be particular in the 
account of these journies, it would enlarge this part of 
my journal more than I am willing. 

In Virginia I had a meeting at James' river, where a 
priest of the church of England, with some of his hear- 
ers, made some opposition, after our meeting was over, 
and ^vere for disputing about religion j and he openly de.- 


clared, " The spirit was not his guide, nor rule ; and 
he hoped, .never should be. But, he said, the scriptures 
were his rule, and that there was no need of any other ; 
and that they were as plain as Gunter's line, or as 1, 2, 
3." I told him, the scriptures were a good secondary 
rule, and that it were well if men would square their 
lives according to their directions ; which we, as a peo- 
ple, exhorted all to : but that the holy spirit, from which 
the holy scriptures came, must needs be preferable to the 
letter, that came from it ; and without which holy spirit, 
" the letter kills," as saith the apostle. I also asked him, 
how he, or any else, without the light, or influence of 
the holy spirit, could understand the scriptures, which 
were parabolically and allegorically expressed, in many 
places ? And further, to use his own expression, how 
could any understand Gunter's line, without Gunter's 
knowledge ? or without they were taught by Gunter, or 
some other? Neither can we be the sons of God, without 
the spirit of God. Which he answered not, but went 

In New- England, one Joseph Metcalf, a Presbyterian 
teacher, at Falmouth, wrote a book, entitled, " Legal 
forcing a maintenance for a minister of the gospel, war- 
rantable from scripture, &c." Which book a friend, of 
Sandwich, gave me, and desired I would answer it ; 
which, after finding some exercise on my mind, for the 
cause of truth, I was willing to undertake; and accord- 
ingly wrote an answer thereto, which I called, " Forcing 
a maintenance, not warrantable from the holy scriptures, 
for a minister of the gospel." In which I endeavoured 
to set the texts of scripture in a true light, which he 
had darkened and misrepresented by his chimerical doc- 

In this year, 1713, I went from Philadelphia, in the 
Hope Galley, John Richmond, master, to South Caro- 
lina. We were about a month at sea ; and when it 
pleased God that wc arrived at Charleston, in South-Car- 
olina, we had a meeting there, and divers others after- 
wards. There are but few friends in this province, jct 
I had several meetings in the country* The people were 


generally loving, and received me kindly. What I had 
to declare to them, I always desired to speak to the Avit- 
ness of God in the soul, and according to the pure doc- 
trine of truth in the holy scriptures ; and there was open- 
ness in the people in several places. I was several times 
to visit the governor, who was courteous and civil to me. 
He said I " deserved encouragement," and spoke to sev- 
eral to be generous, and contribute to my assistance. 
He meant an outward maintenance ; for he would have 
me encouraged to stay among them. But I told him, 
that though it might be a practice with them, to maintain 
their ministers, and pay them money for preaching, it 
was contrary to our principles to be paid for i>reaching, 
agreeably to the command of our great master, Christ 
Jesus, who said to his ministers, " Freely you have re- 
ceived, freely give :" so that we arc limited by his words, 
whatever others are : and those who take a liberty con- 
trary to his doctrine and command, I think, must be an- 
tichrist's, according to holy scripture. The longer I 
stayed there, the larger our meetings '^vere ; and when I 
found myself free and clear of those parts, I took my 
passage for Virginia, in a sloop, Henry Tucker, master. 
I had a comfortable and quick passage to James' river, it 
being about two hundred leagues. The master of the 
vessel told me, " That he believed he was blessed for 
my sake." I wished him to live so as that he might be 
blessed for Christ's sake. And some reformation was be- 
gun on him in our voyage ; which Avas the goodness of 
God, through Christ, to him, and not to be attributed to 
me, any farther than an instrument in the divine hand; 
for of ourselves we cannot do any thing that is good, it 
being by grace, through faith, that we are saved, which 
is God's gift to the soul. 

After I had been sometime in Virginia, I got a pas- 
sage up the bay of Chesapeak, and had several meetings 
in Maryland, friends being glad to see me ; and we were 
comforted in Christ our Lord. I made some little stay 
at a place I had in that province, called Longbridge, and 
then returned to Philadelphia, where I lodged at the 


house of my very kind friends Richard and Hannah Hill, 
and was oftentimes at divers neighbouring meetings, and 
sometimes had good service therein. 

About this time I had an inchnation to aher my con- 
dition of being a widower, to a married state ; and the 
most suitable person that I, with some of my good 
friends, could think upon, was Martlia, the widow of 
Joseph Brown : and on the 15th of the second month, 
1714, we were joined together in marriage, with the 
unity of friends in general. We had a large meeting at 
our marriage, the solemnization thereof being attended 
with the grace and goodness of God ; and, for example 
sake, we made but little provision for our guests : for 
great entertainments at man'iages and funerals began to 
be a growing thing among us, which was attended with 
divers inconveniencies. 

My wife was a sober and religious young woman, and 
of a quiet natural temper and disposition ; which is an 
excellent ornament to the fair sex ; and indeed it is so 
both to male and female ; for, accordmg to the holy scrip- 
tures, " a meek and quiet spirit is with the Lord of 
great price." 

The first child we had I called Abigail (or the father's 
joy, as the word signifies), and while she lived, I had 
joy and comfort in her, even more than I could expect, 
her age considered ; for she lived but about eighteen 
months, yet in that time gave frequent proofs of an un- 
common capacity, and dropt such extraordinary expres- 
sions, that I have said to her mother, " This child is 
too ripe for heaven, to live long on earth ; therefore let 
us not set our hearts upon it." And I have thought 
that in this child the saying of Christ was fulfilled, even 
in the letter of it, " Out of the mouths of babes and 
sucklings, thou hast perfected praise." Mat. xxi. 16. 

I was at divers yearly meetings in 1715, viz. at Chop- 
tank, in Maryland ; at Shrewsbury and Salem, in New- 
Jersey ; all which meetings were very large and comfort- 
able ; many things being opened therein, tending to the 
Convincing and establishing the people in the truth and 


doctrine of Christ. I was likewise at divers other 
meetings in those provinces, which were large and sat- 

At Salem yearly meeting I was sent for to the prison, 
where there was a young woman that was to be tried for 
her life. She desired that I would pray for her, and 
charged me to warn the young people to be careful not 
to keep bad company ; " for," said she, " it has been my 
ruin, and brought me to this shame and reproach." She 
had been tenderly brought up and educated. I knew 
her when she wore a necklace of gold chains, though 
now she wore iron ones. Upon which subject I had 
afterwards a large opportunity to speak to the people in 
a very moving manner; which seemed very much to af- 
fect the youth, and others in the meeting, which con- 
sisted of many hundreds of people. I sav/ this young 
woman afterwards, the jury acquitting her ; and I told 
her, that her life was given her for a prey ; and remind- 
ed her, how it was with her when she was in prison in 
chains ; and I advised her to walk more circumspectly 
for the future; which she said she hoped she should do. 

In the year 1716, I had some concerns which drew 
me to the island of Bermuda (to which island I went 
twice that summer). My family increasing, I traded a 
little to sea for their support and maintenance : and I can 
truly say, I carried on my affairs and business in the 
fear of God, having an eye, or regard therein, more to 
his glory, than to my own interest. We had a rough 
passage to this island (in the first voyage) and were forc- 
ed, by distress of weather, to cast some of our goods 
into the sea ; and the storm being very violent, some of 
the seamen thought we should be devoured by the waves ; 
and as for me, they had shut me up in the cabin alone, 
all in darkness, and the water came in so that they were 
forced to take it out in buckets. When the storm was 
a little over, the master came to me, and asked " How 
I did all alone in the dark?" I told him pretty well ; 
and said to him I was very willing to die, if it so pleased, 
God ; and indeed I did expect no other at that tini.-. 
After this great storm was over we arrived at Bermuda 



in a few da} s ; but going into the harbour, the bottom 
of the vessel struck the rocks, but we got well in; ibr 
which I was thankful to the Almighty. I stayed on the 
island about a month, and had several meetings ; to some 
of which, many came \\ ho were not called friends. I'her 
were all sober, and some well satisfied ; and the people 
of the island generally received me lovingly, and were 
very kind to me. Our ancients, who bore the burden 
and heat of the day, met with very different treatment. I 
tenderly desire, that we who come up after them, may be 
truly humble and thankful to the Almighty for all his 

By reason of my outward affairs, I had opportunities 
with some persons of great note and business on this 
island; and sometimes opened the principles of friends 
to their satisfaction ; some of them told me, " They 
never understood so much concerning our friends be- 
fore; and if what 1 said was true, they had been misin- 
formed." Divers such opporunities I had with several 
on this island, there being but very few of our society. 

These are called the Summer Islands, or Bermudas, 
there being many little islands in tlie midst of the main 
island, in form like a horse-shoe, and are about two hun- 
dred leagues distance from the capes of Delaware. It 
is rare to see hail, snow, or ice there. 

After I had done my business, and had been for some 
time on the island, I had a ready and comfortable passage 
home, where I was joyfully received. 

After some little stay at home, I went the second time 
that summer, to Bermuda and then also I had some 
meetings, and did some business on the island. It was 
my constant care, that my worldly affairs should not hin- 
der me in my religious concern for the good of souls. 
It happened at this time there was a mighty hurricane 
of wind, so that it blew many houses to the ground, and 
very many trees up b} the roots, and rent divers rocks 
asunder, which I was an eye-witness of: though it is tcr 
be observed, that those rocks in the Summer Islands, are 
not so hard as in some other parts of the world, particu- 
larly to the northward; for here they saw them with 


saws, and cut them with axes like wood. I was told 
there were sixty sail of vessels then at these islands, and 
all drove on shore but three, and ours was one of the 
three that rode out the storm ; for which I was truly 
thankful. In this great storm, or hurricane, several 
sloops, there being no ships, were driven upon dry land, 
so that after the storm was over, one might go round 
them at high water, and several blown off the dry land 
into the water. One that was ready to be launched, 
though fastened on the stocks with two cables and an- 
chors put deep in the ground, yet the violence of the 
wind blew her into the water, and dashed her all to 

About this time the Bermuda people had got a vast 
trea'>ure of silver and gold, out of the Spanish wrecks ; 
arid at a meeting which I had with a pretty many people, 
on the first day of the week before the huiTicane, or 
storm of wind, it came weightily on my mind to exhort 
them not to be lifted up therewith, nor exalted with pride : 
for I declared to them, that the same hand that took it 
from the Spaniards, could take it from those who had 
now got it out of the sea ; and if he pleased, by the same 
w;'y; which was a storm that cast away the ships going 
for Spain. And indeed so it happened the same week ; 
for it was reckoned by men of experience and judgment, 
that they had lost more by the storm, than they had 
gained by the wrecks of the Spaniards. A sober old 
man, not of our profession, told me the next day after 
the hurricane was over, that what I spoke in the meeting 
was soon come to pass : and he added, I was a true 
prophet to them. Many houses that were not blown 
down were uncovered. My landlord's house being old, 
several thought it would be down ; but by the good 
providence of God, it was one of them which stood. I 
was in my store, which stood also, though I expected 
every minute when it would have been blown down. It 
was by the mercy of God we were preserved, and not for 
any merit of ours. I intreated the Lord in the midst of 
this great wind, that he would please to spare the lives 
of the people ; for many of them being seafaring men, 


were very unfit to die ; at which time I thought I was 
sensible of the answer of my prayer, and he was pleased 
to be intreated for them : for, notwithstanding the vio- 
lence of the storm, and the great destruction it made, 
yet not one man, Avoman, child, or creature was lost, 
that I heard of in all the island, which was to me very 
admirable. The friend of the house came to me after 
the storm abated, and said, *' The Lord had heard my 
prayers for them." Although they could not by any 
outward knowledge, know that I had prayed for them, 
yet they had a sense given them, that I was concerned 
for them before the Almighty; which indeed was true. 
Oh ! that we may never forget the merciful visitations of 
tlie High and Lofty One, who inhabits eternity ! 

While I was on the island I was invited to, and kindly 
entertained at the houses of several of the gentry, and at 
the governor's, who invited me several times to his 
house : and once I was with him, and some of his chief 
officers at dinner, with divers of the first rank, where I 
was treated very kindly ; and after dinner the governor's 
practice was to drink the king's health, and he hoped I 
would drink it along with thern. " Yes, said the rest at 
the table, Mr. Chalkley (as they called me) will surely 
drink the king's health with us." So they passed the 
glass, with the king's health, till it came to me ; and when 
it came to me, they all looked stedfastly at me, to see 
what I would do, and I looked as stedfastly to the Al- 
mighty, and I said to them, I love king George, and wish 
him as w ell as any subject he hath ; and it is known to 
thousands that we pray for him in our meetings and as- 
s-cmblies for the worship of Almighty God ; but as to 
drinking healths, either the king's, or any man's else, it 
is against my professed principle, I looking on it to be 
a vain, idle custom. I'hey replied, " That they wished 
the king had more such subjects as I was ; for I had pro- 
fessed a heart}- respect for him:" and the governor and 
they all were very kind and friendly to me all the time I 
was on the island. 

After I had finished my concerns, I embarked in the 
sloop Dove, for Philadelphia, she being consigned to me 


in this and the former voyage. It being often calm and 
small winds, our provisions grew very scanty. We were 
about twelve persons in the vessel, great and small, and 
but one piece of beef left in the barrel; and for several 
days, the wind being contrary, the people began to mur- 
mur, and told dismal stories about people eating one an- 
other for want of provisions; and the wind being still 
against us, and, for ought we could see, like to continue, 
they murmured more and more, and at last, against me 
in particular, because the vessel and cargo was consigned 
to me, and was under my care, so that my inward exercise 
was great about it; for neither myself, nor any in the 
vessel, did imagine that we should be half so long as we 
were on the voyage ; but since it was so, I seriously 
considered the matter; and to stop their murmuring, I 
told them they should not need to cast lots, which was 
usual in such cases, which of us should die first, for I 
would freely offer up my life to do them good. One 
said, " God bless you. I will not eat any of you.'* An- 
other said, " He would die before he would eat any of 
me;" and so said several. lean truly say, on that oc- 
casion, at that time, my life was not dear to me, and that 
I was serious and ingenuous in my proposition : and as 
I was leaning over the side of the vessel, thoughtfully 
considering my proposal to the company, and looking in 
my mind to him that made me, a very large dolphin 
came up towards the top or surface of the water, and 
looked me in the face ; and I called the people to put a 
hook into the sea, and take him, for here is one come to 
redeem me, (said I to them;) and they put a hook into 
the sea, and the fish readily took it, and they caught him. 
He was longer than myself: I think he w^s about six 
feet long, and the largest that ever I saw. This plainly 
shewed us that we ought not to distrust the providence of 
the Almighty. The people were quieted by this act of 
Providence, and murmured no more. We caught 
enough to eat plentifully of till we got into the capes of 
Delaware. Thus I saw it was good to depend upon the 
Almighty, and rely upon his eternal arm; which, in a 
particular manner, did preserve us safe to our desire4 


port, blessed be his great and glorio\is name, through 
Christ forever! 

I now stayed at, and about home, for some time ; af- 
ter which 1 was concerned to visit friends in several 
places, and in the adjacent provinces, as Maryland, New- 
Jersey, &c. and was at many marriages and funerals, at 
which many times, we had good opportunities to open the 
way, and also the necessity to be married to Christ Jesus, 
the great bridegroom of the soul ; and also to exhort the 
people to consider and prepare for their latter end and 
final change ; which many times was sanctified to divers 
souls, and the Lord's name was glorified, who is worthy 

In the year 1717, I went into Maryland, to look after 
my aftairs in that province; and as 1 travelled, I had 
divers meetings at Nottingham, and at Bush-river, about 
which time, at Bush-river, several were convinced. The 
meeting I found in a growing condition in that which is 
good, several persons meeting together in silence to wor- 
ship God, according to Christ's institution, which was, 
and is, and ever will be, in spirit and in truth : and for 
the encouragement of all such, Christ hath said. That 
such the Father seeketh to worship him ; and again. 
Where two or three are met together in my name, there 
am I in the midst of them. And if Christ be in the 
midst, there is no absolute need of vocal teaching, except 
it be the will of the Lord to call any to it. Let the 
spiritual christian read and judge. 

After my return I had several meetings in the country, 
near Philadelphia ; and about the latter end of the eighth 
month I was at divers marriages, one of which was on 
the third day of the week, about fifteen miles above Phil- 
adelphia, over Delaware river: the next was over the 
river again, about twenty miles below the city : the third 
was about twenty miles further down the river, and on 
the opposite side at Salem, on the following days ; so 
that I crossed the Delaware river three times in t)»ree 
days, and rode about one hundred miles. The meetings 
were all large, and matter suitable to the occasion freely 
opened to the people. These remarks are not intended 


to set up man, or exult flesh, but to stir up others to 
come up to the work of Christ in their generation : all 
the glory and goocUiness of man is but as the grass, which 
soon withers, without we dwell in the root of true re- 
ligion, and holy life of Christ ; and that God may have 
the glory of all his works, is the end of all the labours 
and travels of the servants and faithful ministers of 

In the tenth month, 1717, divers considerations mov- 
ing me thereto, I took a voyage to Barbadoes, in the 
snow Hope, J. Curtis, master, and from tlience to Great- 
Britain and London; partly on account of business, and 
hoping once more, if it pleased God, to see my aged 
father, my brother, relations, and friends ; which voy- 
age I undertook in the solid fear of God. I desired the 
concurrence of my wife, ;.nd my friends and brethren of 
the meeting to which I did belong, in this undertaking, 
the which I had in a general way, and the good wishes 
and prayers of many particulars, with a certificate from 
our monthly meeting, signifying their unity with my 
conversation and ministry, and present undertaking : 
and I felt the love and goodness of God therein, but ia 
many respects it was a great cross to me, as the leaving 
my beloved wife and children, and many of my dear 
friends, whom I loved well in Christ; and the crossing 
of the seas always was troublesome to me, beiiig sickly 
at sea, especially in windy or stormy weather ; and the 
confinement was worse to me for the time than a prison ; 
for it would be much easier to me to be in prison on 
land, upon a good account, than in prison at sea, I 
always looking on a ship to be a perilous prison, though 
my lot was to be much therein : and as for my natural 
life, I always gave it up whenever I went to sea ; and I 
thought that was the least part of the hardship, never 
putting much value thereon ; and I think I had rather 
die at any time than go to sea, it being so contrary to 
my nature and disposition, as well as inclination ; but to 
sea I went, for the reasons mentioned, and got from 
Philadelphia to Newcastle the first night in said vessel, 
and to Elsingburgh next day, where we lay for a fair 


wind about two days ; and when the wind was fair, we 
sailed to Bombay-hook, where we met with two other 
vessels bound out to sea, who waited also for the wind. 
We lay there two nights, and then on a first- day morn- 
ing set sail, the weather being bitter cold, and the ice 
very thick on the sides of our vessel, and on our ropes. 
The same day that we left Bombay-hook we got out to 
sea, took in our boat, and went on our way ; and in four 
or five days we got into warmer weather. 

In this voyage I wrote someth ng on the common 
prayer, used by some of the church of England, whose 
conversations were very loose and corrupt, which I en- 
titled, " One truly tender scruple of conscience, about 
that form of prayer, called the common prayer, as used 
by the church of England and her members," &c. 

In this our voyage we saw several ships, but spoke 
with none ; and in twenty- seven days from our capes we 
arrived at Barbadoes, and came to an anchor in Carlisle- 

I had been twice in Barbadoes before, but this was the 
quickest passage by one day. Here I was lovingly and 
tenderly received by my friends. I took my good friend 
Joseph Gamble's house for my quarters, most of the 
time whilst I stayed on the island ; and I visited friends' 
meetings several times over, there being five of friends' 
meeting-houses in the island, and our meetings were 
sometimes large and open. 

Our stay was longer here than we at first expected, 
by reason of a great drought, they having no rahi for 
more than a quarter of a year, which was a great hin- 
drance to trade on the island. While I was this time 
in Barbadoes, our ancient friend George Gray died. I 
was at his funeral, at which there were many people ; 
and on this occasion we had a large meeting at our 
meeting-house at Speights-town, where I had a season- 
able opportunity with the people, opening to them the 
necessity of preparing for, and thinking of their latter 
end ; and pressed them earnestly thereto. They were 
generally attentive and sober, and some were broken in- 
to tenderness. While we were buiying the friend there 


appeared a dismal cloud hanging over the island, such an 
one as I never saw before : it was to my thinking, of the 
colour of the flame of brimstone ; and I expected there 
would have been a great storm, or some mighty gust, 
and much rain, they having had very little for m^ny 
weeks, or some months; but it went over, and there 
was no rain or wind as I remember. Soon after some 
people came in from sea, and they said, that from that 
cloud it rained ashes ; and they bj'ought some of the 
same to the island, some of which ashes I now have be- 
fore me : the taste of them seems to me to be a little 
sulphurous, and have some glittering particles ni them, 
in colour and smell I think they differed little from com- 
mon ashes. Herein the almighty and infinite Being sig- 
nally shewed his mercy and favour to poor mortals ; for 
had not his mercy prevented, he could as easily have 
rained down the fire as the ashes, who rained down fire 
and brimstone on the cities and inhabitants of Sodom and 
Gomorrah, for their pride and idleness, much of which 
abounds among the inhabitants of Barbadoes, the people 
being very luxurious. Oh ! may the luxurious inhabit- 
ants of that isle, as also all others, consider their ways 
and doings, and not provoke the great Lord, the Sove- 
reign of Heaven and Earth, as many of them do by their 
evil lives, and voluptuous conversations ; and that they 
would kiss the Son, though not with a Judas' kiss, of 
profession, or speaking well or fair of him only, but 
but with divine love manifested through obedience, while 
his wrath is but a little kindled against them before it 
break out into a flame. 

After this funeral I was sent for to Bridge-town, to the> 
burial of a master of a ship, a young man, who was very 
fresh and well a few days before. There ^vas a great ap- 
pearance of people, and I was pretty largely opened in 
the meeting, on the words of the pro[)het, where he sa} Sj 
" All flesh is grass, and all the goodliness thereof is as the 
flower of the field. The grass withereth, the flower fad- 
eth, because the spirit of the Lord bloweth upon it: sure- 
ly the people is grass. The grass withereth, the flo^ver 
fadeth ; but the, Avord of our God shall stand forever.'" 


'l^"^ 'foE. jotfiif&Ai or taoSAS C«ALKL£T. 

'Isaiah Ix. 6, 7, 8. And I treated of this word, its w6b- 
dtrfulness, its duration, and its work in man : as also of 
the fading constitution of mortal man, though young 
and strong, as that young man was a fi:\v days before^ 
Whose corpse was then before us. 

I was at divers other burials on this island, which in* 
deed doth prove a grave to many new-comers, it being 
a hot climate, makes those who are not accustomed to 
jt, very thirsty, and by reason of the extreme heat, it is 
not easy to quench their thirst ; so that what is called 
moderate drinking, throws many strangers into a violent 
fever, and oftentimes is the cause of their death. I note 
this as a caution to any who may transport themselves 
there, (that may see this), that they may shun that dan- 
ger; which might be avoided by drinking cool drinks, of 
which they have many sorts very pleasant, viz. cane, 
sugar-reed, and white sorrel, pine, orange, and divers 
others: and I advise such, as they love their health, to 
refrain from drinking much hot drink or spirits. 

I saw several curiosities in nature on this island, which 
among the great numbers of the works of God, do show 
forth his praise and glory. One to the leeward part of 
this island, which is called the spout, sends up a vast 
body of water into the air, occasioned by a great cavity 
in the rocks under the water, which may be seen in calm 
weather, when the sea is low; but when the wind blows 
(a great body of water being pent in a large hollow 
place) it forces it up into the air, sometimes ten, fifteen^ 
and twenty yards high, according as the strength of the 
wind is more or less, and makes a report like a cannon, 
or thunder a great way off. I believe I have seen it ten 
or twelve miles out at sea. I was also at a place called 
Oliver's cave, which we got to with some difficulty, in 
going down the steep and craggy rocks. There is on the 
outward part next the sea, a very large vaulted place^ 
in the form of a half circle, about one hundred feet high, 
as near as I could guess. In this large vault, behind a 
rock, is the mopth of the cave, not the height of a man 
at the first entrance ; after one is in a few yards, one 
may walk upright comfortably, the bottom being pretty 


plain and smooth for about a hundred yards, and then 
we come into a large cave which is formed archwise, and 
about ten or fifteen yards high, as we thought, being 
much higher in the middle than the sides, but almost as 
regular as if it had been done by art, which we beheld 
with admiration, by the help of wax candles, and other 
lights, that we made and carried for that purpose. 

When I had done my business in Barbadoes, having 
been about thirteen weeks there, our vessel being loaded, 
we sailed from thence the 10th of the second month^ 
1718, for London. 

We had a good passage, being five weeks and two 
days from Barbadoes to Great-Britain, in which we saw 
divers vessels at sea, but spoke with none; and after 
sight of the land, we got in two days to Beachy-head, 
which is about fifteen leagues from the Downs or Deal. 
We sailed along the shore by Folkstonc, where we took 
in a pilot, and had a comfortable passage through the 
Downs, and up the river Thames to London, where J 
met with my dear and aged father, and loving brother, 
sister, and cousins, and many others of my near and dear 
relations and friends. 

In this voyage I wrote some things which opened in 
my mind at sea, upon that excellent sermon of Christ's 
upon the mount, as it is recorded in the holy scriptures 
of the New Testament, in the fifth, sixth, and seventh 
chapters of the evangelist Matthew, but have since heard 
that the same is nmch better done by an abler hand; and 
therefore it may suffice here to give the advice, which 
in the course of my travels I have often had occasion to 
do, that the professors of Christianity should frequently 
read this sermon, and be careful to practice the same ; 
that they may not only be christians in name, but in deed, 
and in truth. 

After visiting my relations, and some meetings of our 
friends in and about London, and having finished my 
business, being ready to return homeward, divers friends 
accompanied us from London to Gravesend ; and the 
wind not being fair, we went to Rochester, and had a 
meeting there ; and then back again to Gravesend, and 


there took a solemn farewell of our friends, recommend- 
hig oiiC another to the grace of Christ, having this time 
iiiMcle bui iittie stay in Britain. 

In the tifth month, 1718, we sailed from the Downs in 
the aioresaid snow hope, ciivers friends, a iz. John Dan- 
son, Isaac Hadwin, John Oxiey, L} dia Lancaster, Liiza- 
beth Rawhison, aid Rebecca Turner, being in com- 
pany with us : alter about nine weeks passage from 
land to land, having had meetings on fii st days and lifih 
da} s on bcuid, all the voyage, we came all safe and well 
to Philadelphia, through the blessing of God, where I 
sta} ed Avith my famii} a few nicnths and took another 
voyage for Barbadoes and Britain. I was under some 
concern more thuii ordinal'} , as to the support and well- 
being, or accommodation of my famil} , the circum- 
stances thereof being a little changed b} the increase of 
children, rtmembering the words of the apostle. That 
those M'ho had not that care and concern, were worse 
than infidels: my Lord Jesus, whose servant 1 profess my- 
self to be, also s&ying, It is better to give than receive ; 
wheretore an opportunity offering of the consignment of 
a vessel and cargo, the snow Hope, Warner tlolt, 
Inaster, to Barbadoes, and from thence to London, and 
so to make returns home again, for Philadelphia, I em- 
braced it ; though with reluctance, to leave my very lov- 
ing wife, children, and friends, all whom I tenderly loved 
and respected. I also had in my e} e an hope, thrcnigh 
the blessing of God, to obtain wherewith to acconnno- 
date my friends, who were sti angers and pilgrims in this 
world for Jrsus' sake, as 1 also had been myself; and 
that they might find a place or home, and refreshment 
under my roof; not to excess, but to comfort and edifi- 
ciition ; whicli in sincerity, is all the grandeur I covet or 
desire in this world: so after due consideration, on the 
second day of the eleventh month, 1718, we set sail from 
Philadelphia, many friends taking their leave and farewell 
of us for that voyage. Thus with hearts full of love and 
good ^\"ill, we parted with our friends, and went down the 
ri\'er about five miles, where we ran aground, but got off 
next tide, and next day came to an anchor at Chester. 


On the fourth day of the month we set sail, and got to 
Newcastle about the eleventh hour; it being meeting day, 
we went to meeting, where our great Lord was pleased in 
some good measure to own us with his living presence, 
and comfort us with his love ; blessed be his holy name ! 
In the morning we sailed to Reedy-Island, where we 
stayed for the tide, and in the night our cable parted, 
which we knew not of till the morning, and then we had 
gone from the place where we anchored, about a league: 
but though the vessel drove about the river, yet she did 
not go on ground. We dropped our other anchor, and 
sent the boat to seek for that which was parted from us, 
but could not find it until the next tide, and then could 
not get it up, and were unwilling to go to sea without it ; 
which occasioned us to stay several tides before we 
could get it up ; at last with much difficulty we weighed 
it, our men's clothes being much frozen; for it was very 
cold, and froze extremely hard. After this we went 
down to Bombay-hook, where was also another vessel 
going out to sea. Next day the wind was against us, 
and it snowed much, and froze hard ; and that night the 
river and bay was filled with ice as far as we could see, 
and it drove very hard against our vessel, so that we wish- 
ed for day : for we thought sometimes it would have 
torn her bows into pieces ; but our anchor and cable 
held us, we thought, to a miracle, for which we were 
thankful to the great keeper of all those who put their trust 
in him. When the tide turned for us we got up the anch- 
or, and so let her drive with the ice down the bay : the 
other vessel did the same. 

It was now dangerous moving, go which way wc 
would. The vessel in company with us attempted to 
go back again, but seeing that we did not, as vve sup- 
posed, came to anchor again, and we both went down 
the bay together ; and the wind springing up fair, we got 
clear of the ice in a few hours time ; but by this hin- 
drance we could not get to sea that day, but were obliged 
to come to anchor near the middle of the great bay of 
Delaware, and the night being fair and calm, we rode it 
out safelvj which if it had been windy weather, would 

S6 Vhe jeuavAL of thomas ckalkley. 

have been dangerous. Early in the morning, of the 9th 
day of the month, we got to sea, and soon left sight of 
the land. Next day the wind was high, and the weather 
proved stormy for several days, insomuch that our main- 
deck was under water most of the time, so that we 
were forced to go before it for several days together. 
We also shut up our cabin windows, and were tossed 
exceedingly, and I was very sea-sick : and we began in 
this storm to fear falling on the rocks of Bermuda, which 
we were near, as we imagined, and the wind set right 
on the island. But when we had passed the latitude of 
Bermuda, we met with fair weather and winds, (all the 
remaining part of our passage being pleasant and com- 
fortable) ; by which I was led to consider the vicissitudes 
which mortals may expect while on this unstiible terra- 
queous globe, which is full of changes ; and I strongly 
desired to be rightly prepared for that world which is 
eternal, and its joy and felicity permanent ; at which bless- 
ed port, I hope in God's time, through his grace, safely 
to arrive. Thus through storms, tempests, ice, and 
snow, we left those frozen climes, and crossed the tropic 
of Cancer, between which, and that of Capricorn, there 
is neither frost nor snow at sea, at any time of the year, 
and the wind always within a small matter one way, viz. 
easterly, except in hurricanes and violent storms, which 
sometimes they have in those parts of the world. We 
arrived at Bridgetown, in Barbadoes, in twenty-one 
days, which was the quickest passage that I ever had, 
this being the fourth time of my coming hither, where I 
was always kindly received by my friends. 

About this time war was declared against Spain by the 
king of Great-Britain, by proclamation, in Bridgetown, 
which put such a damp on trade, that there was little 
business, and the markets low and dull, which made my 
stay longer than I would have chosen ; but my friends, 
among whom I had many opportunities, seemed rather 
pleased then otherwise ; telling me, " That they did not 
care if I was to stay there always if it were my place :" 
and vvhen I left Barbadoes, friends gave me better cre- 
dentials than I thought I deserved. A friend of mine 


giving me intelligence that the market was better at An- 
tigua than at Barbadoes, I dispatched my affairs, and 
took part of our cargo there, and was kindly received by 
our friends. We were about three days on our passage, 
and had fine weather therein. At Antigua I had divers 
meetings, my business at no time hindered me in my 
more weighty service ; for I always, through divine help, 
made that give way to my religious duty, in which I ever 
found peace and inward satisfaction. In about five weeks 
I finished my business in this island, having no small satis- 
faction in coming to it; and our vessel being now loaded, 
we took our solemn leave, and, with the good wishes of 
many, departed for England. 

Our friends there signified to their brethren, that they 
vTere glad of my company, and that I was serviceable to 
them, though I came upon business. My hand, when 
need required, was to my business, but my heart was, 
and I hope is, and ever shall be, freely given up to 
serve the Lord, in that work whereunto I believe he has 
called me. We have liberty from God, and his dear 
Son, lawfully, and for accommodation's sake, to work or 
seek for food or raiment ; though that ought to be a 
work of indifferency, compared to the great work of sal- 
vation. Our Saviour saith. Labour not for the meat 
which perisheth, but for that which endureth for ever, or 
to eternal life : by which we do not understand, that 
christians must neglect their necessary occasions, and 
their outward trades and callings ; but that their chief 
labour, and greatest concern, ought to be for their future 
well-being in his glorious kingdom; else why did our 
Lord say to his disciples, Children, have you any meat ? 
they answered, no ; and he bid them cast their nets into 
the sea, and they drew to land a net full of great fishes ; 
and fishing being their trade, no doubt but they sold 
them, for it was not likely that they could eat them all 
themselves. Also the apostle of Christ says. He that 
doth not take care of his family, is worse than an infidel: 
and the apostle Paul, (the great apostle of the gentiles) 
wi'ought with his hands, even while he was in his travels> 
and m the work of the gosi^el ; and o1:hers tasted of the 


benefit of his labour naturally, as well as spiritually. It 
is also written, That he that will not Avork, shall not eat. 
By this, and much more, which might be noted, it ap- 
pears that we not only have liberty to labour in modera- 
tion, but we are given to understand, that it is our duty 
so to do. The farmer, the tradesman, and the merchant, 
do not understand by our Lord's doctrine, that they 
must neglect their calling, or grow idle in their business, 
but must certainly work, and be industrious in their 
callings. We all ought to understand, that our hearts 
and minds ought to be out of the world, or above the na- 
ture and spirit of it. It is good and profitable for both 
soul and body, rightly to distinguish between earthly and 
heavenly things, and to be careful how to mix the one 
with the other ; for it is an eternal truth, that God and 
mammon cannot dwell together, or join together in the 
heart. If our love is more to God, than the creature, or 
to heaven than earth, then will he dwell in us, and with 
us : but if our love is more to the creature than to Christ, 
or to earth than heaven, then will he not dwell with us, 
but will leave us to ourselves ; for the Lord Omnipotent 
will not admit of any rival. 

On the 11th of the fourth month, 1719, we left An- 
tigua, stood close to the wind till we again crossed the 
tropic, and got into those latitudes where the winds are 
variable. Sailing in the great deep, we saw the wonders 
of the Lord, particularly in divers kinds of fish, they liv- 
ing upon one another in the sea, the great fishes on the 
small ones ; and mankind too much resembles them in 
that respect. About the latitude of 33 north, our mas- 
ter, Warner Holt, seeing a school of porpoises about the 
ship, though he was not very well, and had not been for 
most of the voyage, he took his harping-iron, and struck 
one of them, and we took him into the vessel, out of 
which we got eleven quart bottles of oil ; and we most of 
us eat heartily of this fish, which agreed with our people 
very well. They fried his liver for our mess, of which I 
eat a large meal, which was well tasted, and eat more like 
fresh beef than fish. I make this memorandum of it, 
that if any should take them when their provisions are 


scarce, they may eat freely without danger, accorchng to 
our experience. When we had been at sea about three 
weeks, behig near the latitude of 40 north, and about the 
longitude of 42, though it was in the midst of summer, 
we saw an island of ice, at which we all marvelled, and 
judged that there had been a severe cold winter in those 
latitudes on the land of America. When we saw this 
island of ice we judged ourselves not far from the banks 
of Newfoundland. Hitherto we had easy gales of wind, 
and many calms, which made our passage seem long to 
us. We saw two sail of shios about those latitudes, but 
spoke with neither, being willing to shun them, as it wajs 
war time. 

We had, in this voyage, weekly meetings for worship- 
ping the Almighty, in which the great Lord both of sea 
and land, was pleased greatly to manifest his name and 
truth amongst us, for which my soul often secretly and 
openly blessed and praised his divine and glorious name 
and truth ; for he bore up my drooping spirit, so that I 
could truly say with the royal psalmist, not because he 
spoke it only, but also being an experimental witness 
thereof. " The floods have lifted up, Oh! Lord, the floods 
have lifted up their voice : the floods lift up their waves. 
The Lord on high is mightier than the noise of many 
"waters, yea, than the mighty waves of the sea." PsaL 
xciii. 3, 4. This the king wrote of his own experience 
in a spiritual sense ; but I may say, without boasting, I 
have witnessed the rage and noise of mighty waves and 
waters, both natural and spiritual ; the one, as though it 
would swallow up m}- reputation among men, and the 
other, as though it would swallow up my person, in this 
watry peregrination ; but blessed be the name of him that 
is holy and eternal, who indeed is stronger than the noise 
of many waters, or than the mighty waves of the sea, 
either inwardly or outwardly, I will through his strength, 
magnify his name, because he is worthy : and may I do 
it for ever ! 

About the 1 1th of the fifth month, we saw great flocks 
of birds, which we judged came from the Azorco, or 
Western Islands, near which we reckoned ourselves to be* 



The 21 St day we saw, and came up with a French ship, 
which had been fisliing on the banks of Newfoundland, 
and was bound for Havre-de-Grace, in France, the mas- 
ter of which came on board us, and our captain ^v■ent on 
board diem. We exchanged some rum and sugars, of 
our sea-siores, for their French v/ine and cider, and some 
of our provisions for some of their fish. The captain 
was a protestant, and very courteous to us: the regent of 
France at this time being kind to the protestants, so that 
they increased much in that kingdom. The Frenchman 
seeming desirous to kncvv" what rehgion I was of, I told 
him by an interpreter, that I was one called a quaker, or 
trembler, and that our principle was to do good to all 
men, and not to hurt any man, according to Christ's 
doctrine, not to render evil for evil, but to overcome 
evil with good. When tliey went away and took leave; 
of us, they desired me to pray for them, the which I re- 
membered with tenderness of spirit, and having but little 
wind, we kept company for several days ; but the wind 
springing fair, we wished them well, and went on our 
way, our vessel out-sailing most that we met with ; and 
u few days after we met with a Nev*^- England ship, who 
came out six days before us from Antigua. We were 
then in the latitude of about 50 north, and 291 degrees 
of longitude from the Land's-End of Great-Britain. The 
30th day of the iifth month, we sounded, and found 
ground at twenty-eight i'uthom, and on the 1st day of tlie 
sixth month, we saw tlie Land's-End of England, all our 
c<jmpany being in health, and well ; for which ni}- heart 
wiis truly thanklul, to that great and infinite Being, whose 
pro\ idcnec is ovtr us poor mortals in all parts of the 
world, and who reigns over sea and land, and is worthy 
of adoration, worsliip, service, and living praise for ever ! 
In a few days vac came into the English channel and 
going up the channel, there came one of the king*s 
yatchts, and they pressed most of our men; the best 
liauds we had they took from us, and carried them on 
board a man of war, after v/hich we came to anchor at 
Fcilkstone, where I left the ves >eli, and got a horse to 
Dovej', iuid from Dover took coach to London. In the 


coach were divers persons who beg^n to talk about the 
qiiakers, and spoke against their plain way of living- and 
clothing, and said, " That they did not understand their 
unfashionable way of conversation ; neither was it the 
way to gain proselytes." Upon which I asked them, 
whether they understood Paul, tlie great apostle of the 
gentiles ? who said, Be ye not conformable to the world, 
(i. e. the fashions of it), for this great reason, the worl/J, 
and the fashions thereof, passeth away ; which is a great 
truth, and it is plainly seen how fickle and changeable the 
world is in its vain fashions and customs, which, to fol- 
low, in all its foolish cuts and turns, or changes, must of 
consequence, make a man or woraan very foppish and 
apish. I told them, that our religion was agreeable to 
the holy scriptures, which, if they did not understand, 
neither could they understand us ; for the doctrine of 
Christ and his apostles, was generally therein very plain; 
and the doctrine in Christ's excellent sermon on the 
mount, is clear and plain to very low or mean capacities : 
so they discoursed no more of religion till we came to 
London, where once more I met with my loving and aged 
father, a man fearing God, and having a gift of the min- 
istry of the gospel of Christ, and well beloved of his 
friends and neighbours, who, with others of my near and 
dear relations and friends, received me gladly. 

After some months stay among my relations and 
friends in London, we sold our vessel, the snow Hope, 
and bought another ship, which we called the Trine- 
Hope, Warner Holt, master ; and when. I had done my 
business, I sailed in the same ship for Pennsylvania. We 
had meetings on board the vessel twice a week, in which 
the Almighty was pleased to favour us with his good 
presence. Sobriety, and the fear of God, and fiiith in 
his beloved Son, Christ, was often recommended to the 
youth then on board the vessel with us, of whom there 
were divers, who transported themselves to America, in 
order to settle there. At one meeting on board, I was 
tenderly concerned to remind them of Jacob, who in his 
youth, left his country and relations to sojourn in a 
strange land, and how in that undertaking, he sought thr 


Lord, and his blessing, more than any outward thing; 
-and that he was greatly blessed with man) favours I'rom 
heaven above, and also from the eai'th beneath, arid they 
were advised to take him lor their example : and many 
other things were tenderly 0])enedto them in the io\e of 
God, and in his fear and eounsel they were exhorted from 
time to time. 

It being winter time, we sailed to the southward, and 
got into warm weather, and were on our passage seven 
weeks and some odd days from land to land, in which 
time we saw several vessels, and spoke \\ ith one, whose 
people said, they were chased by a Turk, but got from 
him, at which they greatly rejoiced. We apprehended 
that it was our ship that they saw over night, for we saw 
a sail that crowded from us as fast as she could, and it 
being near night, we shortened sail, and so she left us ; 
but in the morning we came up with her, and being pretty 
near, both they and we put out our colours, and being 
both Englishmen, we spoke to each other, and were glad 
to meet with some of our own nation upon the great 
ocean ; but our vessel sailing best, we took our leave of 
them, wishing them a good voyage. We met with 
rough seas and high \vinds in the latter part of our pas- 
sage till we came to the capes of Delaware, which we all 
rejoiced to see, and we had a pleasant passage up the bay 
and river to Philadelphia, where I had once more a com- 
fortable meeting with my dear wife and family, which I 
gratefully acknowledged as a high favour from the hand 
of the Almighty. 

W^e arrived at Philadelphia the first of the second 
month, 1720; after which 1 stayed at, and about home, 
for some time, and was not idle, but kept to my business, 
and to meetings, and having a desire to see my friends in 
the province of Maryland, at their general meeting at 
West- River, I was accompanied by Isaac Norris and 
Thomas JVi asters, both sobtr young men. It had been 
a time of pretty much rain, and the waters thereby being 
high, going over a ford of Brandy-wine, my mare got 
among the rocks (it being a very rocky creek) she fell 
dQwn, and the stream being very strong, she rolled upon 


me, and being entangled with the stirrup, I could not 
easily clear m} self, but I gave a spring from her, and 
swam to clear myself from her ; and when I was cleaf 
I got to her again, and laid hold of her mane, and through 
the good providence of God, got well out with the mare 
on dry land, which was a remarkable deliverance. In 
three days we got to West- River, to the yearly meeting, 
which was large, and friends were glad to see me, I hav- 
ing not been there for several years. I was out on this 
journey about two weeks, and rode about 300 miles : and 
after my coming home, I travelled pretty much in and 
about the };rovnicesof Pennsylvania and New- Jersey. 

In the year 1721, Thomas Lightfoot and I, with Will- 
iam Brown, went to a meeting at Bush- River, and going 
over Susquehannah-ferr}', the people were fiddling and 
dancing. When the dance was over I asked them, be- 
lieving them to be protestants. If they thought Luther to 
be a good man ? They replied, " Yes, there was no 
doubt of it." Well, said I, and so do I ; and I will tell 
you what he says concerning dancing, " That as many 
paces as the man takes in his dance, so many steps he 
takes towards hell ;" which spoiled their sport, and they 
went away, and we went on ours towards the meeting 5 
and a good meeting it was ! and we, after it, returned by 
way of Nottingham, and had a meeting there, and one at 
New- Garden, and so on to Philadelphia. I was from 
home about a week, and travelled in this journey about 
150 miles, and was well satisfied therein. 

In the years 1721 and 1722, I went several journies, 
and had many large meetings, travelling many hundreds 
of miles, of which I neglected to keep a particular acw 
count, hardly thinking what I did worth recording ; but 
divers of my friends in many parts of the world, put me 
upon something of this nature, to which at length, I gave 
up, and found some benefit and satisfaction therein, in 
looking back and considering the dealings of God witli 
me in my youth and upwards. 

From Philadelphia I went to the general meeting at 
Slu-ewsbury, in Kast-Jersey, where I heard of J. G's 


beins^ wounded by a }'oung man, with a sword, of which 
he died, lamenting that he did not take the counsel of his 
friends ; as young men, who slight the counsel of those 
that wish them well, commonly do, either sooner or lat- 
er, if the da} of their visitation be not over. Some few 
da}s alter this meeting at Shrewsbury, I visited friends 
on Long- Island, and returned home again, having trav- 
elled about 300 miles. In my stay at, and about home, 
I wrote something concerning Perfection, in answer .to a 
nameless author ; as also something concerning Predes'- 
tinalion, or Election and Reprobation. 

In the year 1722, I went back in the woods to Buck- 
ingham, the Great- Swamp, Perkioming, Manatawny, 
and Ole) , where I had meetings, travelling over great 
mountains, from which we could see many miles. I 
travelled in this journey about 150 miles, and returned 
home in about two weeks ; and after staying some time 
at home, and visiting neighbouring meetings ; I went to 
the yearly meeting of friends on Long- Island, which 
meeting was very large, many people (not of our persua- 
sion) being there, and were very sober. Many things 
were opened in the love of Christ, and his great love 
was largely declared to that great congregation. The 
parable concerning the prodigal son, came before me to 
speak of to the people in a very moving manner, and 
strongly to invite the youth to lay hold of the love of the 
father in his son, to poor souls : and indeed it is a won- 
derful parable, setting forth the infinite love of the great 
Lord of all to his poor creatures. Many were affected 
and reached to at this meeting, and the Almighty was 
praised and glorified, who alone is Morthy. 

From thence I went and had a meeting at New- York, 
and then set forward to VVoodbridge, where we had a 
comfortable meeting; Naaman, the Assyrian, being much 
tlie subject of that day's work : and that one thing lov- 
ed and esteemed more than Christ, whatever it be, is to 
be avoided, and the people warned to be careful to keep 
close to the God of Israel (si)iritual Israel) and to give up 
ail which is contrary to his nature, and to take up 


Christ's cross, and follow him : for it is those who fol- 
low him in the regeneration, that are to be heirs of his 

In this year also I was at the burial of our friend Jona- 
than Dickinson, at which we had a very large meeting, 
he was a man generally well beloved by his friends and 
neighbours. In this meeting a passage (he had often 
told me in his health) was brought to my remembrance, 
I think worthy to be recorded to the end of time, which 
is as folio weth : " It happened at Port- Royal, in Jamaica, 
that two }'Oung men were at dinner with Jonathan, and 
divers other people of account in the world, and they 
were speaking about earthquakes (there having been one 
in that place formerly, which was very dreadful, having 
destroyed many houses and families). These two young 
men argued that earthquakes, and all other things, came 
by nature, and denied a supernatural power, or deity, in- 
somuch that divers, surprised at such wicked discourse, 
and being ashamed of their company, left it ; and at the 
same time the eailh shook, and trembled exceedingly, as 
though astonished at such treason against its Sovereign 
and Creator, whose footstool it is : and when the earth 
thus moved, the company which remained were so aston- 
ished, that some run one way, and some another, but 
these two atheistical young men sta} ed in the room, and 
Jonathan with them, he believing that the providence of 
Almighty God could preserve him there, if he pleased, 
and if not, that it was in vain to fly ; but the hand of God 
smote these two young men, so that they fell down ; and, 
as Jonathan told me, he laid one on a bed, and the other 
on a couch, and they never spoke more, but died soon 
after. This was the amazing end of these young men :" 
A dreadful example to all atheists, and dissolute and 
wicked livers. Oh ! that young people might be warn- 
ed, that the hand of God might be upon them for good, 
and that they would tenderly be concerned for their sal- 
vation ! 

On the 30th of the fourth month, 1723, my tenth child, 
named Thomas, died about midnight (having before bur- 
ied nine). It was some exercise to me thus to bury my 


children one after anotlier ; but this did a little mitigate 
Tny sorrow, that I knew that if I could have all things 
relating to them according to my desire ; could I sec 
them grow up to be sober men and women well married, 
have a competency in the world &c. yet it was safer and 
better for them, and they more out of danger, being tak- 
en away in their infancy and innocency ; and I fervently 
begged of the Almighty, that he would be pleased to take 
them away while innocent, rather than that they should 
live to be vicious or unrighteous men and women, and to 
bring scandal on the holy name of Christ and upon our 
christian profession ; which considerations did mightily 
tend to settle and quiet my mind in my sorrowful exer- 
cise. The great Lord of all sanctify the sorrows and af. 
flictions of his people and children, and grant them the 
fulfilling of that blessed portion of holy scripture, that all 
things shall work together for the good of them that love 
and fear God : even so it be, saith my soul. 

In the sixth month of this year I removed from 
the city into the country, to a small plantation I had 
at Frankfort, in order to be more retired, and for health's 
sake, &c. finding some declining in my bodily strength, 
which I take to be very much owing to the severe colds 
and hardships I have sustained in my long and hard trav- 
els, more especially in the wilderness of America ; for, 
without vanity, I may say, that I always loved temperance, 
and have been sometimes zealously concerned to preach 
against intemperance ; and though I cannot now take so 
long journies as I have formerly, my spirit earnestly trav- 
els for the welfare of Zion, and the peace and prosper- 
ity of all those who love, fear, and serve God, and believe 
in his Son. 

On the 6th day of the eighth month it pleased God 
to give me another son, whom 1 named George, after my 
father, brother, nephew, and king ; and hough tliis name 
is now a great name among men, I considered that no 
name can preserve life, so I gave him up to the will of 
him who gave him to me, and desire, if I have no name 
through children to posterity, I may have a name in the 
Lamb's book of life, which 1 have ever esteemed far 
above a name amongst men. 


After my removal to this place I was not idle, but 
Visited neighbouring meetings, and in the eighth month 
I went to Shrewsbury general meeting, where there were 
many hundreds of people, and the truth declared had 
good impression upon the minds of many ; some after 
meeting, who were not of our society, acknowledged to 
the truth, and that they were glad they were there. In 
this meeting I was concerned for the welfare of mankind, 
and the exaltation of the holy name of the Almighty, to 
declare the universal love of God to man, from several 
texts of holy scripture, as that passage of Jacob and 
Esau, and Peter and Cornelius, and something concern- 
ing the objection made against us, the people called 
quakers, that we do not acknowledge the holy scriptures 
to be the word of God ; for though we believe that the 
scriptures came by divine inspiration, yet we are clearly 
convinced by their testimony, and by the spirit of truth 
in our hearts, that Christ is the eternal word of God, by 
tvhom all things were made and created, and do still 

From Shrewsbury, with divers other friends, I rode to 
Crosswicks, where, on the fifth day, we had a very com- 
fortable meeting, in which the ancient love and goodness 
of our heavenly Father was with us to the tendering our 
hearts into tears of joy, some of us being likewise affected 
in remembrance of the goodness of the Almighty to us, in 
the meeting we had in this place under the trees about 
twenty-five years since. "J'he great subject of faith and 
works was spoken to; as, that the romans seemed to lay too 
much stress on works, and the lutherans, calvanists, and 
others, too little : but our principle led us to join botii 
together ; the Almighty having joined them together, 
none ought to separate them. This subject of f.iith and 
works having been much in debate amongst professed 
christians, it is on my mind here to mention a k\v things 
deduced from the best authority : 

The first is. Without fliith, it is impossible to please 
God. lied. xi. 6. 

Second, Faith is the gift of God. 

Third, Faith works bv love. 


Fourth, Faith is the evidence of things not seen, and 
the subbtance of thinj^s hoped for. 

Fifth, Faith without works is dead. 

Sixth, The just Hve by faith. 

Seventh, You beHeve (or have faitli) in God, believe 
also in nic, John xiv. 1. 

And the author to tlie Hebrews speaks excellentl}'' 
conceriiir.g the power of faith, and the mighty wonders 
wrought by it. Note, this living, saving, true, and di- 
vine faith, must be in the heart, through, and in Jesus 
Christ, the Son of the living God, who is, and always 
will be, the author and finisher of it in every true believer. 

After I came from Shrewsbury, I visited divers neigh- 
bouring meetings, and some in Chester county, where I 
had meetings for nine days successively, some of which, 
were very large (particularly at Providence and Goshen) 
in which I was opened to exhort them to keep to that plain, 
honest v>ay of life and conversation which our fathers and 
ciders were found in, and to remind them of the suffer- 
ings they endured for their testimony to the blessed truth, 
in the first breaking forth thereof in the last age ; and I 
was concerned to shew them, that the Almighty, who 
had blessed us with plenty of temporal blessings, would 
continue the same to us, if we were careful to live in his 
fear ; but that otherwise, we might expect his judgments 
for disobedience. 

And after my return, I continued about home for some 
time, it being winter season, and bad travelling, and I not 
so capable of travelling as formerly ; but I had great 
peace and tranquillity of mind, in that I had freely given 
up my youthful days to serve my Creator, and the same 
love and zeal was yet fresh and warm in my heart, for 
the glory of his great name ; and I still have a full reso- 
lution through his strength and grace to serve him, the 
great Lord of all, all my days, according to the light and 
strength given to me. 

Our yearly meeting at Philadelphia this year was large, 
in which our friend Benjamin Kid, from England, being 
with us, had good service. I cannot forget a concern 
which was upon me at this meeting, that the universal 


love of God, through Christ, might prevail amongst man- 
kind, and to press friends to manifest to all people the 
influence thereof, by their exemplary lives and conversa- 

In the second month, 1724, I went into New- Jersey 
as far as Shrewsbury, where, on a first day, we had a 
large meeting, to general satisfaction ; and the next day 
we had another, wherein the love and good will of God, 
through Christ, was opened freely to the people, and our 
duty to forgive one another was largely treated of ; and 
it was plainly shewn, that without forgiving others, we 
could not be forgiven of God, as Christ saith, " If 3'C 
forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will 
also forgive, you : but if ye forgive not men their tres- 
passes, neither will your heavenly Father forgive your 
trespasses ;" Mat. iv. 14 15, &c. and much more to 
the same effect on that subject ; as also Christ's an- 
swer to Peter, who asked, how oft a man should for- 
give his brother if he trespassed against him ? Peter 
says, till seven times : our Lord Jesus answers, I say 
not unto thee, until seven times, but until seventy times 
seven. Mat, xviii. 22. And again, Christ says, If thy 
brother trespass against thee seven times in a day, and 
seven times in a day turn again unto thee, saying I re- 
pent, thou shalt forgive him, Luke xvii. 4. Which hard 
hearted people think a great hardship, but Christ's cross 
must be taken up, and borne daily, if we will be his dis- 
ciples and followers indeed, and in truth, as well as in 

After we had reconciled some differences at Shrews- 
bury, we went to a place called Menesquan, and had a 
good, open meeting, and most of the people of that place 
were there. It was a good time, and I hope the oppor- 
tunity will not soon be forgotten by divers who were 
there. From this place we travelled to Crosswicks, and 
had a good meeting. After meeting, a friend told me 
that some would say, '' I spoke by information, because 
I had opened some matters which were exactly to the 
state and condition of some there :" But I knew nothing 
of their state and condition, otherwise than as it was then 


immediately opened in my mind ; neither had I been' 
told any thing concerning them directly or indirectly : 
and from thence we travelled to Burlington, where the 
jnondily meeting of our friends had desired that I would 
he assistant to help to end a difference which had hap- 
pened through mis-^take, and continued for about seven 
years (since the first occasion was given) and through 
divine assistance, our hearts being filled with the love of 
Christ, we so prevailed upon the differing persons, that 
they gave each other satisfaction, with hopes that they 
should live in love for the future ; and friends of the 
place greatly rejoiced at the end of that difference. As 
I went along this town, some friends told me of a religious 
people some few miles distant, whom they desired I 
would have a meeting with. I desired them to see if it 
Would be granted, and let me know ; which was done, 
and we had a meeting, and were kindly received, and the 
divine nature of the gospel of Christ was freely opened 
to them, and in great love we parted from one another. 
I travelled in this journey, about two hundred miles ; 
and when I came home, my dear wife and family gladly 
received me with hearts full of love. And this testimo- 
ny I think proper, for several solid reasons, to leave be- 
hind me, of my virtuous and loving wife, that since we 
were married, she never hindered me in that service, my 
great Master called me unto, in all the time of our living 
together ; we always parted for the sake of the gospel of 
Christ, in pure love, and in the same love we always 
met again. 

Soon after this time I met with several great losses by 
-eea and land, and myself and my little daughter were 
dangerously sick, so that our recovery seemed doubt- 
ful ; yet, through the mercy of God, we both recovered, 
for which I j)raise his name. 

After some stay at home, I was again moved in the 
love of Christ, to visit the general meetings of Duck-r 
creek and Salem, At Duck-creek we had a large and 
satisfactory meeting. From Duck-creek I appointed a 
meeting at George's-creek, which Mas a good meeting. 
The nejct iporning we went over to Elsinburgh, and s© 


«n to Cohansie, \^'here I met with two of my fellow la- 
bourers in the work of Christ, Thomas Lightf; ot, and 
Benjamin Kid. We had a meeting together at Cohan- 
sie, in which :he people were exliorted to sobriety and 
just dealing. The contrary of both is too obvious at 
such times as fairs ; there being divers of the fair people 
theie as well as others, the nature of Christ's work in the 
heart, was somewhat spoken to, but not so open a meet- 
ing as some others, the people thereaway being too slack 
and dull as to religion. Next day we had a meeting at 
Alioway's-creek, where we all three had some pretty 
close work ; and from thence we went to the general 
meeting at Salem which was larger than common, on ac- 
count of the said friend Benjamin Kid's being there : 
who, in the love of Christ, came from England to visit 
the churches in this part of the world. There were so 
many friends and others here at this time, that some 
houses were so filled, that there was not room for all that 
came to lodge there. After this meeting I returned home, 
and in a few days went into Chester county, and travelled 
about a htindred miles ; and when I came home I under- 
stood that some for want of a true sense of the work of 
Christ had been censuring me for my much travelling 
and hard labour in the work of the ministry of the gospel 
of Christ ; though, by the same rule of judging, the apos- 
tles of Christ, and our ancient friends, who travelled 
much, cannot escape their censure ; for in all my trav- 
els, I have had an especial regard to the unity of the breth- 
ren, and never knowingly went abroad vi^ithout it : but 
let this caution be recorded for the instruction of all., 
such forward judges; let them be careful of judging 
Christ's servants, lest their words become their burden : 
Judge not that ye be not judged (saith our great Lord) 
for with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged. 

Soon after my return from Chester county, I was at a 
marriage at Abington, whjch was one of the most solemn 
I have been at ; and on the 15th of the third month, at 
the youth's meeting at Germantown, to my great satis- 
faction ; and on the 23d of the same month, ^ I went to 
the general meeting of ministers and elders at Burlington ; 


at which meeting several things relating to the gospel 
ministry, were declared ; as its being a free, a clear, and 
a powerful ministry, reaching to the conscience, and con- 
vincing of the danger of continuing in sin : and divine 
charity was much recommended, without which, all 
ministry is but as sounding brass. Sec. From this meet- 
ing I went, with Walter Herbert, into Bucks-county, and 
at Ncshaminy we had an open, tender meeting. From 
thence I went to Buckingham, and was at a marriage of 
a son and daughter-in-law of Thomas Canby's. The 
meeting was large, and friends well satisfied ; and it was 
obsejvable, though I was very hoarse, through a cold I 
had taken, and could hardly speak in common conversa- 
tion, yet it was much taken away in my ministry, so that 
I was carried through the service to our admiration, for 
which I was truly thankful. After this meeting I return- 
ed home with true satisfaction, such as is much more 
valuable than silver and gold, two mighty idols in the 

After a little stay at home I went on a first day to 
North- Wales, or Gwinnedd, where was a pretty large 
meeting, many young people being there, to whom I was 
concerned to shew, that Christ is the way by which wc 
must come into the true church, through regeneration, and 
that all who invent other ways are thieves and robbers. 
I rode twenty-five miles that day, and the next day came 
to Frankfort, and was at the burial of an ancient friend, 
Joan Orpwood, at which our friend John Salkeld was, 
with whom I was the next day at Philadelphia, at our 
third-day meeting, which was a good meeting. 

On the 4th day of the fourth month, intending soon 
to take a journey to Long-Island, I thought it a proper 
time to alter my will, as I had kept one by me for divers 
years before, considering the uncertainty of life. On 
the fifth of the fourth month I went to Merion to visit an 
ancient friend, John Roberts; who was sick near unto 
death, where I again met with John Salkeld. The friend 
expressed his satisfaction in this visit, and we had a re- 
wdvd of peace in the exercise of that christian duty of vis- 
iting the sick, which is recommended by the apostle to 


the primitive churches of Christ. After we had been 
some time with our said sick friend, we went to the meet- 
ing which had been appointed for us several days before, 
and was large and satisfactory : for which favourable vis- 
itation we blessed the great name of the Almighty, and 
parted tenderly in christian love and good- will. The 
friend we went to visit, died the next day. He was a 
helper of the poor, and a maker of peace in the neighbour- 
hood : of such, Christ said, Blessed are the peace- mak- 
ers, for they shall be called the children of God. 

On the 10th of the fourth month, 1724, I had a con- 
cern to write the following epistle to friends in the island 
©f Barbadoes. 

*' Frankfort, lOth of 4th Month, 1724^. 

*.* Dear Friends, 

"In the tender love of God, our heavenly Father, 
and of our saviour Jesus Christ, do I, your brother, at 
this time greet you, and wish you health and salvation. 
Understanding by a concerned friend, that of late sev- 
eral of our friends are taken away from you by death, a 
concern came on me to put you in remembrance of your 
latter end, and of the cause of Christ ; and also of the 
prosperity of his blessed light and truth in your (in that 
respect poor, though in some others, rich and luxurious) 
island : the posterity of many that have been taken away 
there, as well as in divers others places, having gone 
astray ; and that it may not be so with those who are left 
behind, let a weighty concern come upon you. Oh! dear 
friends ! let your practices and expressions manifest to 
the rising generation, that the welfare of their souls, more 
than of their bodies, is at heart with you ; and do not in- 
dulge them in that which you in yourselves were con- 
vinced to be of an evil tendency, when your hearts were 
first reached by the power of truth. How many youths 
have been lost, through the looseness of the example of 
their elders, and through an undue indulgence of them 
in vanity, folly, pride, and idleness ! woful experience 


doth but too much declare that they are many : Oh ! they 
are many indeed, who have been lost by so doing ! where- 
fore, dear friends, clear yourselves of your children ; and, 
if they will obstinately go astray, faithfully bear your tes- 
timony against them, in life, doctrine, or expressions and 
conversation, which ^\dll witness for you when you are 
dead and gone, and your heads laid in the silent grave. 
Thus will your youth, through the blessing of God, and 
your endeavours, come up in your places, or at least 
3'ou will be clear, and their blood will be upon their own 
heads. A pure, strict watch is required of you in con- 
versation, in all those relations. First, that God may be 
glorified. Secondly, that your childi'en may be exam- 
pled. Thirdly, that your neighbours may be edified, or 
built up in pure religion. And, fourthly, that you may 
die in peace with him that created you and died for you ; 
remembering the blessed doctrine of Christ Jesus, Let 
your light so shine before men, tliat others seeing your 
good works, may glorify your Father which is in heaven^ 
And again ; You are as a city set on a hill, which cannot 
be hid. And as you thus train up your children in the 
way which they should go, when they are young, you 
may have reason to hope they will not depart from it 
when they are old ; for many have been con\'inced of the 
truth, as it is in Jesus Christ, through the good conver- 
sation of his followers. And how can Ave expect to die 
well, if we do not live well ? Or can we expect the an» 
swer of " Well done," if we are not in the practice of 
doing well ? 

And I do desire and earnestly exhort friends to read 
the holy scriptures, and wait to feel the power from 
which they sprung, through the holy writers ; and also 
to teach them to their children. And, dear friends, let 
me prevail with you in the love of God, and his dear Son, 
to keep close to your meetings for the worship of Al- 
mighty God, and for die well ordering of your society ; 
and do it in the meek spirit, for that is of great price with 
the Lord ; and when in your meetings, get into a relig- 
ious exercise, and lively concern for God's glory, and 
your soul's peace and prosperity. I pray the holy Lord 


of sabbath, to open your hearts to him in the reading of 
this epistle, ai mine is open to you, my beloved friends, 
that you and I may be edified, though outwardly sepa- 
rated, as we were when together ; and if we should never 
meet more in this world, that we may meet in the king- 
dom of God, where we may never part more. Amen. 
Hallelujah, saith my soul ! 

I desire this may be copied and read at the close of one 
of each of your particular meetings, and if it could be 
readily, in every family of friends ; to all whom is my 
very dear love in Jesus Christ, whose servant I am, and 
hope to be to the end, and I am an entire lover of souls, 
and a well wisher of Sion's prosperity. 


On the 11th of the fourth month, I left home on a 
journey to Long- Island, in order to visit friends' meet- 
ings, and also to negociate some business I had there ; 
the first meeting I had was at Burlington, where I had 
occasion to advise them to keep in remembrance of that 
ancient love which first united our society together, and 
in which, in times of cruel persecution, some freely offered 
to suffer the imprisonment of their bodies to obtain the 
liberty of their friends in confinement. From thence we 
travelled to Amboy, and so over to Staten- Island. The 
day being very hot, and the evening cold, I got a severe 
cold, which I did not get clear of for about two weeks, 
notwithstanding which, I went to meetings, though ill in 
body. The first meeting I had on Long-Island, was at 
Flushing, on a first day : a comfortable meeting it was ! 
in which was closely pressed, the taking up the cross of 
Christ, by all who desire to be his disciples, and that 
without it we could not be true christians. From Flush- 
ing we went to Musketto-cove, and had a meeting there 
on third day, which was large, and to general satisfaction, 
and some were there that were newly convinced. I see- 
ing the openness of the meeting, advised friends to build 
a meeting-house there, n'hich they approved of. On^ 



fourth day we had a meeting at Westbury, and fifth day 
at Cow-Neck. From Cow- Neck I went to the south side 
of the island, and had a meeting at captain Hicks'. The 
neighbours who were not of our societ}-, came generally 
to this meeting, and they were pressingly exhorted to 
come to Christ, and the way opened unto them. It was 
a good time, and I thought a time of love to us all ; 
thouarh before the meeting I was exceedingly shut up in 
myself, so that the meeting was very beneficial to me, 
among the rest, to see how the Lord could work by his 
power, and unlock the soul, as in a moment, as he did for 
my poor soul at times. Oil ! may I, with Christ's followers 
and ministers, ever depend upon him, is my petition I 
From Rockway (for so is the place called) we went to 
Westbury, and had a very large meeting on a first day ; / 
and, as I was informed, some were convinced there that 
day. From hence I went to a place called Foster's 
Meadows, where we had a large meeting in one Dusen- 
btiry's barn. After this I went over to the main land, 
and had a meeting at a place called Westchester. From 
thence we went to Flushing, and had a large meeting on 
a fifth day of the week, in which the right training up of 
children, and careful education of youth, was zealously 
recommended. From Flushing I went to Huntington, 
where some were lately convinced of the principle of 
truth as it is in Christ Jesus, some of whom were excom- 
municated by the presbyterians, with whom they had 
formerly joined. We had a pretty large meeting in a 
friend's barn, where one priest Prime opposed me, as he 
also had my friend Benjamin Kid, some time before, of 
which, by letter, I gave an account to my dear friends 
Thomas Lightfoot, and Benjamin Kid, desiring them (in 
their return from New-England), to have an evening- 
meeting there. The grounds of this priest's cavilling, 
or dispute was, that I had declared, that it is the light of 
Christ, or his spirit, which convinceth the world of sin, 
and not a natural light, or the light of a natural conscience ; 
from whence he took occasion to charge me with deny- 
ing a natural conscience, the falsehood of which I charged 
upon him before the auditory, and desired him, if he had 


any thing on his mind, to write it to me, to which I 
promised to return him an answer. 

From Huntington I went to the general meeting of 
friends held at Newtown, which was so large that the 
meeting-house could not contain the people, and the 
weather being extreme hot, the people without doors 
were some of them uneasy, and went to and fro ; but 
those that were in the house, and so near that they could 
hear, were very attentive, and as far as I could learn, 
generally satisfied. Our next meecing was at New- York, 
which was the quietest meeting I ever had there ; and 
those few friends at New- York, and some that were there 
from Long- Island, parted with us in the love of Christ, 
and in the fellowship of his blessed gospel; and so I 
travelled homewards, having good satisfaction in visit- 
ing my friends ; and when I came home, found my deai' 
wife and children in health, for which I bless God. 

After this journey I kept to meetings at and about 
home as usual, and was at the fifth day meeting in Phil- 
adelphia, when Samuel Preston was married to M ir- 
garet Langdale (the widow of my dear friend and fellow 
traveller Josiah Langdale). The meeting was large, and 
the parable of the virgins, and the bridegroom's coming 
at midnight, was opened, with an exhortation to the peo- 
ple to be ready against that hour, and that they should 
take care to have the holy oil of divine grace in their 

After this meeting I had some affairs which called me 
into Chester- county, and on the road my horse gave a 
sudden and violent start out of the path, and threw me 
down, and before I could get up again, he struck my 
face, and trod on my right eye with his foot, being new- 
ly shod, which stunned me for the present ; but as soon 
as I opened that eye which was unhurt, I perceived that 
I lay on my back, under my horse's belly, with my head 
between his fore feet. He stood still and I got on my 
hands and knees, the blood streaming out of my nose 
and right eye, and while I was bleeding, a man and wom- 
an came by ; and staid till I was done bleeding, and 
saw me mounted on my horse again. I went forward, 


being about two miles from the house I intended to go 
to, and after riding about a mile, I met with a friend 
that knev/ me, and was surprised to see me so bloody, 
and went with me to Randal Mayling's (a faithful, honest 
friend, who was upwards of eighty years of age, and had 
suffered much for his profession of the truth in his young- 
er years) where several tender hearted, motherly women 
dressed my wounded eye. I was truly thankful to the 
Lord for his providence towards me in this deliverance, 
among many others, which he in his goodness hath vouch- 
safed to me. I stayed at the friend's house three nights 
and mended apace, and the friend accompanied me to my 
house at Frankfort, where my loving wife, with some 
surprise, received me very affectionately ; and through 
her care and continual application I recovered so that I 
could see pretty well with spectacles, which I was obliged 
to use for some months. Such accidents plainly shew us 
the necessity of preparing for sudden death, as we know 
not when, or how we may go off the stage of this life. 

On the 25th of the lifih month I received a letter fronni 
a person in the county of Burlington, relating to water- 
baptism, to which I .made answer as follows : 

" Thy lines I received last night, in the perusing 
of which, there was a christian love in my heart towards 
thee, though unknown by face, and I have much free- 
dom of mind to answer thine, according to thy request, 
and my small abilit} , First, then, we are near in senti, 
ments to each other in the grand christian principle of 
saving religion, which is the. work of the holy spirit of 
Christ upon the soul, for that is the baptism which is 
Christ's, and is truly saving, and absolutely necessary -to 
salvation ; Christ's baptism being but one which is with 
the Holy Ghost, and with spiritual fire or water ; John's 
being the element, or figure ; and Christ's being the spir- 
it, power, and divine substance, and is to be with the 
church of Christ, and with his true ministers to the end 
of the world. Secondly, in answer to thy query. Was 
water-baptism (that is, the element) not commanded by 


Christ himself, in Mat. xxviii. 19 ? I answer, I believe 
not. My reason is this, because the Holy Ghost, or 
spirit, is mentioned in the text, or that command, in ex- 
press words, and water is not ; and ther'efore we omit 
going into outward water, and for other reasons as fol- 
loweth. Thirdly, That water-baptism, which was John's, 
"Was practised by the apostles, is true ; but it was not 
practised by Christ, who, no doubt, would have done it 
if it had been absolutely necessary; for he disdained not 
to wash his disciples feet, a much more despicable office 
than that of the baptismal ceremony : so because Christ 
did not himself practise it, nor, as we conceive, com- 
manded us to go into material water, we therefore for- 
bear it. Fourthly, That the apostles did baptize with 
water, we deny not ; and that they were circumcised, and 
did circumcise, is also undeniable. Now, must we cir- 
cumcise because the apostles did, and were themselves 
circumcised ? consider that carefully, and I hope that 
will give thee some sight or light into, or concerning the 
dispensation of water- baptism, which was John's baptism, 
and was glorious in its day and dispensation, in pointing 
at Christ's baptism, until it came, which was the sub- 
stance, and was with spiritual fire, and spiritual water, 
and will continue for ever. To Christ, and his baptism, 
I heartily direct thee for further instruction, in whom is 
light, and that light is the life of men, or life, and that 
life the light of men. 

And further, I would write a little of my own thoughts 
concerning water-baptism, and on some texts of scrip- 
ture, being Christ's own words, viz. He that believeth, 
and is baptized, shall be saved and he that believeth not, 
shall be damned, or condemned, Mark xvi. 16. Now 
this must needs be understood of the spirit's baptism ; 
for it would be absurd to say, or believe, that all who 
are baptized with the element water, are saved, or all who 
are not baptized with water are damned ; therefore it is 
the spirit's baptism, that all professing Christianity ought 
to come unto, to witness salvation. Again, Christ says, 
except a man be born of water, and of the spirit, he can- 
not enter into the kingdom of God, or of Heaven, Mat. 


iii. 5. This divers will have to be a mixture of the ele- 
ment water, and of the spirit; but Christ says, It is the 
spirit that quickeneth, the flesh profiteth nothing. The 
words that I speak unto you. they are spirit, and they 
are life, JoJm vi. 63. And that which is born of the flesh, 
is flesh, and that which is born of the spirit, is spirit, 
John'in. 6. According to ^hich doctrine, 1 have faith to 
believe, that outward, fleshly, or elementary water-bap- 
tism, profits little or nothing to the soul. Again, why 
should the water in that place be understood of the ele- 
ment, any more than the fire in the other, viz. To be 
baptized with the Holy Ghost, and with fire, since Christ 
said. My words they are spirit and life. Remember the 
well of water that springs up to eternal life in the believ- 
ers : remember the water that Christ gave, whosoever 
drank of it was never to thirst more. This is all spiritual, 
which the carnal mind cannot comprehend or enjoy, but 
is witnessed by the spiritual man. And further, if we con- 
sider what confusion there is in the world about this water- 
baptism, it may wc^ll put a tender seeking soul upon fur- 
ther search into the nature of holy, saving baptism. The 
papists ha\ e one way ; the lutherans and calvanists anoth- 
er; the baptists, they have another ; and all diflfer so wide- 
ly, that, generally speaking, they will not worship togeth- 
er ; neither are they ever like to be reconciled, except they 
come to the holy spirit and divine power of Jesus, the good 
saviour and precious guide of souls. That saying of his 
hath often been a comfort to me in deep exercises and 
distresses of mind, when he said to his disciples. It is 
ex])edient for you that I go away ; for if I go not away, 
the Comforter will not come ; but if I go away, I will 
pray to the Father, and he will send the Comforter, the 
spirit of truth, in my name, and when he is come, he 
shall lead you, and guide you into all truth ; he shall 
take of mine, and give it unto you, and shall brhig all 
things to your remembrance, I have spoken unto 
you. And that he was to convince the world of sin ; 
and that he shall abide with you for ever. May the pre- 
cious gift of the spirit be given to thee, and to all true 
seekers of God, his Christ and kuigdom, is my real de- 


sire, and humble prayer to the Most High. [See the 
four evangelists for this promise, they not vvording it 

Havin,^ answered the most of thy letter, I would add 
a few lines more, viz. I have known some who could 
not be satisfied with words about this point ot baptism 
with water, until Christ had by his spirit given them 
satisfaction in themselves ; and as thou comes more and 
more into close communion with his grace and spirit in 
thy own soul, I hope thou also wilt have better satisfac- 
tion than that of words only. I have known some of the peo- 
ple called baptists, who have been convinced of the truth, 
according to our way and principle, to whom all the 
writing, and disputing, and reading, and preaching about 
this point, could never give ample satisfaction, until they 
had it inwardly and immediatel}- from Christ, manifested 
to them by his holy spirit in their hearts, as aforesaid. 
Though I would not be understood to be against satisfy- 
ing one another as much as lieth in our power, and as we 
find openness in the love of God and Christ. And fur- 
ther, I never understood that any of our society were ab- 
solutely against such practising of it, who could see no 
further, or did really think in their conscience, it was 
their duty so to do : but we believe, that we see beyond 
the figure or shadow, and are come to the substance, for 
the reasons mentioned, and many more which might be 
given. Several treatises have been written upon this 
subject, one of which is very full (before we were a peo- 
ple) by William Dell, a wise and learned man, and one 
who had a large sense of the power of God : and among 
us Barclay's Apology, and a treatise by John Gratton, 
who was a baptist preacher, and one by Joseph Pike : 
and also here is a little book of Thomas Upsher's (a bap- 
tist pFeacher before he came to join with us) which I 
send thee, with whom I was well acquainted, as also with 
those men who subscribed it. If thou applies thyself to 
Richard Smith, of Burlington, he is as likely as any I 
know to help thee to those books, all which are larger 
on the subject, and have given satisfaction to thousands 
about it : though some, as I have said, could never be 


satisfied with words. In reading tlie latter jiart of thy 
letter I was tenderly affected, and my prayers to the Al- 
mighty were, that he would please to direct thee by his 
power and spirit, and the grace of his dear Son, who 
hath said, He that cometh unto me, I will in no wise 
cast off. Now, tender friend, Christ is the true light, 
that lighteth every man that cometh into the world, by 
which light thou must walk to the kingdom and city of 
God. He is the door into the true sheep-fold : he is the 
truth, in whom thou must believe : he is the divine life 
and light of the soul : he is the true christian's all in all. 
And, as the kingdom is within (as said Christ) so the 
king is within, and without also. He is God, omnipo- 
tent, omniscient, omnipresent, the immortal Jehovah, and 
is God over all, blessed for ever. And, as a servant of 
his, I recommend thee, with my own soul, unto him for 
preservation and divine direction ; for it is the great 
work of Christ's true ministers and servants, to direct 
the seeking,' travelling souls, to him ; to whom with the 
Father, and the eternal spirit, be glory, now and ever- 
more. Amen. 

From thy assured friend in Christ, 


The person to whom I wrote this letter, some time 
after informed me, it gave him great satisfaction. 

After I had stayed at home some time, and pretty v/ell 
recovered of the hurt I had by my fall, 1 visited some 
meetings about home, as Philadelphia, Abington, and 
German town. In several of those meetings I was con- 
cerned to exhort friends, as our meetings and worship 
"Was, in this province of Pennsylvania, a kind of national 
worship, to beware that they did not indulge themselves 
in the sins of the nations, but to be careful to keep to 
the holy, self-denying life of Jesus. 

On the 5th of the 6th month, between the hours of 
nine and ten at night, there was an earthquake, which 
divers people were very sensible of ; and about this time 


many were taken off with a violent fever ; and I was con- 
cerned in several meetings to put the people in mind of 
their mortality, and shortness of time here ; and also of 
the uncertainty of it, and of the necessity of speedy prep- 
aration for their final change and future well-being. In 
the aforesaid month I was at our youth's meeting in Phil- 
adelphia, where I was concerned to advise parents to do 
justly to their children, in the divers relations of a child's 
state ; to be just in correction, and to be sure to give 
them learning, and train them up in reading of the holy 
scriptures, they being able, through faith in Christ, to 
make us wise to salvation. 1 also was earnest in exhor- 
tation to the youth, to obey and honour their parents, and 
to have a care not to be disobedient to their fathers and 
mothers, I had a concern also to remind that large con- 
gregation, that the Almighty had stretched out his arm 
of power, with his rod, and had given the people of this land 
three strokes therewith, as a gentle admonition towards 
heart-preparation, to meet him, and to prepare for their 
latter end, or final dissolution : which were first, a sick- 
ness, or pestilential fever, which carried off many of the 
people. Secondly, an earthquake, of which divers in 
town and country were very sensible. Thirdly, a ter- 
rible whirlwind, such as we never before heard of in this 
land, that I remember. They were admonished to take 
particular and special notice of those gentle strokes of 
the divine hand, for if he pleased, he could as soon take 
away many by sickness, as a few, and if he pleased could 
have made us a desolation, as well as the country about 
mount ^tna, or Port- Royal, in Jamaica, not very far 
from us ; and he could also blow us away with a whirl- 
wind of his wrath, and could as easily have blown down 
all our city, as those few houses in the country. 

Next day after this meeting I went with John Rodman 
to the quarterly general meeting of worship in the county 
of Chester, which was large and satisfactory. 

The 25th of the sixth month I was at the burial of 
the wife of Richard Wain, a virtuous and good woman. 
Some of her last words were, *' Some men's sins go be- 
tbre-hand to judgment, and some follow after them ; and 


tliat her sins were gone before, which was a great com- 
fort to her, now she was going to leave the world." It 
ivds a large meeting, and a seasonable opportnnity that 
we had at the funeral, llie people were called upon to 
work, while it was called to-day, because, as our Saviour 
s'aid, the night cometh, wherein no man can work. 

In this and the Ibregoing year, I met with various tri- 
als and exercises : as first, great inward poverty and want. 
Secondly, great losses in outward affairs. And thirdly, 
the evil spirits of divers stirred up against me, to report 
falsehoods concerning me, with many other sore exer- 
cises both inward and outward. As to the first, I had 
often been tried that way, and foimd b}' experience, that 
I must wait upon God m} Saviour for fresh and renew- 
ed visitations from above ; in which exercise, I had al- 
ways, in the Lord's time, comfort from him, as by the 
same exercise I had now the same comfort also ; but I 
thought it very long, and the enemy did greatly endeav- 
our to break in upon my patience now more than usual : 
but ni} heart still depended in faith and hope upon the 
Lord, ni} Redeemer and Saviour, and in his time he was 
pleased to help me, blessed be his holy arm and power 
for ever ! Many blessed saints and servants of Jesus were 
brought to my mind, who were in the like condition, so 
that I had a secret joy in their company (who met with 
the like in their travels to the holy city). Secondly, as 
to my outward losses, I thought with myself, peradven- 
ture it might be best for me : and I remembered that many, 
through the increase of outward riches, were exceeding- 
ly hurt as to their inward state ; and though I (or any 
good man) might be concerned for our children, to get 
and leave something for them, yet I plainly saw, that gen- 
erally speaking, much riches doth much hurt to youth. 
This was a melancholly observation that I had made in 
my life and travels, and I see at this day, that it is an 
miiversal distemper (a very few excepted) ; wherefore I 
cried mightily to God that he would give to me and 
mine, the gift of his grace and holy spirit, whatever our 
circumstances might be in the world. In this also I saw 
that patience was an excellent virtue, and that the meek 


had the best inheritance of the earth, if they had ever so 
little of it ; and that true happiness did not consist in 
earthly things, which my experience had largely taught 
me. And thirdly, as to the base and evil treatment 1 
met with (which was more than I had ever met with in all 
my life before) great endeavours were used to lessen my 
re]:)utation, as a man, and a christian ; all which proved 
false and fruitless, and in due time my innocence was 
made manifest ; and I considered that they could not 
use me worse than they had done my Lord and Master, 
and that the devil was angry with any who endeavoured 
to dethrone him and pull down his kingdom, at the foun- 
dation of which, through the help of my Master, I had 
many a stroke or blow, with such weapons as he was 
pleased to furnish me withal. 

The last of the sixth month, and the 1st of the seventh 
month, was the quarterly and youth's meeting at Bur- 
lington, at both of which, I was. At the quarterly meet- 
ing I was concerned to open to that meeting, how all 
along the church of God was governed by his spirit, in 
the time of the law, and Moses was an instrument there- 
in ; and that when it was too hard, and too much work 
for Moses, he was advised to get the help and assistance 
of the elders ; and that the same power and spirit of 
God that was with and upon Moses, was upon the elders 
who assisted him in the affairs of the church, and con- 
gregation of the Lord's people ; so that it was governed 
by God's spirit, and is to be governed by the same still, 
and not by the will of man, nor according to the will of 
man, in his corrupt nature. And when Israel went from 
God's power and spirit, the Lord left them, but at last 
sent to them his only begotten son, our dear Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ ; and he was, and ever is, to be 
governor of his church, through his holy s])irit, which 
he told his disciples, he would pray the Father, and he 
should send unto them, the Comforter, the Holy Ghost, 
or Spirit, the Spirit of Truth, and he should abide with 
them for ever, and should lead and guide them into all 
truth ; which sweet a d precious promises that he made 
to them, the true believers do witness to be fulfilled at 


this day. Glory to his name for ever, he is the wonder- 
ful Counsellor, mighty Saviour, and Prince of Peace ! 
of whose peace and government there shall never be an 
end, and upon whose shoulder the government is to be 
for ever, for whose power and holy spirit, friends were 
exhorted to pray and wait, and to be sensible of it in the 
discipline and government of the church now in this 
gospel day, in which is a brighter manifestation of God's 
love, through his Son, than in the time of the law. The 
y(>uth's meeting was also large, and divers testimonies 
were borne, b} way of exhortation and counsel to the 
y( uth. They were with much tenderness advised to 
ta]<e counsel of their elders, and were shewn how it fared 
wiih some young men, who slighted the advice and coun- 
sel of the elders ; and that one, when on a dying bed, 
cried out in the bitterness and agonies of his spirit, " Oh ! 
that I had taken the counsel and advice of my friends, for 
then I not been here, nor in this condition." Youth 
were advised to beware of keeping bad company, and 
spending their precious time in taverns, which hath un- 
done many fair and promising youths ; and it was shewn, 
how a young man might cleanse his ways, by taking heed 
thereto, according to the word of God, which liveth and 
abideth for ever, imd which the holy scriptures proceeded 
from ; and they were earnestly exhorted to read and prac- 
tise what was written therein. And a very tender time 
we had in prayer to God, through his dear Son, to pre- 
serve us all in his fear, both youth and aged ; and so our 
meeting broke up, and we parted in the sweet love of 
God, and his Christ our holy Saviour. 

My troubles in the world, and in the things of it, be- 
ing many, and my outward losses being great ; as also 
was my inward poverty of mird and spirit, I took my 
pen, and wrote one day as followeth : *' Oh ! if it be 
right in the sight of God, how do I long to be uncloth- 
ed of this frail and mortal body, that my soul and spirit 
might mount up into the ethereal plains, and repose it- 
self in the vast expanding arms of its Maker and most 
sweet Saviour for ever." 


Being at and near home some time after I came from 
Burlington, I visited the meetings of German-town and 
Philadelphia, which were large, and some good sense of 
truth was in the hearts of divers. I was concerned at that 
meeting at Philadelphia to let the people know, that as 
God had blessed the people of that city, and the province, 
with spiritual and temporal blessing, and made the land, 
naturally fruitful, to the enriching many of the inhabit- 
ants, he now expected fruits from them of piety and vir- 
tue ; and that if there was not a stricter walking with 
God in Christ Jesus, they might expect his divine hand, 
which had visited them with favours from heaven above, 
and from the earth beneath, would visit them with a rod 
in it, and that he had already given them some gentle 
strokes therewith. 

Our yearly meeting was this year at Burlington, for 
the provinces of New-Jersey and Pennsylvania, the ser- 
vice of which our quarterly meeting appointed me, with 
divers others, to attend. It was a large and comfortable 
meeting, and many went home thankful to the holy name 
of God and Christ, that they were there. 

I shall end the second part of the journal of my life 
and travels, when I have transcribed part of a letter which 
my dear father wrote me, when eighty odd years of age, 
he having been a minister of Christ above forty years, 
which folio weth. 

*' Loving Son, Thomas Chalkley, 

*' Thine, d^ted ili*^ 1 1th of the tenth month, 
1723, I received, and was very glad to hear of your 
welfare, and that -Lhe Lord hath given you children : 
and I pray the Almighty God, that he may preserve 
them with you, that they may be a comfort to you in 
your latter days ; and that if the Lord may be pleased to 
continue them with you, that they may, as they grow in 
days, grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ ; and that the Lord may be 
pleased to preserve us all to the end of those few days 


we may have in ihis world, that then we mav lay down 
our heads in peace, and in the full assurance of everlast- 
ing blessedness for ever and evermore. 

I bless the Lord that he hath preserved me sensible of 
his blessed and holy spirit, whereby my understanding is 
indifferent clear and well, considering my age ; and the 
Lord in his great and loving kindness I do feel to help me 
to my great satisfaction, in my little service for him. 

Having this opportunity by a friend of your town, was 
willing to let you hear of our welfare and health. I an^ 
in as good health at present as I have been for many years, 
and can make a shift to go over London- bridge, and to the 
meeting at Aldersgate, and to the Peel-meeting, from my 
house in Shad-'^J'hames. And the Lord hath been pleased 
to be with me now in my poor, aged condition. 

So, dear son, my dear love to thee and thine, and to 
friends that may inquire after us. Divers friends give 
their love to thee, whose names I cannot remember. 

With repeated love to you all, I rest thy aged, and, 
thereby, through pain, afflicted father, 


" Soufhwark, London^ 5th of&th Months 1724." 

" P. S. Thy brother George, his love is to you all ; and 
I desire thee to let us hear of you as opportunity may 

To see my dear father's hand- writing, now he was 
above four-score years of age, was very affecting to me; 
and the more, because I expected it might be his last, — 
which it was. The answer T sePt to my dear father's 
letter is as followeth. 

" Frankfort, 22dof%th Month, 1724. 

" My dear Father, 

" Thine, per James Wilkins, I received with 
joy, and vvas greatly comforted to hear that thou wast 
yet alive ; and especially that tliou art favoured, now in 


thy old age, with a sense of the gift of God, through the 
holy spirit of his dear Son, our blessed Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ. 

The reading of thine, did mightily refresh and tender 
my heart and spirit, not expecting maay more such epis- 
tles from thee, by reason of thy great age. tJut, mv ver}^ 
dear and truly honoured father, if we should never hear 
from, nor see one another more in mutability, yet are 
we, while here on earth, as living epistles, in one anoth- 
er's hearts, wrote by the finger, or hand of God. I have 
hope also, that we shall meet where we shall never part 
more, in the glorious kingdom of God and his Christ. 

We are all in good health, I humbly thank the Lord, 
and if it be his will, should rejoice to hear that these find 
thee (my tender and loving father, with my dear brother 
and sister, and all my loving cousins, and our friends in 
general) in like health. I desire to know exactly, thy age 
m thy next, if thou art able to write to me, and if thou 
lives where thou did formerly, or with brother or cousin, 
which will be very acceptable to me. 

Thus with unspeakable love from self and wife, to thee, 
my dear and aged father, and all relations and friend^, 

I remain, 

Thy loving and dutiful son, 










In this year, 1724, I met with various trials, afflictions, 
and tribulations ; and had not the secret hand of the 
Lord, which I felt underneath, bore up my spirit from 
sinking, I think, I could never have waded through them. 
I was now removed, as already related, into the coun- 
try, for retirement, which I greatly loved and delighted 
in ; but as soon as I was a little settled there, the ene- 
my of all good endeavoured to disquiet my repose, by 
stirring up some bad people against me, who lived near, 
and in time past had fawned upon me : and, to add to my 
afflictions, I lost a vessel, in which, I suppose, I had up- 
wards of five hundred pounds ; and another vessel came 
in almost a wreck, in which I suffered in my interest sev- 
eral hundreds more, and a third I heard of, in which I 
had the like loss ; and about the same time I had also a 
good new barn burned to the ground in a few minutes, so 
that I was exceedingly stripped that way : and to add yet 
more to my exercise, I was sorely afflicted with sickness, 
having a swelling in my jaws, mouth, and throat, to that 
degree, that I could neither speak nor swallow for some 



time, nor eat nor sleep for about seven days, as I remcna- 
bcr, without great difficulty. What the distemper was, we 
Gould not be certain. Some supposed it to be the quinsey, 
others an imposthume ; also my little and only daughter 
at the same time was likel}' to die ; and as tor my own 
part, I was very willing to go, if it so pleased God ; for 
I saw through the deceit of the world, and that the friend- 
ship of it was not permanent ; and in my sore afflictions 
in body, mind, and interest, it fared with me as with Job, 
for divers of my pretended friends added to my afflictions 
by undue reflections; whom I pray the Lord to forgive 
for his Son's sake ! At these times, the remembrance of 
that saying of Christ, that the very hairs of your head are 
ntimbered, Mat. x. 30. at times supported me in hopes, 
that all would work together for good. 

When I got a little well, so that I could go to meet- 
ings, I went to Germantown, Abington, Philadelphia, and 
Darby. My first going abroad was to Philadelphia, 
where, on a first day, we had a large meeting, and di- 
vers things were opened in my mind. I told them they 
had Moses and the prophets, and Jesus Christ, who was 
arisen from the dead : for neither death, hell, nor the 
grave, could detain the Lord of Life and Glory. And I 
was opened to declare to them, that they had a great ad- 
vantage of the coming of Christ, not only in his appear- 
ance at Jerusalem, but as he came to, and spoke to the 
heart, by his inward and spiritual appearance ; and that 
this gospel dispensation was by his coming, made more 
conspicuous, bright, and glorious, than that which went 
before. Friends were very glad to see me abroad again 
(they having expected daily to hear I was dead) and there 
was tenderness over the meeting, and God over all, 
through his dear Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, was praised 
and glorified, who is worthy for ever. 

In this year two sober young women, Elizabeth Levis 
and Jane Fenn, were concerned to visit friends in the 
island of Barbadoes, and they meeting with some dis- 
couragement, in christian love, I wrote them the follow- 
ilig letter to encourage them in the work of Christ. 


" Frankfort, \st ofVlth month, 1724-5. 

*' My dear Friends, 

*' Elizabeth Levis, and Jane Fenn, 

" Understanding by our friend, Grace Lloyd, 
that you have proposed your intention of visiting those 
few friends in the island of Barbadoes, and that you meet 
with some discouragement inwardly and outwardly, there- 
fore it is in my mind to comfort and strengthen you in so 
great and good an undertaking, and honourable work, as 
is that of the cause of Christ, who, for our sakes, crossed 
himself abundantly beyond expression, more than is pos- 
sible for us to do for his sake, or the sake of his people, 
whom we may so entirely love, as to lay down our lives 
for his and their sakes. But what is our lives to the life 
of the only begotten Son of God ? And truly, we must 
give them up often, if we have the cause of souls at heart ; 
and then he often gives them to us again, glory to his 
holy name for ever \ As Christ said. He that will save 
his life, shall lose it, and he that will lay down his life 
for my sake and the gospel, shall find it ; which reach- 
eth your case in this undertaking. And, indeed, some of 
our lives, in our own sense, are hardly worth mentioning, 
considering the cause of Christ. 

And, dear children of our heavenly Father, I may, 
through some good experience, truly inform you, that 
there is much openness in many people on that island, 
and good encouragement I have had, from above, in 
my visiting the people there ; though, true it is, the in- 
habitants, too generally, are luxurious, and much given 
to vanity: yet I have this seal in my heart, that the Lord 
hath a seed in that place who desires to serve him, and 
that seed will surely join with you in your exercise, and 
you will be comforted one in another, and in the Lord. 
And that there are differences among them, is also true ; 
but they have the more need of being visited by such, 
who are, through their wise conduct and healing dispo- 
sition, likely to heal those breaches which are, or may be 
among them. Some, indeed, have gone among them^ 


and have done hurt, by a rash and turbulent way of man- 
agement, and by so doing, have rather made the breaches 
wider, than by a meek and loving, as well as lowly dis- 
position, lessened their differences and healed them. 

And, tender friends, though it may seem hard for you 
in several considerations, to give up to go to sea, and also 
to divers who love you, and are nearly related to you, 
know ye, and such so concerned, that the Lord is strong- 
er than the noise of many waters, and than the mighty 
Xvaves of the sea. And Ideally believe that you, as well as 
my soul, with the servants of Christ, have, and will expe- 
rience it to be so, as David did, whose words they are. 

I remember the words of our great Lord and Master, 
Jesus, when he sent forth his servants to preach his word 
and gospel ; "I send you forth as lambs among wolves." 
No question but you, like innocent lambs, before your 
return (if it please God to give you to us again) may meet 
with the wolf's spirit, or the spirit of the beast, in some 
or others among whom you may travel ; then will the 
counsel of Christ, added to his commission, be good for 
you to keep close to : " Be ye wise as serpents, but in- 
nocent or harmless as doves." 

And, dear maidens, I look upon it as your cross is 
great, you being two innocent, chaste young women, to 
give up your names to cross the sea, which I know is a 
great cross to a chaste woman, or man either, the seamen, 
too generally, being rude, dissolute people ; so your 
crown will be great also. I have known that by keeping 
near to Christ, and his truth and power, there hath iDcen 
a wonderful reformation divers times in several of those 
rude seamen ; and some have been so far convinced, as 
to be exceedingly kind, and to speak well of friends and 
their conversation, when it has been coupled with the 
fear and wisdom of God. When I have gone to sea, I 
always found a religious and christian concern upon me, 
for the poor sailors, the good effects of which have been 
much more than I may speak of; but give this little hint 
for your encouragement and information. 

Well, dear souls, if you go, I believe the Lord will 
go with you ; and sure I am, that my spirit will go along 


with you, which will not hurt you, if it do you no good. 
And ahhough my exercises and tribulations of late have 
been very great, both sjiiritual and natural, yet my very 
heart within me affects the cause of Christ, according to 
the best of my understanding ; and I heartily wish well to 
all my fellow labourers, who afe faithful, painful servants 
of Christ, and disinterested, except as to the interest 
which they desire in Christ and his kingdom, for the 
sake of which, they love not their lives unto death. 

I must now take leave, after putting you in mind of 
remembering me, your poor friend and brother, when 
before the throne you are supplicating the Father of Mer- 
cies in secret, even as my heart is tenderly bowed and 
broken into tears on your behalf at this time. The Lord 
be with you, and sanctify the present exercise and con- 
cern that is upon you, and }'OU to himself, with all the 
faithful lovers and followers of the Lamb, " through his 
word, whose word is truth." I am your friend and broth- 
er, in the fellowship of the gospel of Christ Jesus, our 
great Lord and good Master ; and blessed are all those, 
who, by their tearing to offend him, manifest him to be 
their Master, and by their honouring him, manifest him to 
be their Lord. 


Ifi the twelfth month I went to the quarterly meeting of 
friends, held at Providence, for Chester county, for dis- 
cipline and worship ; which meeting \vas large, and a 
concern came upon friends at that meeting to suppress ex- 
cess in eating and drinking, and great entertainments at 
marriages and funerals, and spending time idly in tippling 
houses ; as also in several other things for the well-order- 
ing our society, in which appeared great love and unanim- 
ity. The people were reminded of God's love to them 
in this land, and many favours were recounted to them, 
which he had favoured the inhabitants of the land with, 
which were very singular, and that he expected they 
should bring forth fruits that might be answerable to the 
labours of love, which the Lord had bestowed upon them. 


About this time I had it in my mind to write to one 
who was conscientiously concerned to preach the gospel 
of Christ, but was under great exercise on that occa- 

'' Frankfort, 2Uh of \2th Month, 1724-5'. 

'' My Friend, 

" Since I last saw thee and conversed with thee, 
thou hast often been in my mind, and thy exercise has 
come belbre me ; and not having an opportunity to con- 
verse with thee personally, I take this way of communi- 
cating my mind, hoping, in Christ, thou wilt reap some 
satisfaction and advantage thercb}-. I think I know thou 
art concerned for Christ's cause, as also was that emi- 
nent minister Apollos, yet was instructed more perfectly 
by good Acjuila and Priscilla. The sul^ject on which I 
have it in my mind to write to thee, is the ministry of the 
gospel of Christ Jesus, which I believe to be very differ- 
ent from that Avhich it is generally taken for, in most 
parts of the world, by many professing Christianity. 
First, the greatest part of Christendom, so called, calls 
and elects their ministers themselves, and will not call 
them unless they have school-learning, although Christ 
called and chose imlearned men, as to that sort of learn- 
ing, and the apostles were called, " Not according to 
the will of man, but by the revelation of Christ Jesus." 
And Christ thanked his Father that " He had revealed 
the mysteries of his kingdom to babes and sucklings." 
And the wise Jews, the Scribes and Pharisees, admired 
at the apostles, who so wonderfully preached Christ, and 
were so wonderfully carried forth in their ministry, and 
yet few of them were men of learning ; so that the call, 
election, and wages of Christ's ministers, are spiritual, and 
not carnal; and, therefore, their ministry is with divine 
life and power, by which they are qualified for this ser- 
vice, without either study or premeditation : though it is 
not denied, that Christ mav shew a minister beforehand, 


what he shall, or is to speak, at such a time or place, as 
he may see meet ; but that studying or writing sermons, 
and afterwards preaching, or rather reading them to the 
people, was, or is, the practice of the true minister of 
Jesus, our great Lord and Master, is denied ; of which, 
I do believe, thou hast a real sense. 

I shall impart to thee something of my own experi- 
ence for thy edification in this great work, viz. As in 
the work of conversion, or re2:eneration, there is a growth 
and increase from the state of a child to that of a man in 
Christ, so in the work of the ministry, or preaching the 
gospel, there is also a growth from a babe to an able 
minister, in all which the power and grace of the Holy 
Spirit nmst be our guide, our help, and support, keeping 
close to which we shall increase in divine wisdom and 
sound judgment, and our hearts and understandings will 
be more and more opened and enlarged. The apostle 
Paul said, " When I was a child, I spake as a child, un- 
derstood as a child, and thought as a child ;" and yet he 
was an excellent child of God, and minister of Christ, and 
as he grew in his gift, and Christ's grace, he became a 
wonderful serviceable instrument in the hand of God. 
Now a child's state in the ministry is too much overlook- 
ed by niany, some thinking to be men as soon as they 
are brought forth into the ministry ; and, according to 
my observation, divers have been at a loss, and some 
quite lost, for want of a patient continuing in well-doing, 
and not waiting to feel a growth and increase from 
above, have gone on in their own strength and will, per- 
haps against the advice and instruction of a sound and 
honest Aquila and Priscilla, and have been hurt ; and 
some, who had received a gift, have had that same gift 
taken from them, even by the Lord, who gave it them. 

As I take it, a true minister of Christ, is to take no 
thought what to say, but it will be given him in the same 
hour that which he should speak to the people, (that is, in 
a general way) and if it is not given from above, I believe 
he or she ought to be silent ; for they receive freely, if 
they do receive any thing from Christ, and so they ought 
freely to administer ; and where little is given,- little is re- 


quired, all which is plain from Christ's own words in the 
New Testament ; and Christ's cross is to be taken up by 
his ministers in their preaching, as well as in their con- 

It is a practice which the holy scriptures have not 
acquainted us with, that the ministers of Christ should 
take a verse, or a line, out of the holy scriptures, and 
write, or study, beforehand, a discourse on it, and preach 
it, or rather read it, to the people. The hoiy men of old 
(as we read both in the Old and New Testament), spoke 
as they were moved by the Holy Ghost, and by it they 
were gifted for the convincing, converting, and reform- 
ing tiie world, and for comforting and edif) ing of the 
saints, quite contrary to the latter practice of modern 
reading divines, who dispute, write, and preach, against 
the immediate and divine revelation of the spirit of 
Christ, and therefore can not be of his ministers, but 
must be the ministers of antichrist, and ministers of 
the letter, and not of the spirit of Christ, or of his 
gospel. And where the apostle says, " When I was 
a child, I spake as a child," I take him to point at 
the being brought forth newly into the work of the 
ministry, as well as the work of conversion, and that 
he useth those expressions by way of comparison, and 
therefore I compare it thus : a child when it first begins 
or ventures to speak, he speaks but a few words, and 
those stammering sometimes, and its judgment is weak, 
and must be put upon speaking by his father over and 
over, if he be a backward child ; otherwise, if he be for- 
ward, and speaks too much, he is curbed by a wise fa- 
ther : and thus, according to my observation, it hath 
pleased our heavenly Father to histruct his children in 
the ministry, and as a child in Christ, I would speak a 
little of my experience unto the child, or children of God. 
When I first felt a necessity on me to preach the gospel, 
I had but a few sentences to deliver, in great fear and 
tenderness, with some trembling, with which my breth- 
ren were generally satisfied and edified ; and after some 
time I felt a concern to preach the gospel in other coun- 
tries, and to other nations, than that in which I was born, 


which to me was a very great cross ; but feeling the wo 
of the Lord to follow me in not giving up to it, I in some 
time took that cross up, for Christ's sake and the gos- 
pel's: and in taking it up, I experienced the truth of the 
apostle's doctrine, that " the gospel of Christ is the 
power of God unto salvation, to every one that believ- 
eth." Rom, i. 16. Thus, through a continual labour 
and spiritual travel, I witnessed a growth in experience, 
and an enlargement in expressions and heavenly doctrine; 
and my heart was mightily enlarged to run the ways of 
God's commandments, and divers were convinced, and 
some, I hope, thoroughly converted, and many comfort- 
ed, and God, through the ministry of his dear Son, glori- 
fied, who is thereof only worthy for ever. 

In all which I have nothing to boast of nor glory in, 
saving in the cross of Christ ; for what is Paul, or Apol- 
los, or Cephas but an instrument? (I would not be under- 
stood to compare with those apostles, but to endeavour to 
follow them as they followed Christ). Christ is all in 
all : he is the great teacher of teachers, and the highest 
schoolmaster of all : and he says, " He that will be my 
disciple, must first deny himself, and take up his cross, 
and follow me." 

We do not find any where in the New Testament, 
that Christ's ministers or messengers were only to speak 
or preach to one meeting of people, or that they were 
called or hired by men ; for then it would have been 
necessary that man should pay them ; but Christ says, 
" Freely you have received, freely give ; and go forth," 
&c. iI/«>. xxviii. 19, 20. 

And, my friend, I find to this day, that it is safe for me 
when I am ministering to the people ; when the spring of 
divine life and power, from which sound truths and edi- 
fying matter springs and flows into the heart or under- 
standing, abates or stops, to stop with it, and sit down, 
and not to arise, or speak publicly to the people, without 
some spiritual impulse or moving, and openings. 

I would have this taken no otherwise, but as one friend 
and brother opening his state and condition to another 
for edification, and the strengthening each other in Christ. 



And, as I fear lest I should exceed the bounds of a let- 
ter, therefore shall conclude thy real friend in Jesus 
Christ, T. CHALKLEY." 

The 25th of the twelfth month I was at the burial of 
the wife of Randal Si^ikenian. It being our tifth day 
meeting, divers sober people were there not of our per- 
suasion and I \vi s drawn forth to speak to the people of 
the death ot Christ and his merits, and to shew them that 
there is no mei it in the works of man, as he is man, or in 
a formal righteousness or holiness. 

In our yearly meeting at Burlington, it was agreed that 
the families of friends should be visited, and soon after 
our monthly meeting appoini.ed me, with other friends, 
to visit the families of friends of uur meeting ; in which 
visitation, many were comforted and edified, Ijoth youth 
and aged ; and Ave could truly say, tliat the power and 
grace of God, and the sweet love of Chris , accompanied 
us from house to house, to ou; mutiiai comibrt ; and we 
were so extraordinarily opened and guided to speak to 
the states of the people in their families, that were un- 
known and strangers to us, that sometimes some of rliLiTi 
were ready to diink that we sj)oke by information, m hen 
in truth we were clear of any such thing, and only spoke 
from what was immediately given to us, without any in- 
formation from man or woman; which to us was some- 
times very wonderful, and caused us to praise the great 
name of the Lord. 

In the first month, the general meeting, at Philadelphia, 
was a solid good meetiiig, and ended in a sense of grace 
and truth, which comes b} Jesus Christ . Next day, being 
our week-day meeting, our dear friends, Elizabeth Levis 
and Jane Fenn, took leave of us, they intending for the 
island of Barbadoes ; and it was such a parting-meeting 
that will not soon be forgotten by some of us then pres- 

After this meeting, I ^^ cnt to Bu'lington, to visit one 
that was sick, and under some ti-ouble of mind for going 


astray, and greatly desired to come into the right way, 
with whom I had a good seasonable meeting, to her 
comfort, and my own satisfaction. Upon this visit I 
would remark, that it is a great pity, that youth, when in 
health and strength, should put off the work of their sali- 
vation, and forget the Most High, till either sickness or 
death overtake them. And then. Oh ! the bitter piercing 
cries and groans, and terrible agonies the soul is in, 
which, by timely repentance, and amendment of life, 
might be avoided. 

I was afterwards at meetings at Philadelphia, Merion, 
Germantown, &c. and had some service and satisfaction 
therein. And on the second of the second month, the 
friend whom I visited, as above, was buried, and the re- 
lations of the deceased sent for me to the burial. The 
person being well-beloved^ there was a large appearance 
of peo[)le of clivers persuasions, and we hud an opportu- 
nity at this funeral to exhort the people to live so as that 
they might die well ; and that the way to die in the favour 
of God, was to live in his fear ; and charity to those who 
dissent from one another was pressingly recommended 
from the apostle's words, that, " If we had faith to re- 
move mountains, and to give all our goods to the poor, 
and our bodies to be burned, yet if we wanted charity, 
we were but like sounding brass, and a tinkling cym- 
bal." 1 Cor. xiii. 1, 2, 3. And also our belief of the 
'doctrine of the resurrection of the dead was asserted, in 
contradiction to that gross calumny cast on our society of 
denying it. 

The latter end of the second month, i was at a mar- 
riage at Horsham, at which was present William Keith, 
our governor, and I was concerned to speak of the end of 
that great ordinance, and of the happiness of those mar- 
ried persons who fulfil the covenants they make in mar- 
riage, and what strength and comfort the man is to the 
woman, and the woman to the man, \vhen they keep their 
covenants, and that they are the contrary when they 
break them : and I also opened the methods prescribed 
by our discipline, to be observed in marriages, and our 
care to prevent any clandestine marriages amongst us. 


After this meeting, I returned home, without going to 
the marriage dinner, as I generally avoided such enter- 
tainments as much as I could, having no life in, or liking 
to them, being sensible that great companies and prepara- 
tions at weddings were growing inconveniences among 
lis, the which I was conscientiously concerned to dis- 
courage. And a few da} s after my return home, at our 
meeting at Frankfort, I was concerned particularly to 
exhort friends to keep to plainness in language, dress, &.c. 
according to the examples given us in the holy scrip- 
tures, particularly that of Daniel and his companions ; 
and to caution against vain and indecent fashions, which, 
with concern, I have observed to prevail too much 
among some who make profession Avith us. 

In this second month I went to the yearly meeting of 
friends at Salem, and by the way had two meetings at 
Woodberry-creek. At Salem we had a large meeting, 
and our gracious Lord was with us, to the bowing many 
hearts before him, and many testimonies were given of 
the goodness, love, mercy, and grace of God, and his 
dear Son, our Lord Jesus Christ. From Salem wc trav- 
elled to AUoway's creek and Cohansie, and from thence 
to Elsinburgh, and ferried over the river Delaware, with 
our horses, to George's-creek, and had meetings at all 
those places. At George's-creek, one, not a friend, came 
to me after meeting, and said, he thanked me for my ad- 
vice and counsel, and seemed heartily affected with the 
doctrine of Christ. From George's-creek we travelled to 
Nottingham, and had a large meeting on a first day, and 
another, very large, on the second day, where were many 
people of divers persuasions. The house could not con- 
tain us, so that we met in an orchard. A solid meeting 
it was ! wherein the mighty power of the Creator was 
declared of, as also the divinity of Christ, and his man- 
hood, and the people were exhorted to be careful of 
forming any personal ideas of the Almighty ; for the 
holy scriptures do plainly manifest, that God is a won- 
derful, infinite, eternal spirit, and therefore is to be wor- 
shipped in spirit and in truth, and outward representations 
of the Lord Jehovah borders too much on idolatry. 


Pretty much was delivered on that head ; and I was told, 
after meeting, that diAers papists were there, though I 
knew nothing of it. From Nottingham I went to New- 
castle, had a meeting there, and then visited a sick friend, 
with which he expressed much satisfaction ; and then 
went on to the Center, Kennet, and Marlborough, and so 
to the monthly meeting at New-Garden, where we had a 
large open meeting, wherein was sliewn, that those \\'ho 
meddled with our discipline, in the will, nature, spirit, 
and wisdom of man only, could do but little service, and 
that our discipline, as also our worship and ministry, 
ought to be pciformed in the wisdom and power of God, 
through the grace and spirit of Christ. From New- 
Garden, we went to Birmingham, had a large meeting, 
and I was much draAvn forth to the youth, of whom many 
were there. From Birmingham we went to the quarterly 
meeting for discipline and worship at Concord, in Ches- 
ter county, which was lai'ger than I had ever seen there 
before. In the quarterly meeting of discipline, friends 
were exhorted to keep to the cross of Christ, and to 
speak to matters in the fear of God, and to avoid and shun 
as much as in them lay, self-will, humour, pride, and 
passion ; shewing that the rough, crooked, unhewn, un- 
polished nature of man, could never work the righteous- 
ness of God, and is contrary to the meek, self-denying 
life of Jesus. John Salkeld and Jacob Howell then sig- 
nified that they were going to visit friends on Long-Island 
and Rhode- Island, the sense of the call, labour, and 
work of the ministry of the gospel, and of the love of 
Christ, in the freeness of it, to mankind, took some 
good hold on divers in that meeting, and the great name 
of God, and his dear Son, through the holy spirit, was 

From this meeting I came home (having been out on 
this journey near three weeks, at twenty meetings, and 
travelled more than two hundred miles) and found my 
wife and children in health, and we rejoiced to see each 
other ; but my rejoicing was in fear, even almost to 
trembling, lest I should be too much lifted up, when 
things were agreeable to n\c. 


After my return home, I went to seAeral neighbouring 
meetings, and on a filili da} was at Philadeli)hia, at the 
marriage ofRiehard Sniith and Elizabeth Powelh The 
meeting was large, and the marriage solemnly celebrat- 
ed, and'the people were earnestly entreated to love Christ 
above all, and 'o manifest that love by keeping his com- 
m<indments, and that not in show or words only, but in 
the heart and affections. 

About the latter end of the third month, I went to the 
quarterlv meeting of ministers and elders for the county 
of Burlington ; and from thence to Stony -brook ; where, 
on a first day, we had a large meeting in Joseph Worth's 
barn, which was crowded with people, and was a solid, 
good meeting. From Ston} -brook I went to Cross- 
wi( ks and was at their youth's meeting, which was the 
largest I had ever seen in that place : I told them they 
might say as the sons of the prophets did, that " the 
pkiee was too straight for them," and advised them to en- 
large it. I was glad to see such a large appearance of 
sober people, and so great an increase of youth, in this 
wilderness of America, and exhorted them to live in the 
fear ol God, that his blessings might still be continued 
to them ; and an exercise was on my mind for the wel- 
fare of the young peo]:)le, to show them the danger of 
sin and vanity, and of keeping ill company, and follow- 
ing bad counsel ; and that the young king, Rehoboara 
(Solomon's son) lost the greatest part of his father's king- 
dom by following the company and counsel of vain 
young men ; and that many young men in this age had 
lost and spent the estates their fathers had left them, by 
the like conduct, and brought themselves to ruin, and 
their flimilies to poverty and want. Divers lively testi- 
monies were delivered in this meeting, and it ended witk 
adoration and praise of Almighty God ; and although the 
meeting held more than four hours, the people did not 
seem willing to go awa\ when it was over ; for indeed it 
was a solid, good meeting. The business of the quar- 
terly meeting was carried on in peace and love, (that be- 
ing the mark the disciples of Jesus w^erc to be known by). 


and friends were exhorted with a great deal of tender- 
ness to keep that mark. 

In this journey I travelled about ninety miles, and was 
at four meetings, being from home four days, and was 
mu :h satisfied in my journey ; but met with some exer- 
cise when I came home, hearing of some losses and dam- 
age to mv estate ; so that I found after I had (according 
to my best endeavours) done the will of God, I had need 
of patience, that I might receive the promise. I was sen- 
sible of the messenger of Satan, the thorn in the flesh, 
which the apostle speaks of. 

About this time a loving friend of mine informed me, 
that one whom 1 very well knew in Barbadoes, a minis- 
ter of our society, had gone into an open separation, so 
as to keep meetings separate from his brethren, and con- 
trary to their advice : I was concerned in love to write 
a few lines to him, to remind him of the unh;ip];)y state 
and end of such, who, notwithstanding the brotherly love 
and kind treatment of friends, had separated from us, and 
losing the sense of truth, which had made them service- 
able in the church, were actuated by a rending, dividing 
spirit, by which the enemy of our happiness had so far 
obtained his end, as to make some disturbance for a 
time ; but few, if any, of these separatists, have had fur- 
ther power than to promote and maintain their separate 
meetings during their own lives ; such meetings having, 
in every instance I have known (except one, and that 
lasted not long) dropped on the death of the founders. And 
though we think it our duty to testify against, and dis- 
own all such ; yet this disowning is only until the per- 
sons offending from a real sense of, and sorrow for their 
faults, acknowledge and condemn the same ; then the 
arms of Christ and of his church, are open to receive and 
embrace them : I therefore earnestly besought him to 
consider the danger of offending any who love and l:)e- 
lieve in Christ (though never so little in their own or 
other men's esteem) for we cannot have true peace in de- 
parting from the pure love of God, his truth, and peo- 
ple ; to which I added the following sentences out of 
the New Testament : 


1. " By this shall all men know that }e are my disci- 
ples, if ye have love one to another." John xiii. '2iS. — 
Do not lose this murk. 

2. " We know that we have passed from death unto 
life, because we love the brethren. He that loveth not 
his brother, abidcth in death." 1 John iii. 14. 

3. "He that loveth not, knoweih not God ; for God 
is love." John iv. 8. 

4. " He that dwelleth in love, dwelleth in God, and 
God in him." John iv. 16. 

About the latter end of the fourth month I was at a 
meeting at Abington, occasioned by a burial ; and in the 
beginning of the fifth month, I was at a marriage in Phil- 
adelphia ; and was soon after on the first day at two meet- 
ings at Germantown, where I went to visit a friend who 
had not for some montlis been at meeting, being in a 
disconsolate condition ; I invited her to meeting, where 
the love and goodness of Christ to the poor in spirit was 
largely manifested, and the friend after meeting said, she 
was better, and afterwards recovered, and kept to meetings. 
I was frequently at the week-day meetings at Philadel- 
phia ; for I thought that week not well spent, in which I 
could not get to week-day meetings, if I was in health. 

In this month I was at the burial of George Calvert, 
who was one of a sober life, and just conversation, and 
being well beloved by his neighbours, he left a good re- 
port behind him. Soon after which I was at Merion 
meeting, which was large and solid : the people were 
tenderly exhorted, that neither outward favours, nor 
spiritual blessings, might make them grow forgetful of 
God ; but that in the sense of the increase and enjoyment 
thereof, they might be the more humble ; and forasmuch 
us the christian church in former ages was corrupted by 
temporal riches and power, it was intimated, that as we 
liad favour shewn us from the government, and increase 
of out\\ard things, we should be very careful not to 
abuse those privileges, by growing proud, and wanton, 
or envious, and quarrelsome ; but "to do justly, love 
mercy, and walk humbly with God." 


In this month I was at Middletown, in Bu. ks county, 
at the burial of my dear and intimate friend Jo.ia Rat- 
ledge (who died very suddenly) at which Ijurial thjre were 
above one thousand people : he was well-beloveJ amo ig 
his neic^hbours, and was a serviceable man where he lived: 
I admired to see such a number of people upo i so short 
notice, he dyinj^ one day in the afternoon, and being 
buried the day following : divers testimonies were borne 
concerning the wonderful works and ways of God. It 
■was a solid bo'ving time, wherein many hearts were bro- 
ken, and melted into tenderness. After meeting a you ig 
man came to me trembling, and begged that I would j^ray 
for him, for he had spent too much of his time in vanity, 
and had strong convictions on him for it, and had b^en 
greatly affected and wrought upon that day. I exhorted 
him to deny himself, and to take up his cross, and to 
follow Christ, who hath said, he would in no wise c ist 
off those who came to him in true faith. He went 
from me very tender and loving, being broken in his 

From thence I went to Gwvnnedd (or North-W iles) 
where on the first day of the week we had a very large 
meeting ; in the morning of the day a voice awoke me, 
which cried aloud, saying, " Rewards and punishments 
fjr well and evil doiiigs are sealed as an eternal decree 
in heaven," which confirmed me that mankind were 
happy or unhappy in that world which is to come, ac- 
cording to their deeds in this life, if their deeds be good 
(as Christ said) their sentence will be, *' Come, yd bless- 
ed;" if their deeds be evil, " Depart from me all yc 
that work iniquity," and " Go, ye cursed," &:. And, 
" If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted '? And if 
thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door." And again, 
" I have no pleasure in the death of the wicked, but that 
the wicked turn from his way, and live." These, with 
many more texts of the same nature, contained in the holy 
scriptures, are contrary to the doctrine of personal election 
and reprobation, as some hold it. We had a meeting also 
in the afternoon of the same day, which was satisfactory to 
many ; our liearts being filled with the love of God, for 



tvhich \vc thankfulh" praised him. The next clay ^\'e had a 
mcetint^ of ministers, in which they were exhorted to wait 
for the gift ot the Holy Ghost without which there can be no 
true minister nor ministry. I was concerned to put them 
in mind to keep close to Christ, their holy, sure guide, 
and bishop ; to be cautious of going before, lest they 
should miss their way, ai-d of staying too far behind, for 
fear we should lose our guide ; and to be careful to keep 
a conscience void of offence towards God, and also to- 
wards man ; that we might say to the people truly, fol- 
low us, as we follow^ Christ ; that our conversation 
might confirm and not contradict our doctrine, for our 
Saviour says, " By their fruits ye shall know them ; men 
do not gather grapes of thorns,", &c. and of such as say 
and do not, he charged his followers not to be like them, 
Mat. xxiii. 3. The next day we had another very large 
meeting there, in which many things were opened and 
declared, tending to establish and build us up in our faith 
in Christ. After this meeting, parting with my friend 
John Cddwallader, who accompanied me, I came home- 
ward, lodging that night at Morris Morris's, (whose wife 
Xvas very weakly) with whom we had a tender time. 

The 9th of the fifth month, I was at the general meet- 
ing at Germantown, which was a large and good meet- 
ing ; going home I went to see Richard Busby, Avho was 
jiot well ; he said the company of his friends revived him. 
Next day I went to visit Jane Breintnall, who was seized 
tvith the dead-palsy on one side, and the Lord was pleas- 
ed to comfort us together, as she expressed, to our mu- 
tual satisfaction. 

On the 30th of the said month, was our quarterly meet- 
ing of ministers at Philadelphia, where humble walking 
with God was recommended and prayed for, and it was 
desired that ministers might be exemplary therein, having 
Christ for their pattern. 

On the 1st of the sixth month, I was at our meeting 
at Frankfort, which was a dull meeting to me and divers 
others, a lively exercise of spirit being too much wanting 
among manv, and close walking with God in conversa- 
tion. If we would really enjoy the love and presence of 


Christ in our religious meetings, we ought to keep near 
to him in our daily conversation, which that we might 
do, was humbly desired in supplication and prayer to 

The young man who came to me under great concero 
of mind after the funeral of John Rutledge, wrote to me, 
that he was followed with the judgments of God for 
his manifold transgressions, desiring that I would pray 
for him. In answer to his letter, I wrote him to the foL 
lowing effect. 

" Frankfort, 1th of 6th Month, 1725^ 

*' Thine from Burlington of the 26th of fifth 
Uflonth, I received, by which I perceive the hand of the 
Almighty hath been upon thee for thy vanity and folly ; 
and I desire that thou may be very careful to keep close 
to that hand, and do not go from under it, but mind the 
light of Christ that hath discovered God to be great and 
good, and his dear Son to be thy saviour, and sin and 
Satan to be evil, which evil (if thou follows it) will cer- 
tainly bring thee to destruction and eternal wo ; but if 
thou follows Christ, and walks according to that light by 
which he hath manifested sin to be exceeding sinful, in 
his time ; as thou waits in patience, he will bring thee 
through his righteous judgments unto victory. 

Wait, Oh ! wait in patience upon God, if it be all thy 
days ! " I will bear the indignation of the Lord, because 
I have sinned against him," said the prophet Micah. 
Again, '* All the days of my appointed time will I wait, 
till my change come," says Job. 

Thou art young in years, and young in experience in 
the works of grace, wherefore advise with solid, good 
men, if thou meets with inward or outward straits and 
difficulties, for the enemy will not easily let go his hold, 
which he hath had of thee ; therefore walk circumspect- 
ly, and shun evil company. As to praying in a form of 
words (without the spirit helps, in order to open them 
according to thy state and condition) that will not avail : 


a sigh or groan, through the help ot the spirit, is much 
more acceptable to God, than am torms without it. 

That in tht Lord's time thou ma} est enjoy the reward 
of peace, is the desire of 

Thy Friend, 


The young man took this counsel well, and kept to 
meetings, and behaved soberly for a time, but afterwards 
ran out, kept bad company tock to drinking to excess, 
run himself in debt, and at length into a goal, which hath 
been the unhappy case of many unstable youths, wt^o, 
" when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, 
neither were thankful, but became vain in their imagin- 
ations, and their foolish hearts became djrkened." 

In this month, I was at B. bury and Abington meet- 
ings, in which we were favoured with the immediate pow- 
er and presence oi Christ, to our great comfort and edi- 
fication, the visitation, of divine love to the youth having 
a G:ood effect on some of them, and the latter meeting: 
ended with praise to the Amiight}, after supplications 
for all men, from our kir.g on the throne, to the meanest 
of his subjects. 

In m} travels I met with a person, who queried of me, 
how he should know which society had most of the Holy 
Sj^irit, since most of the professors of Christ do believe 
ii; 'he Holy Ghost, or spirit? to whom I made the fol- 
lowing answer. 

Let the rule of Christ determine this question : he 
says, " By their fruits ye shall know them ; do men 
gather grapes of thorns, oi figs of thistles ?" Mat. vii. 16. 
The fruits then of the Spirit of Christ are, love, fiith, 
hope, patieice, humility, temperance, godliness, brother- 
ly kindness, and charity, with all manner of virtues. 
Therefore the society of christians, who brings forth 
most of the fruits of the Holy Spirit, consequently have 
most of Christ's grace and spirit. But some object and 
say, we will not belieA'e that any society have the Holy 


Ghost now, or the immediate revelation or inspiration of 
thv Spirit, unless they work miracles. To which it is 
answered, that right reformation from sin, and true faith 
in Christ, cannot be wrought without a miracle, neither 
can we bring forth the fruits of the Spirit without the 
miraculous power of Christ. Men by nature bring forth 
the works of nature, and that which is contrary to nature 
is miraculous. Sin is natural, but divine holiness, or 
the righteousness of Christ, wrought in man, is spiritual, 
supernatural, and miraculous. And as to natural men, 
that are in a state of nature, seeing outward miracles, if 
they will not, nor do not believe what is written in the 
holy scriptures of the Old and New ''J'estament, neither 
will they believe, although one were to rise from the 
dead. Notwithstanding Christ wrought outward mira- 
cles, and did the works which none other could do ; 
though he cured all manner of diseases, and fed many 
thousands with a few loaves, and a few small fishes ; and 
wdiat remained, w^hen all had eaten, was more than there 
was at first, though he raised the dead, and himself arose 
from the dead, yet few, but very few, believed in him, so 
as truly to follow him. His birth, his life, his doctrine, 
his death, his resurrection, are all miraculous ; and since 
all this was done in the person of Christ, and at the first 
publication of his religion to men, there is now no abso- 
lute necessity of outward miracles, though his power is 
the same now as ever ; but he said to his disciples, " He 
that believeth on me, the works that I do, shall he do 
also, and greater works than these shall he do." John 
xiv. 12. Upon which W. Dell says, " this must be 
understood in relation to sin ; for Christ had no sin in 
himself to overcome, but we all have sinned," and to 
overcome sin is the greatest of miracles. This will try 
the notional or nominal christian, who says, we can never 
overcome sin in this world. Where then is our faith in 
the Son of God, who for this purpose Avas manifested, 
that he might destroy the works of the devil. John iii, 
8. Heh. ii. 14. 

Therefore let not christians be slow of heart to believe 
in the glorious gospel of Christ ; and if we truly believe 


therein, and live in the practice of his doctrine, vvc shall 
see miracles enough to satisfy us for ever. 

The 16th of the sixth month, I was at the weekly meet- 
ing at Frankfort, which, though a small meeting, was 
SMTCt, reviving, and comfortable, to some of us ; so that 
we had a sufficient reward for leaving our business, it 
being the time of our hay htu-vest. — Week-day meetings 
are much neglected by many ; more is the pity. The 
apostle's advice is necessary for men in our age, even of 
professed christians, viz. *' Let us consider one another 
to provoke unto love and good works, not forsaking the 
assembling yourselves together, as the manner of some 
is." HeL X. 24, 25. 

The 23d of the sixth month, my cart wheel, being 
iron bound, ran over me, and my horse kicked me on my 
head ; the wheel put ni}^ shoulder out, and the horse 
wounded my head so that the scull was bare, and my leg 
■was sorely bruised ; the same day Dr. Owen, and Dr. 
Graham, with the help of two of our neighbours set my 
shoulder, and dressed my "wounds ; and the Lord was so 
merciful to me, that the next day I was enabled to write 
this memorandum of this wonderful deliverance and 
speedy cure, for which, added to the many I have re- 
ceived from his gracious hand, I have occasion to be 
truly thankful. I was obliged to keep at home some 
time, and I thought it long, because I could not go to 
meetings as usual ; but many friends came to see me, 
which was a comfort to me. One day upwards of thirty 
persons came from several parts of the country to see 
how I did, and were glad I was like to recover. The 
day before I was so hurt, being the first of the week, I 
was at meeting at Philadelphia, and was concerned to 
speak of the uncertainty of life, and the many accidents 
we are incident to in these frail bodies, and exhorted 
friends to live so, that they might have a conscience se- 
rene, and clear of offence to\vards God and man, and then 
they might expect the comforts of the Holy Ghost, 
which in such seasons of difficulty would be a great help 
and benefit to them, of which I had the sweet experience 
the next day, under great extremity of pain ; and though 


the pain of my body was such that I could not for several 
nights take my natural rest, yet I had comfort, through 
the sweet influence of the Holy Spirit, which Christ 
promised his followers, John xiv. 26. 

On the 18th of the seventh month began our yearly 
meeting at Philadelphia, which was large, and our friends 
John Wanton, and William Anthony, from Rhode -Island, 
and Abigail Bowles, from Ireland, had good service 
therein. From this meeting an address was sent to king 
George for his royal favour to us as a society of people, 
hi giving his assent to a law made in this province for 
prescribing the forms of declaration, affirmation, &c. in- 
stead of the forms heretofore used. 

The beginning of the eighth month, being a little re- 
covered from my hurt, I had a desire once more to see 
my friends on the eastern shore of Maryland, at their 
general meeting at Choptank. The first day I set out, I 
travelled about thirty miles, and at night was very weary, 
being but weak in body, and I was almost ready to faint- 
in my mind about proceeding any further ; but next day, 
George Robinson, at whose house I lodged, offering to 
accompany me, we travelled about forty miles to Sassa- 
fras river, and both of us, though much tired, were com- 
forted in each other's company and conversation. On 
the next day we travelled near twenty miles to the gen- 
eral meeting in Cecil county, in Maryland ; where we 
met with two friends from Rhode-Island, and two from 
Pennsylvania, who were there on the like occasion. The 
meeting was large and quiet, many people being there not 
of our own society, and were very sober : the meeting 
held several days, wherein the gospel dispensation was 
set forth, and the love of God in Christ was exalted. 
From Cecil we went to Chester river, and had a meeting 
there, at which the people were exhorted to come to 
Christ, the eternal rock, and true foundation, and to build 
their religion on him, against whom the gates of hell can 
never prevail ; and they were so much affected, that they 
^d not seem forward to leave the house after the meeting 
was over. From Chester river we went to Tred-haven, 
to the general meeting of friends for Maryland, which 


was very large ; some friends from Pennsvlvania and 
Virginia being also there, and many people of oihcr so- 
cieties ; many testimonies were borne to the operation of 
Christ by his spirit in the soul, and friends were earnestly 
desired to be diligent in reading the holy scriptures, and 
to keep up the practice of our wholesoaie discipline ; by 
the neglect of which, a door would be open to loose liv- 
ing, and undue liberties. From Tred-haven we travelled 
into the Great Forest, between the bays of Chesapeak and 
Delaware, and had a satisfactory meeting ; as yet there 
was no public meeting-house in this place, wherefore I 
told the people of the house, I was obliged to them for 
the use of it ; but they tenderly answered, they were 
more obliged to me for my kind visiting of them ; and 
truly we had a solid, good meeting there ; the people 
being generally poor, they had but little notice taken of 
them by the money-loving teachers, who preach for hire. 
From the Forest I went to Little-creek, in the territories 
of Pennsylvania ; where was a general meeting for the 
counties of Newcastle, Kent, and Sussex. The meeting 
was large, and friends parted in great love and tender- 
ness. And I went forward to Duck -creek, where we 
had a meeting ; divers persons of note being there, and 
all were quiet, and heard with attention. From Duck- 
creek I went to George's-creek, and had a meeting ; 
where a man of a sober conversation said, that he never 
heard thinars so spoken to before ; but that he could wit- 
ness to the truth of all that was said. It was a good 
meeting before the conclusion ; but I was very low and 
poor in my spirit in the beginning of it. From this 
place we set forward to Newcastle, where we had a 
meeting, it was the time of the sitting of the general as- 
sembly, and several members of the house were at meet- 
ing : the governor, who has from our first acquaintance 
been very respectful to mc, hearing that I was in town, 
sent to desire me to tarry all iiight in Newcastle ; but 
being engaged to a meeting over the rivers Christiana and 
Brandywine, and it being near night, I could not stay, 
but went away that evening, and sent my love to him, 
desiring to be excused, lliat night I lodged at John 


Richardson's, and next day went to George Robinson's 
at Newark, where we had a meeting on a first day, and 
on second d ly another at Providence ; and went from 
thence to Darby to visit our worthy, aged friend Thomas 
Lightfoot, who lay very weak in body, none expecting 
his recovery ; I called as I went from home, and then he 
was very ill, and told me, " He thought that illness 
would conclude his time in this world, but said that all 
\vas well, and hkewise that he had a great concern upon 
his mind for the growth and prosperity of truth in the 
earth, and desired with tenderness of spirit, that I would 
give his dear love to all friends ;" and he now said, " I 
never thought to see thee more, but am glad to see thee." 
I stayed there all night, and in the morning we had a com- 
fortable, heart-melting time together, in which was re- 
vived the remembrance of the many favourable seasons of 
God's love we had enjoyed in our travels in the work of 
the ministry of the gospel of Christ, and we tenderly 
prayed, if we never met more in this world, we might 
meet in that which is to come, where we might never 
part more, but might forever live to sing with all the 
sahits and holy angels, hallelujah to God and the Lamb. 
From Darby I went to Philadelphia third day meeting, 
and from thence to my house, where my dear wife and 
children with open hearts and arms received me, and I 
them with joy ; at which time I had a gracious reward of 
peace for my labour of love, which far exceeded silver or 
gold. In this journey I travelled above three hundred 
miles, had nineteen meetings, and was from home above 
three weeks, in which time I recovered of my lameness 
to admiration, so that I had with satisfaction to remember 
the apostle's saying ; that " All things work together 
for good to them that love God." Rom. viii. 28. 

After my return home, I was at the general meeting at 
Frankfort ; and in the beginning of the ninth month, I 
was at meetings, at Abington, Germantown, and divers 
times at Philadelphia, particularly at the youth's meeting, 
wh.erein several testimonies were liorne, and the yeutli ex- 
horted to piety and humility. 


On the 5th day of this month in the mornin£y, being 
under a consideration of the many sore exercises and 
trials I had met with from my childhood, I was much 
affected ; but the following portions of scripture being- 
brought to my remembrance, aflbrded me some relief, 
" Whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth — and if ye be 
without chastisement, ye are bastards, and not sons — 
and in this world ye shall have trouble, but in me 
peace." — So that I patiently bore my affliction and 
praised God under it. 

In this month, I was at the funeral of our worthy, 
ancient friend, Thomas Lightfoot. He was buried at 
Darby ; the meeting was the largest that I had ever 
seen at that place. Our dear friend was greatly beloved 
for his piety and virtue, his sweet disposition, and lively 
ministry : the Lord was with him in his hfe and death, 
and with us at his burial. 

After this burial, I was at Abington ; the meeting was 
large, and, on that occasion, several things suitable to the 
states of the people were treated on. 

I was also about this time at Germantown, and at a 
general meeting at Plymouth, to my great satisfaction, 
being accompanied by my ancient friend Rowland Ellis; 
and at the third day meeting in Philadelphia, at the time 
of our fall fair, there were fervent desires, and prayers, 
in several of us, that the youth might be preserved from 
the evils too prevalent at such times of liberty and pro- 

About the 20th of the month I went for Long-Island, 
being drawn in true love to make a general visit to friends 
there ; and likewise having some business to transact 
there. On the fifth day of the week, Thomas Masters 
and I set out from Frankfort, and in the evening we got 
to a friend's house, near the Falls of Delaware, where we 
were kindly entertained, and our horses taken good care 
of: to take due care of traveller's horses, is a commendable 
thing, and more grateful to some travellers than to take 
care of themselves. From the Falls of Delaware, we 
travelled nextdiiy to Piscatuway, and lodged at an imi ; 


and on the next clay we went to Woodbridge, to John 
Kiiisey's, and on the first day we had a satisfactory meet- 
ing there with friends and others ; and the next day John 
Kinsey went with us to Long-Ishind, and that night got 
to John Rodmim's, and next day we rested, being weary 
with travelHng so far in the cold. Our derj- friends in 
that island very lovingly, and kindly, received my visit to 
them ; so that I had occasion to remember that saying of 
the holy scripture, '' As iron sharpeneth iron, so doth the 
countenance of a man his friend !" 

The fifth day of the week we had a large meeting at 
Flushing, and another in the evening at Obadiah Law- 
rence's, which was an open, tender time. From Flush- 
ing we went to Cow-neck, to Joseph Latham's, who 
went with me to Westbury meeting, which, considering 
the cold, was much larger than I expected. From West- 
bury, Nathaniel Simmons, Samuel Underhill, and Phebe 
Willet, went with us to Bethpage, where we had a com- 
fortable evening meeting, at the house of Thomas Pow- 
ell, who went with us next morning to a town called Se- 
tawket ; it was as cold a day's travel as ever I went 
through in all my life ; the wind was in our faces, and 
northerly ; I do not remember, though I had been a 
traveller above thirty years, that ever I endured so much 
hardness by cold in one day ; my chin and jaws were 
much affected with the frost for several days ; but we 
had a good meeting that made up for all. After which 
we went ten miles to Amos Willet's house, where we 
had a serviceable meeting ; he invited his neighbours, 
who came and received us with hearts full of good will ; 
and those not of our society were well satisfied vvith the 
meeting ; so that we went on our way rejoicing, that we 
were favoured with the good presence of God in our 
journey. Amos Willet and his wife went with us to 
Huntington, where we had a quiet, peaceable meeting, 
and the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ was with and 
among us, as many can witness that were there. From 
hence we went to Samuel Underbill's, and visited his 
weak brother ; in which visit the Lord mightily refreshed 
us together, and we blessed his holy name, for " he is 


good to all them who put their trust in him." Next 
day we had a large meeting at Matinicock. After this 
meeting, we went to Thomas Pearsall's, and had an even, 
ing meeting at his house. The next day, being a snow}', 
stormy day, and one of the shortest in the year, we. went, 
being eighteen in company, to Cow-neck, where we had 
a good meeting, and much larger than could be expect- 
ed. After meeting, we went to Joseph Latham's, and 
had a tender, open evening meeting there, in which we 
Were edified, and refreshed, ir. Christ Jesus. 

From Cow-neck I went to Flushing, had a large meet- 
ing there, on the first day of the week, and on second 
di.s we went over the sound, which divides Long- Island 
from the main continent, to Horse-neck, and had a 
meeting, where I understood there never had been one 
before ; the people were sober and attentive, and some 
expressed their satisfaction. That evening we had a 
meeting at an inn near B} ram river, where divers people 
came, and were attentive ; the inn-keeper, his father, 
brother, wife, and several others, took our visit very 
kindly ; though there was one restless man, who seemed 
to be out of orde'r with drink, before he came into the 
house, and when we were sitting in silence, waiting for 
the gift of Christ, and vvorshippir.g in spirit, as Christ in- 
stituted, he sitting by me, jogged me, and said, " It was 
time to begin, for there are as many come, as A\ould 
come to night;" though he was mistaken in that; but 
he not having patience to watch and pray, went away ; 
after which we had a good meeting. These two meet- 
ings were in the government of Connecticut, where they 
formerly made a law imposing a fine of five pounds on 
those who should entertain any of our society, which 
law, I was informed, was repealed in Great-Britain. 
From thence we travelled into New- York government, 
and had a meeting at Rye, and another at Mamaroneck ; 
from whence we travelled to West- Chester, and had a 
meeting there, on a sixth day of the week, intending to 
go over the ferry next day to Long-Island ; but the wind 
being high and boisterous, so that we could not get over, 
WQ tarried three nights at the house of John Stephenson, 


where we were lovingly and generously entertained : and 
on first day we were again at West-Chester meeting, 
which ended comfortably, though I was in a low state, 
both of body and mind, in the beginning of it. On 
second day we all got well over the ferry to Long- Island, 
parting with our friends at the ferry in much love and 
good- will. Joseph Latham having been my fellow trav- 
eller on the main, I went to his house, and from thence 
to VVestbury, to a large meeting, and next to Bethpage, 
and had a meeting there, and in the evening, accompanied 
by Samuel Bowne, and Joseph Latham, I went to Jeru- 
salem, and had a large and satisfactory meeting : many 
of the people of the town, who were there, came the next 
day to our meeting at Hempstead, which was large ; the 
great Lord of all, was good to us that day, which, I hope, 
many that were there will not forget ; and some con- 
vincement was wrought on some, that were of account in 
the world, at these last mentioned meetings, particu- 
larly one who lived at Jerusalem, with tenderness of spir- 
it, desired my remembrance, whom I pray God to pre- 
serve, with all those who love and fear him, and believe 
in his Son, to the end. 

From Hempstead, I went to Matinicock, where, on a 
first day of the week, we had a large meeting, and a solid, 
i^ood opportunity it was; and from hence to Thomas 
Townsend's, on the Plains, at whose house we had an 
evening meeting ; next morning a pretty many friends 
from the Plains went with us to the south side of the 
island, to a place called Rockaway, where we had a meet- 
ing at Hicks's, the neighbours coming to it pretty gene- 
rally ; there was great openness to receive the doctrine 
of truth in those, not of our society, and they were very 
kind to us in those parts : this was the second meeting 
I had been at in this place, Benjamin Holmes having the 
first there, since which they had not been visited by any 
friend of the ministry except myself. From Rockaway 
we went to Foster's Meadow, where was a large gather- 
ing of people, and Christ filled our hearts with divine 
love. From thence I went to Peter Titus's, and had a 
meeting at his house, to which came the neighbours, and 


were well affected ; and next day we had a meetin£^ in' 
the meeting-house at Westbury, which was very large 
and to our siitisfaction. From Westbury, in the even- 
ing, we went to visit a young woman, who had been 
in a despairing condition for several years. The family 
came together, and we put up our prayers to the Al- 
mighty, in the name of his dear Son ; it was a good time 
to us all ; and the young woman, and some others, ex- 
pressed their satisfaction. 

This evening we went to see another young woman 
who was in a deep consumption, but in a very comforta- 
ble state of mind ; having a great desire to see me be- 
fore she died, she sent for me to come to her, and her de- 
•sire was answered, her spirit being revived with a fresh 
visitation of the love of Jesus Clirist, the holy physician 
of value, and our supplications were, that the Lord would 
be pleased to be Avith her, and support her to the end, and 
grant her an easy passage from this life to his glorious 
kingdom, when it should please him to remove her ; 
which prayer we have cause to hope was answered. 

Though the days were short, wevode about fifteen 
miles, and made these two visits, after that great meet- 
ing at Westbury, and the season was exceeding cold ; 
but our great and good Master supported us, and was 
with us in our exercises and service for his name and 
truth's sake. I lodged this night at Joseph Rodman's, 
and was next day at Flushing week-day meeting, which 
was very large and satisfactory, and had a meeting the 
same evening at Samuel Bowne's, and the next day went 
to New- York, and had a quiet, good meeting in the even- 
ing at Samuel Harrison's, and on the morrow had an 
evening meeting at a place called the Kills, at the house 
of Richard Hallet, and the next day, being first day, 
had a large meeting at Newtown, to the edification of 
friends and other sober people. 

It being now generally knovvn that I was on the island, 
the people flocked to meetings, though the weather was 
extreme cold, for the Lord manifested himself in the 
riches of his love unto us in our meetings, for the worship 
of his holy name. I'he next meeting was at James Jack- 


son's, at Rocky-hill, where was judge Hicks, the high- 
sheriff, and a justice of peace, with several other persons 
of note, with whom, and our friends, we had a good 
time to set forth the work of grace and reformation (as I 
think) to general satisfaction, for which we blessed the 
holy name of God, and humble prayer was put up to him 
for all men, and particularly for our king George, as aU 
so for all in authority under him, and that they might be 
a terror to evil-doers, and the praise of them that do well. 
The next meeting we had was at Jamaica, which was 
also large, and several in authority were there, and were 
very loving and respectful after meeting. The next first 
dav we had a large meeting at the meeting-house at Cow- 
neck, which was somewhat crowded. I was right glad 
(though my exercises were very great), that there was 
such openness and room in people's hearts to receive the 
doctrine which I had to declare unto them, in the name 
and power of Christ; afterwards we had an evening meet- 
ing with the widow Titus, to which divers Dutch peo- 
ple came, and were very attentive and sober. On the 
third of the week we had a meeting near the place 
called Hell-gate (a narrow passage in the great sound 
or bay, between Long-Island and the main land), sev- 
eral justices and their wives were at this meeting, on^ 
of which had disowned his son, and turned him out of 
doors for coming among us ; but beholding his son's 
sober conversation, grew more moderate, and after 
meeting, he and his wife invited us to dine with them ; 
but we were engaged to visit the widow Stephens, 
that evening, at whose house we had a meeting. Go- 
ing thither, it being very cold and stormy, my 
hands were touched with the frost, and perceiving it 
when I came to the fire, I called for a bason of cold 
water, which soon cured them : I note this that others 
may reap benefit thereby. Next day we went to the 
week-day meeting at Newtown, and on the fifth day to 
Flushing meeting, which was large, and to edification, 
and in the evening had a meeting at our ancient friend 
Hugh Copperth wait's, which was acceptable to him, as 
hinjself expressed when it ^^'a^ ended ; and to us also. 


Next day we had a very large evening meeting at Thorn- 
as Pearscill's, and likewise a large, good meeting, the 
day after (being first day) at Matinicock, wherein the 
kingdom of Christ vvas exalted, and the deformed state 
of sin and iniquity represented, and the example and 
doctrine of Christ, closely recommended, in order to the 
overcoming sin, this being not only possil)le, but the duty 
of christians, through the power of Christ, and true faith 
in his holy name ; and the danger of believing that it is im- 
posssible to overcome sin was opened to them, and that 
such a belief is contrary to, and against Christ and his 
doctrine, and darkens and blinds the hearts of men ; but 
the love of Christ enlightens the soul, and strengthens it 
to believe that all things are possible with God ; for this 
great work cannot be done in the will, wit, and power of 
man, but through the power and grace of Christ, which 
he promised to true believers in him. 

I was faint after this meeting, but, resting a little, I 
soon grew better, so that we had an evening meeting 
at James Cock's, where one came and told us, we must 
not eat any flesh, and produced Thomas Tryon's works 
for 'his proof; but I took the bible, and shewed hira 
a proof to the contrary, and told him, we were resolv- 
ed to believe our book before his, and shewed him 
from the apostle, that the kingdom of God is not meat 
and drink, nor divers washings, but righteousness, 
peace and joy, in the Holy Ghost. Ro7n. xiv. 17. 
Though at the same time, according to the doctrine of 
Chi ist and his apostles, I was for temperance in meate 
and drinks, as well as moderation in apparel. The next 
day we had a very large meeting at Oyster-bay, many 
being there who were not of our society, who steadily 
gave attention to what was declared : here being many 
young people, they were persuaded to give up their 
blooming years to do the will of God, and to remember 
him their Creator, in their youthful days. Friends said 
there had not been such a meeting there a great Avhile, 
for which opportunity I was humbly thankful to the: 
Lord. After meeting, we went to Samuel Underhill's. 
and had an evening meeting with his brother. >\'ho. 


throug-h sickness and lameness, could not g-et out for a 
loiig time. Next day, Samuel Bowne being with me, 
we went to visit a young woman that was weak in body, 
but lay in a comfortable frame of mind ; she was t-iank- 
ful for our visit, and said the visits of her friends were 
comfortable to her. Next day, being- the fourth day of 
the week, we had a meeting- at the widow Taylor's, who 
desired it on account of her father, who was in the 88th 
year of his age, and so infirm, that he could not get to 
meetings ; he was very clear in his understanding and 
memory, and was much refreshed wiih this meeting, as 
were divers of us also. Next day we had a meeting at 
Flushing, which was large and open, and the grace and 
power of Christ was ^\ ith us in the ministration of the 
gospel. After this meeting, we had an eveniiig meeting 
with our ancient friend Joseph Thorne, who by reason of 
his age and infirmity could not go abroad as far as to the 
meeting : the house was crowded with his neighbours and 
friends, and we had a solid, good time together. While 
at Flushing, I went to visit a young woman who was a 
most dismal spectacle to behold, an object of great pity : 
her face, hand, and foot, being much eaten away by the 
king's evil ; our prayers were, that now in her great 
misery, the Almighty would be pleased to support her 
soul by his grace and spirit, and sanctify her afflictions 
to her, that it might work for her a more exceeding 
weight of glory in that world which is to come. The 
next first day we had a larg* meeting at Flushing, where- 
in many weighty truths were opened to the satisfaction 
and edification of the auditory, and in the evening we 
had a meeting with the wife of Matthew Farringion, 
who was too weakly to go abroad ; the neighbours came 
in, and we had a seasonable opportunit^•. The nc xt 
tliird day was the youth's meeting at Flushing, in which 
we were concerned to exhort them to (obedience to God 
and iheir parents, and to follow their parents as they fol- 
low Christ ; for where any leave Chrisr, there we are to 
leave their example, though they were our fathers or 
mothers ; and the right honouring of our parents was set 
forth, and they exhorted not to despise the day of small 


things, and the happy state of the obedient, and the un- 
happy state of the disobedient, and many weiglity truths 
were dehvered to them, in that meetins^, by several ex- 
perienced friends. From Flushing I went to the week- 
day meeting at Newtown, and in the evening we had a 
meetint^ at the M'idow Way's ; the neighbours coming m, 
we had a good time with them : the parable of the ten 
virgins was treated of, and the great disadviiutage of 
wanting the divine oil of grace in our vessels was shewn 
to them. 

The next day, being the fifth of the week, we had a 
very large, satisfactory meeting at the widow Alsop's, at 
the kills, and from thence with several friends went to 
New York, where we had three meetings to our edifica- 
tion, the weather still remaining very cold, but we felt the 
love of Christ to warm our hearts, and though I think I 
never felt it colder, I never had my health better. Sev- 
eral friends accomjjanied us to the boat at New- York ^ 
the water being open on that side, we took our leave of 
each other, and put out for the other shore ; but before 
we got there, we were blocked up in the ice, and it was a 
considerable time before we could work our way 
through, but at last got well on Long- Island, where I 
waited some hours for company, who through some dif- 
ficulty got on shore ; after which we went to the Narrows 
throi'gh a storm of wind and snow, but the wind being 
high we could not get over that night, nor the next day, 
the ice having come down, and filled the bay : when the 
tide had drove away the ice, we put out, and got well 
over, and lodged at the ferry-house on Staten-Island. 
Next morning we went to the ferry at the Blazing-star, 
over against Woodbridge, but it was all fastened with 
ice, and we not daring to venture over it, went to the 
ferry at Amboy, and got comfortably over, stayed there 
that night, and next day went to Trenton, and lodged at 
captain Gould's, who treated me very kindly, I being 
much tired with travelling. Next morning I went over 
Delaware river on the ice, as we had also the day before 
the Rariton, and that da} , being the 5*h of twelfth month, 
I got safe home to my loving spouse and tender children, 


where I found all well and a hearty reception, having 
travelled six hundred miles, and attended above sixty 

After having been at home, at our own meeting at 
Frankfort, I went to the (quarterly meeting at Philadel- 
phia, where friends were glad to see me. 

On the next fifth day I was at the marriage of Thomss 
Masters, and Hannah Dickinson, where were many sober 
people, not of our society. 

Having been lately among friends at Long-Island, and 
bf: en comiorted in the many opportunities we had togeth- 
er, it came into my mind to visit them with an epistle at 
their quarterly meeting at Flushing, which was as foU 

*' Frankfort^ Vlth months 1725. 

" My dear and well -beloved Friends, 

" Believing it might be acceptable to you 
to hear that I was got well to my habitation in such a 
difficult time of the year as I set out from you in ; and 
also feeling the sweet influence of the diviae love of the 
heavenly Father, and his dear So i our Lord Jesus Christ, 
to arise and spring in my heart, and flowing towards 
you : 

It came into my mind to write a few lines to the quar- 
terly meeting of friends at Flushing, by way of epistle, 
Well knowing also that many of us are as epistles writ in 
one another's hearts by the heavenly finger of the Most 
High ; and those characters of divine love so written will 
not easily be erased. I could willingly have been at 
your quarterly meeting, but that I had been so long from 
my family, that I was much anted therein, and my 
coming home was seasonable and acceptable, both to 
them and my friends ; and I humbly thank the Lord, 
I found all well. Now that which is on my mind to 
your quarterly meeting, is after this m:inner, concerning 
the government of the church of Christ, of which church 


he is the holy head and lawgiver ; wherefore wc arc t9 
seek and wait for counsel and wisdom from him, in all 
our monthl} and quarter)}- meetings, for the well order- 
iiig of our little society, which is growing and increas- 
ing in the earth, and also in your island, (notwithstand- 
ing the in\ idious attempts of some men of corrupt minds) 
and it will grow and increase more and more, as we keep 
our places, our heavenly places in Christ Jesus. 

Dear friends, the good order of truth, and government 
of Clirist in his church, is a great help to us and our 
children, when carried on in Christ's spirit; [pray observe 
or mind that] for if our order, and church government, 
be carried on in the spirit of man, (as he is mere man) 
though he is never so craft)-, or cunning, it will do more 
hurt than good in the church of Christ. Christ's spirit 
must govern Christ's church ; and when, and where that 
is over all, then, and there Christ's church and king- 
dom are exalted, of whose kingdom and peace there will 
be no end ; and happy will all those be, whose end is in 
it. Moses, that man of God, governed in the Jewish 
church in the spirit of God, and when he found the work 
too heavy for him, the Lord put his sj)irit on seventy 
more, who were help-meets in the government; so that it 
was God's spirit that governed ; and while that ruled, 
all was well ; but when they went from that, they fell in- 
to error and disobedience ; and, at length, the Messiah 
came, and he governed his own little flock himself ; and 
when he ascended up on high, he promised his spirit 
should be with and in his church forever, and be their 
ho!) guide into all truth, in which he would also comfort 
thtm: and Christ fulfilled this his promise : for when 
his disciples waited at Jerusalem to be endued with pow- 
er from on high, according to the advice of their Lord, 
they were filled with the giftar»d grace of the holy spirit: 
and when the brethren and elders met together about 
the affairs and government of the church, they gave forth 
rules and orders from that general meeting to the partic- 
ular ones ; and the Holy Ghost presided amongst them, 
which they signified to the other meetings, saying, " It 
seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and to us, to put yon 


in mind of such and such tilings." And while this Holy 
Ghost, or spirit, governed in the primitive christian 
church, ail was well ; God and Christ v^^as glorified, and 
his church and people edified ; but by goin^- from that, 
the apostacy came in. 

Wherefore, dear friends, keep close to the spirit, pow- 
er, light, and divine life, of Christ Jesus, in your month- 
ly and quarterly meedngs for the government of the 
church, as well as in your meetings for the worship of 
the Almighty ; for if we go from that, he will go from us. 

And, dear friends, the testimony of Jesus, in the spirit 
of prophecy, opens in me after this manner, that if our 
society keep and live up to the spirit and truth of Christ, 
which hath been manifested to our forefathers, and to us 
also in this age, the great Lord of all will prosper his 
work in our hands, and bless both us and our children, 
as we i'.nd the}' keep therein. 

And as we have kept close to this our heavenly guide, 
how hath the Lord sweetly manifested his love and ])ow- 
er to us in our meeting for the well-ordering of our so- 
ciety ? which many times hath filled our hearts with 
pure praises, and holy thanksgiving, to the high and lofty 
one, who inhabits eternit}', and dwells in the highest 
heavens, and is light for ever : to whom, with the Lamb 
of God, who takes away the sins of the world, I recom- 
meiKl you, my dear and well beloved friends, brethren, 
and sisters, in Christ, with my own soul. 


P. S. Since my return, I have been thankful to God 
for the many favourable visitations and good opportuni- 
ties he was pleased to grant me with you, and divers 
sober people on your island, in which there is an open 
door among many to receive the testimony of truth. I 
commend your nobility in building good houses, and 
making room for your sober neighbours to sit with you 
in your meetings ; this is of good report concerning you, 
both far and near, and, if I apprehend right, there is more 
\vork of that kind for you to do, I thought often, when 


among you, and now also, that there would be a large 
gathering-, if there were a house built at the upper e)id 
of the Great Plains, not far from Foster's Meadow; but 
every one m,ay not think or see alike ; though I know 
some solid friends among you, thought the same with 
me, about the prospect of a large g.,thering thereaway, 
if ii house were built ; to which friends, and well-inclined 
pe(;ple, might come from Hempstead, Rocky-hill, Rock- 
away, Foster's Meadow, &c. 

T. C.'» 

After my service on Long-Island, I had great sweetncsig 
tipon my spirit forsome time, which sometimes caused my 
heart to sing for joy ; and yet I rejoiced in a trembling 
frame of spirit, and had the true sense oi what is written 
in the holy scriptures, where it is said, " Serve the Lord 
with fear," (I take it, filial fear) " and rejoice with 
trembling," for fear of losing that precious sense of the 
love of God, which is in Christ. 

On the 20th of the twelfth month, the first day of the 
week, I was at Abington meeting, in which the love of 
Christ was manifested to us, in the opening of his saying, 
*' If I be lifted up, I will draw all men unto me." John 
xii. 32. The next day I was at Germantown, at the bu- 
rial of a son of Dennis Conrad, at which also was our 
friend Abigail Bowles. On the sixth day following, I 
went to the general meeting of ministers and elders at 
Burlington, where I again met with our said friend and 
divers others : the first day meeting was large ; and on 
second day was the quarterly meeting for the county ; and 
on third day, was their youth's meeting, which was large, 
and many weighty truths were delivered in that meeting. 
On fourth day we were at a meeting at Springfield ; the 
house was pretty much thronged, and friends were ex- 
horted thankfully to commemorate the mercies and fa- 
vours of the Almighty to them, and desired to enlarge 
their meeting-houses as their number increased ; for in 
those parts there was such an openness in the hearts of 
the people, and increase of their number, that friends had 


already agreed on building two meeting-houses between 
Crosswicks and Burlington ; their zeal and unanimity 
therein, was worthy of eommendation. Fifth dav , being 
the week-day meeting at Burlington, friends of the town 
desired I would stay at it ; I tliought we had just before 
had divers good opportunities, and ni} OAvn inclinations 
seemed to lead to my family ; Dut friends being desirous 
of my staying, I did so, and we had a good, solid meeting. 
After meeting, a solid, good friend said, " he thought 
we had the best wine at last;" and indeed the love of God, 
through Christ, is so sweet to his people, that the last 
often seems the best, when it is only a renewed visitation 
of the same love to his children. So I went home rejoic- 
ing that I was in some good measure accounted worthy 
to serve so good and so gracious a Master. 

On the 6th day of the first month, being the first of 
the week, I was at the morning and afternoon meetings 
in Philadelphia, wherein those who call themselves free- 
thinkers were exhorted to be careful of drinking too free- 
ly, lest they might justly be called free-drinkers ; foF 
many times such, when they drink too freely of strong 
liquor, think and speak too freely their own corrupt no- 
tions, to the dishonour of God, and to the scandal of re- 
ligion in general. 

Soon after I was at the first day meetings at Philadel- 
phia ; and in this month I went to the Jerseys, and was at 
three large meetings in company with x\bigail Bowles, in 
which our said friend had good service, to the comfort of 
friends, convincing of gainsayers, and confirming the 
weak, and the people were glad of our visit. 

Tht 15th day of this month I was at Burlington, at the 
burial of my good friend and old acquaintance, Abraham 
Bickley, at whose funeral were great numbers of people, 
he being well beloved of his neighbours : Christ's raising 
Lazarus out of the grave, and his tenderness and weep- 
ing there, was spoken of, in order to stir people up to a 
tender, religious exercise of mind, which is too much 
wanting among many of the professors of his holy name, 
who have too little sense of that which should bring true, 
tenderness over their minds, being morr in earth than 


heaven ; so that they are dry and barren, as to the things^ 
of God. The meeting ended, to satisfaction, with sup- 
plications to the Almighty. 

A few days after, I was at our general spring meeting 
in Philadelphia, which was large; 'where our friends 
Robert Jordan, and Abigail Bowles, had good service. 

This week I was at foi'.r very large meetings, at Phil- 
adelphia, Frankfort, and Abington, much to my satis- 
faction, though I had no vocal service therein ; yet my 
heart was broken into tenderness and tears, under the 
ministry of several weight}', solid testimonies, that were 
borne by good and living ministers, qualified to preach 
the gospel in the demonstration of the spirit, and with 

The 26th of the first month, 1726, I went to German- 
town meeting, which was large, and I was opened there- 
in to speak of the vision of the prophet Ezekiel, of the 
holy waters, which proceeded from under the threshold 
of the sanctuary, which the angel measuring, they grew 
deeper and deeper, until they became a river to swim in. 
JEzek. xlvii. 5. Which mystically sheweth the work of 
grace, conversion, and regeneration ; and that these holy 
waters the soul must drink of, and be w ished, and baptiz- 
ed in, are spiritual and supernatural, and therefore not to 
be measured by the spirit and will of man, in his natural 
state, according to the prophet Isaiah, chap, xxxiii. v. 21. 
Man, before he can swim therein, must be stript of all 
his self- righteousness, and artificial religion, though as 
splendid and beautiful as a gallant ship, or galley with 
oars, which, in this respect, is agreeable to the state of 
men smimming in elementary water, where the most 
skilful have sometimes lost their lives, for want of being 
naked or unclothed ; and those who had not yet attained 
much experience, were advised not to go out of their 
depth, but to wait in patience and hiunility, to enjoy the 
medicinal virtue of the trees growing b} the side of this 
river, whose fruit is for meat, and leaves for medicine. 
Ezek. xlvii. 12. The people of this meeting were gen- 
erally Germans, several of whom stayed in the house 
after the meeting was over, and were bioken into tender 


ness, in a sense of the presence and love of God unto us, 
for which I was also humbly thankful and bowed in 

I ^vas at the third day weekly meeting in Philadelphia, 
which was but small, considering the large number of 
those professing to be of our society in this city ; those 
present were closely and tenderly exhorted to be zealous 
for good works, and against bad works ; not respecting 
the person of any man ; the abominations committed by 
some under our profession, in this city and province, 
calling for humiliation ; and as the promise of God's fav- 
our was to those who mourned with sighs and cries for 
the abominations among his people formerly, Ezek. ix« 
4, so now, as many as are under the same concern, 
may hope for preservation and salvation, if he should in 
like manner visit us, as at this time he doth some of our 
neighbours; there being a great sickness and mortality 
in some of the adjacent places. 

In the second month, I visited the meetings of friends 
at Haverford, Newtown, Radnor, and Merion ; which 
meetings consist chiefly of ancient Britons, who are a re- 
ligious, industrious, and increasing people ; among whom 
my service was, as they expressed, to our mutual satis- 
faction. After my return home, I went to visit friends 
at the Falls of Delaware, and was at a large meeting in 
their new meeting-house. After a satisfactory meeting 
at Frankfort, on the fifth day of the same week I went 
with Ennion Williams to his son's marriage ; and the 
next day he, and several other friends, accompanied me 
to Woodberry-creek, and had a good, open meeting, and 
that night went to James Lord's, and next morning went 
towards Salem, and lodged at Isaac Sharp's ; Avhere I 
was informed of a great mortality at Cohrmsy. The 24th 
of the second month was the general meeting at Salem, 
which was a large gathering of people of different per- 
suasions, from many parts of the country, where the 
doctrine of the gospel was preached in great love to the 
people, which they heard with solid attention. From 
Salem I went to AUoway's-creek and Cohansy, and had 
meetings there : I was informed that more than seventy 


persons had lately died here of a malignant distemf)er, 
though it seemed to abate, none dying while we wer6 
there. At Cohansy the meeting was large and solid, 
the ugh but few of our socie'ty there ; and they were ear- 
nestiy admonished to a proper disposition of mind, to fit 
them either for life or death, and reminded of the regard 
of the Almighty to such as live in his fear, who will have 
peace in their death, and their exchange will be glorious, 
when they are taken out of this life ; but with the wicked 
it is not so. 

From Cohansy I vv^nt through the wilderness over 
Maurice's river, accompanied by James Daniel, through 
a miry, boggy way, in which we saw no house for about 
forty miles except at the ferry, and that night we got to 
Richard Townsend's, of Cape-May, where we were 
kindly received ; next day we had a meeting at Rebecca 
Garrison's, and the day after a pretty large one at Rich- 
ard Townsend's, and then went down to the Cape, and 
had a meeting at John Page's and next day another at 
Aaron Learning's ; several expressed their satisfaction 
with those meetings. I lodged two nights at Jacob 
Spicer's, my wife's brother. 

From Cape-May we travelled along the sea-coast to 
Great- Egg- Harbour, had another meeting, much larger 
than the first, at Rebecca Garrison's, and here I was much 
concerned to promote the settlement of a monthly meet- 
ing, for the well ordering the affairs of our society. 

We swam our creatures, over Egg- Harbour river, and 
went over ourselves in canoes, and afterwards we had a 
meeting at Richard Summers', which was as large as 
could be expected, considering the people's living at a 
distance from each other. 

The next meeting we had at John Scull's ; and on 
first day we had a large one at Peter White's, and on 
second day at Japhet Leed's, and then we went five miles 
through a marsh to Little- Egg-Harbour river, and had a 
meeting in their meeting-house on the fourth day of the 
week, and eleventh day of the month, which was the 
larger by the addition of the owners, masters, and marin- 
ers, of two sloops from New- York, who, hearing of the 


Ineeting, came to it. And tlie next day we had another 
meeting at the same place, and lodged at Jarvis Faro's. 
After these two meetings, I left Egg- Harbour, accom. 
panied by several friends from thence, and travelled about 
forty miles, before we came to any house. In the even- 
ing we reached a friend's house, where we were kindly 
entertained, and next morning we got to Burlington, and 
so home, \vhere I found all well, and wastherefore thank- 
ful to the Almighty. In this journey I travelled about 
three hundred miles, had twenty-one meetings, and was 
from home about three weeks. 

In the third mon h, I stayed at and about home, visiting 
the meetings at Philadelphia, Germaatovvn, Abington, 
and Frankfort. 

In the fourth month I left my family, and went back in 
the woods as far as Oley. I was from home nine days, 
travelled about one hundred and fifty miles, and had six 
meetings at Oley, Perkiomen, and divers other places, 
chiefly in barns and open places, there being large com- 
panies of people, and few meeting houses yet built in 
those parts of the country. In this journey I suffered 
pretty much through the heat. The first meeting was at 
the iron works settled a little beyond a plice called 
Mount Misery. I was concerned for those people, hav- 
ing heard of their rude doings before I left my habitation ; 
and although some were rude, others behaved them- 
selves soberly, and expressed their thankfulness for that 
visitation, as I do for the opportunity I had of clearing 
myself to them. On my return homewards, I crossed 
Schuylkill, and went to Samuel Nutt's iron works, where 
I had a large, quiet, solid meeting ; and the next day I 
called to see my old friend David Meredith, who being 
about 89 years of age, I thought it probable I might 
not have another opportunity of seeing. He met me 
with gladness, and told me, it was their meeting-day ; 
so that I stayed, and was much comforted and tendered 
by the power of Christ ; after which I came home that 

On the next first day, after my return, I went to Phil- 
adelphia, and, after the afternoon meeting, to Darby, and 


from thence to a yearl} meeting in Chester county, held 
ai Gosheii ; though the season was wet, this was a large, 
good meeting ; at wliich there were three young men, 
who wtre lately called to the work of the ministry, whom 
I was glad to hear declare the truth in the power and 
simplicity of the gospel of Christ, being of the mind of 
Mioses, when he said, in answer to Joshua, '* Would 
Ci;d that all the Lord's people were prophets, and that 
the Lord would put of his spirit upon them." Num. xi, 
29. Alter this meeting I went to Springfield, and the 
next day returned home. 

On the 22d of the fourth month, I went to the mar- 
riage of John Lee's daughter, at Springfield, in Chester 
count} : the meeting was large, and I was concerned to 
speak n ostly to the young people, advising them to seek 
tht Lord in that great afiliir of marriage, that they be 
careful how and en whom they set their affections, and 
not to draw out one another's minds, if they did not intend 
an honourable marriage ; and reminding them of the ill 
tendency of courting several at a time, or suffering sev- 
eral to court at once, and that they be chaste and true in 
their proceedings, duly regarding the advice of the apos- 
tie, " Be not unequally yoked ;" for to be sure all such 
marriages are unequal, when those Avho marry are of dif- 
ferent principles of religion. The meeting ended with 
tender supplication for preservation through whatever 
exercises, tun her troubles or trials, temptations or af- 
flictions, we might meet with in the world, that so we 
miglst eiid well at last, and live for ever to praise and glo- 
rif} God and the Liunb, who, through the holy, eternal 
spirit, is worth} forever. 

On the receipt of the last letter from my dear father, 
■which I some time since mentioned I was a])prthensive 
it night be his last, which it proved to be ; for the next 
letter from my dear brother ga\ e me intelligence of his 
death, which I received the 25th of the fourth month this 
year. The news of my dear father's decease took such 
hold of my mind, though 1 daily exjjected it, that for some 
time I was hardly sociable. Oh! how have I been some- 
times comforted in his loving and tender epistles ! at the 


receipt of which I have cried to the Lord, that, if it 
pleased him, I might have a double portion of the spirit 
which he gave to my father : but, Oh ! now 1 must never 
hear more from him in this world ; yet in this I have 
some inward comfort, that I hope we shall meet where 
we shall never part more. Here follows a part of my af- 
fectionate brother's account of my father's death and 

" Edmonton, 25th of the 1st Month, 1726. 

" Dear Brother, 

*' This comes with the sorrowful account of our 
dear father's decease, who departed this life the 7th in- 
stant, after having been indisposed about a fortnight. I 
have herewith sent a particular account of some remark- 
able passages, and his last expressions in his sickness ; 
that part relating to his convincement, he desired should 
be committed to writing, which I have done, and sent it to 

*' I was with him several times in his last illness, and 
most ol the two last days of his life, as thou mayest per- 
ceive by the contents. Our worthy father was honour- 
ably buried on the 1 1th instant, being carried from his 
own house to the meeting-house at Horsleydown, accom- 
panied by his relations, where was a large meeting of ma- 
il} people, as many as the meeting-house could well con- 
tain, and many testimonies were there borne to the inno- 
cent, exemplary life, integrity, and honest zeal of ourdear 
father, so concurrent and unanimous, that I have hardly 
known any such occasion more remarkable : he was ac- 
companied from thence to the grave very solemnly, and 
there in like manner interred, where a further testimony 
was given to his honest life and conversation, and lively 
zeal for the holy truth, whereof he made profession. 

" Dear brother, though it be a sorrowful occasion of 
writing, yet herein we may be comforted in consideration 
that our father went to his grave in peace in a good old 


age : he had his understanding and memory to the last in 
a wonderful manner. 1 believe, as I have sometimes said, 
tliat he embraced death as joyfully as ever he did any- 
happy accident of his life : I remember one passage of 
his cheerful resignation, finding him fine and cheery when 
I came to see him, a week before his decease, and he 
shewing me how well he could walk about the room, and 
would have went out of it, though he was very bad the 
day before, so that I said, father, 1 hope thou wilt get over 
this illness ; but he answered me pretty quick and loud, 
*' No, but I don't though :'* It is not long since he was 
at my house, and was cheerful and well, but spoke as if 
he thought it would be the last time. My wife said, 
*' Father, thou mayest live some years;" but he replied, 
*' Is it not better for me to die, and go to Christ ?" So, 
dear brother, with dear love to thee, my sister, and thy 
dear children, and our relations, I conclude with earnest 
desires for thy health and welfcU"e, 

" Thv aifectionate brother, 


My brother* s account of my father'' s eonvincement^ and 
of his last sichiess and dying words. 

My father was born of religious parents at Kempton, 
near Hitching, in Hertfordshire, the 1st of the ninth 
month, 1642 ; his father's name was Thomas Chalkley, 
by trade a dealer in meal, by profession of the church of 
England, and zealous in his way, as was also his wife. 

They had four sons and three daughters, John, George, 
Thomas, and Robert; Elizabeth, Sarah, and Mary. My 
father, being the third son, was convinced very young at 
a meeting by Enfield- Chace- Side, near Winchmore-Hill, 
through the powerful ministry of William Brend, who 
was an eminent minister in the Lord's hand in that day, 
and had been a great sufferer for his testimony in Nev/- 
Englaiid. He was preaching, as 1 heard my father sev- 


eral times say, upon the words of the preacher, Eccles^ 
xi. 9. " Rejoice, O young man, in thy youth, and let thy 
heiu't cheer thee in the days of thy youth, and walk in 
the ways of thy heart, and in the sight of thine eyes ; but 
know thou, that for all these things God will bring thee 
into judgment." Upon which subject he spoke so home 
to my father's state and condition, that he was convinced, 
and two others of his companions were reached and af- 
fected with the testimony of Christ's truth and gospel ; 
my father and two young men had been walking in the 
fields, having religious conversation together, and were 
providentially directed to the meeting, by observing 
some friends going to it whom they followed thither : one 
of his companions was Samuel Hodges, who lived and 
died a faithful friend, at whose house in succeeding times a 
meeting was settled, and is there continued, and a meet- 
ing-house built at this day at Mims, in Hertfordshire. 

My father was the first of the family who received 
the testimony of truth, as it is in Jesus, after which his 
father and mother were convinced, and all his brothers 
and sisters, who lived and died honest friends, except one 
who died young, continuing in the church of England 
persuasion. Soon after the convincement of my father 
and his two companions aforesaid, they met with a trial 
of their faith and patience ; for being taken at a religious 
meeting of friends, they were all three committed to the 
new prison in Whitechapel, where having continued pris- 
oners for some time, the magistrates, observing their 
christian courage, boldness, and innocency, and being 
touched with tenderness towards them, considering their 
youth, they discharged them. 

My father, about the 25th year of his age, married 
my mother, a virtuous young woman, who was the wid- 
ow of Nathaniel Harding, a friend who died under the 
sentence of banishment for his profession of Christ ; the 
above account I had from my father's own mouth ; what 
follows fell within my own observation. 

My dear father met with great exercises and disap. 
pointments in his early days ; he, dealing in his father's 
business, sold meal to some who broke in his debt, which 


brought him low in the world, in which low estate he was 
an eminent example of patience, resignation, and industry, 
labouring with his hands for the surport of his family, 
and conscientiously answering all his engagements ; so 
that it may be justly said of him, he was careful that he 
might owe nothing to any man but love ; and farther, he 
was very constant in keeping to meetings, being a good 
example therein, though in very hot times of persecu- 
tion ; for when friends were sorely and severely persecut- 
ed on account of keeping their religious meetings, and 
the prisons filled with them through the nation, and 
their goods taken away, and much spoil and havock made 
about the years 1680 to 1684, my father constantly at- 
tended meetings, and never missed, as I remember, when 
well ; and though he was s( metimes concerned to speak 
by way of exhortation to friends in their public meetin,Q;s, 
when they were kept out of their meeting houses, by the 
then powers, to stand faithful to the truth and testifying 
of the solid comfort and satisfaction those had who truly 
waited on the Lord, which the faithful enjoyed, not with- 
standing their deep and many sufferings for Chri.'^t's sake, 
and his gospel, it pleased the Lord to preserve him by 
his divine providence, that he did not suffer imprison- 
ment, though the wicked informers were very busy in 
that time of severe persecution. I may further add, that 
when father was about 60 years of age, he had a concern 
to visit friends in the north of England, and some other 
parts of the nation ; and in the 75th year of his age, he 
travelled to Chester, and from thence, in company with 
James Bates, a public friend, of Virginia, went over for 
Ireland ; in all which services he had good satisfaction, 
and was well received of friends : divers other journies 
and travels he performed not here noted ; but this jour- 
ney hito another nation at 75 years of age, shews that age 
had not quenched his love and zeal for his Lord's work 
and service. 

In our father's old age he vv^as attended with very great 
exercises : about the 77th year of his age, as he was as- 
sisting his men in the dusk of the evening, he missed his 
footing, and fell down, and broke his leg ; and soon after 


his leg was well, he met with another accident by a fall, 
which disabled him, and made him lame to his death, 
never recovering the hurt he had by that fall, which was 
after this manner ; he was sitting in a chair by his door on 
a plank, which not being set fast, it fell, and he, to save 
himself from the stroke of the plank, fell with his hip on 
the stones, and got hurt exceedingly, notwithstanding he 
was remarkable for his activity ; he would walk, though 
so aged, and also lame, as far as the Work-house, Devon- 
shire-house, and Bull and Mouth meetings, two or three 
miles from home. The last bad accident that befel him 
was about three weeks before his death, when, being 
walking in the timber yard, a single plank, which stood 
against a pile, fell down, and striking him on his side, 
threw him down ; he complained not much of the blow 
till about a week after, when he was taken with a violent 
pain in his side, on the very place where he received the 
stroke, and when his cough took him, vvith which he was 
often troubled, the pain was very great ; howbeit, through 
means of a searcloth he received some ease, and the pain 
of his side abated, and the cough went off; but a vio- 
lent flux followed, and it brought h^m very low, and ex- 
treme weak ; so that it was thought he could not continue 
long ; upon which notice was sent to me, and I ^vent to 
see him, and found him very low ; but he revived, and 
changed often in this last illness ; I having been to see 
him five or six days before, having an account that he 
was ill, I then found him cheerful, and thought he might 
recover. He continued all the time of his illness in a 
patient and resigned frame of mind ; on a first day, in 
the afternoon, he took his bed, being the 6th of the first 
month, and in the evening, after the afternoon meetings 
which was the first day before his death, several friends 
came to visit him, who finding him very weak, after a 
little stay, went to take their leave of him, whom he de- 
sired to sit down, and after some time of silence, he broke 
forth in declaration in an intelligible and lively manner, 
to this effect, saying, We have no continuing city here^ 
but seek one to come, which hath foundations, whose 
liuilder and maker is God : Friends, may we all labour 


to be prepared for our last and great change, tliat whcii 
this earthly tabernacle shall be dissolved, we may have 
an habitation with the Lord, a building not made Avith 
hands, eternal in the hea\ens, and that it might be tlius, 
the Lord hath shewed thee, Oh! man, what is good, viz* 
To do justly, love mercy, and walk humbly with thy 
Cod. I do not expect but that this \\ill be the last night I 
shall have in this world, and I desire it may be remem- 
bered, as the words of a dying man, which came to pass, 
for he died the next day. Oii ! that we may labour to be 
clothed upon with our house that is from heaven, so that 
when the finishing hour comes, we may have nothing to 
do but to die. About one or two o'clock, the next morn- 
ing, he began to change, and desired to see me ; I came 
to him, and found him very sensible, but expected his 
end quickly to approach; he saying, he was waiting for 
his change. My son-in-law, Samuel Thornton, being 
with me, and we sitting by the bedside, with his nurse, 
his housekeeper, and his man, about the fourth hour in 
the morning, he^ prayed fervently after this manner; — 
Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, for 
mine eyes have seen.thy salvation, which thou hast pre- 
pared before the face of all people, thou hast given thy 
Son, a light to enlighten the gentiles, and to be the glory 
of thy people Israel ; and now, Lord be with thy people 
and servants, and preserve my near and dear relations, 
and keep them from the snares and temptations of the 
enemy, that in thy truth they may fear thy great name. 

After a little time of silence, he desired me to remem- 
ber his dear love, in the life of Christ Jesus, to my 
dear brother, Thomas Chalkley, in Pennsvlvania, and to 
all my old friends and acquaintance. Ai:»out the 11th 
hour in the morning he inquired how the tide was, which 
no body present could exactly tell ; some time after he 
asked again ; his man then went out to sec, returning, he 
told him, it would be high water about 3 o'clock in the 
afternoon ; he then lay still a while, and after some pause 
spoke cheerfully out aloud, so that all in the room might 
hear him, I shall go off about five ; his man said, master, 
how dost know? To which he answered, Know, I do 


not know, but I believe it. After this the apothecary, 
one of his neighbours, among whom he was well belov. 
ed, about noon came to see him, and asked him how he 
wasP Father answered, that for three or four hours in the 
night he thought he should have gone. Why, said he, sir, 
it will be no surprise to you, I hope. No, no, said my 
father, very cheerfully. He taking leave of father, said, 
the Lord be with you. To whom father answered, and 
with thee also. The doctor having ordered him a com- 
fortable cordial to drink, he drank it willingly, and then 
said, I do Jiot think to drink any more in this world ; 
but I hope I shall drink plentifully of the river of life ; 
then drawing near his end, finding his strength fail, there 
bting a cord by his order at the bed's feet, he raising 
himself up thereby as long as he had am- strength left in 
his hands, and when his hands and shoulders failed, and 
his head, when last lifted up, he spoke very low and 
faultering, yet so as I could understand, and said, now I 
am going, and about an hour after, laying all the while 
without sigh or groan, departed this life, as in a slumber, 
in sweet peace, according as he had foretold, just as the 
clock struck five, in a perfect enjoyment of that legacy 
our Saviour left his followers ; *' My peace I leave with 
you," &c. leaving us, of the succeeding generation, a 
good example to follow ; who, as he lived, so he died, 
like a lamb, in the 84th year of his age, the 7th day of the 
first month, 1725-6. 


To ■which account I shall add the following short testimony 
concerning my dear and greatly beloved father^ George 
Chalkley^ viz. 

" I have a great deal in my heart, more than I can 
write concerning my dear father's life, it having been a 
wonderful life to me from my youth up ; his early care of 
me, and counsel to me, when I was too thoughtless and 
wild, melts me into tears now in the remembrance of it ; 
and my tender mother was a partner with him in the 


same exercise, and she died in like peace. The last 
words 1 heard her speak were, 1 long to be dissolved. 
And as to my tender lather, I would record a little briefly 
in nicmory of him, that he was, 

1st. A true and faithful servant of Christ. 

2d. A tender and aftectionate husband : I lived at 
home with my parents about twent} years, and I never 
heard, that I remember, an angry ex]:)ression between 
them, only once something had troubled them, and they 
both wept, my father saying, I have been an indulgent 
husband unto thee, and my mother answered, 1 have not 
been one of the worst of wives to thee ; which were the 
harshest words, and the greatest difference that 1 observed 
between them ; for their life was a life of peace and 
love, and they were an excellent example to us their 
cliiidren. Oh ! may we ibilow them therein to the end I 

3d. He had a fatherly care for his children, in tender 
pra} ers for us, and in good advice to us, and in giving us 
learning according to his ability, and teaching us, by his 
example, as well as precept, industry, humility, and the 
true religion of our blessed Saviour, endeavouring to 
plant it in us betimes, and to destroy the evil root of sin 
in us, while yoimg. 

4th. I was his servant, as well as his son, and I can 
truly say, his service \Aas delightful, and his company 
pleasing and profitable to me ; and he was also beloved 
much by his other servants. 

5th. He was universally beloved by his neighbours, 
and I do not remember any difference between him and 
them, in the many years I lived with him ; but all was 
peace and love. 

6th. He was very loving to his relations, and true to 
his friends, and a hciuty well wisher and iover of his king 
and country. 

T. C. 

Our general meeting at Frankfort, the 30th of fourth 
month, was large, our hitr.d \\ ili; ni Pigot, from Lon- 
don, bemg there, in the course of his visit to frieixls in 


America, and had close work and good service in this 

In the fifth month, 1726, I visited the meetings of 
friends at Philadelphia, Germantown, Bybury, and Frank- 
fort, I had very comfortable satisfaction : my testimony- 
was pretty sharp sometimes to transgressors, and there- 
fore some of them hate me, as the Jews did my great 
Master : because I was concerned to testify, that their 
deeds were evil, and to excite my friends to manifest a 
christian zeal, by openly denying ungodly men, while 
they conthme in their ungodly works ; but when they be- 
come truly penitent, and reform their lives, the arms of 
Christ, and ihis church, will be open to receive them. 

Being under some melancholy thoughts, because some 
persons, for whom I wished well, and to whom I had 
been of service, were so envious and malicious as to tell 
false stories of me, tending to def[ime me ; as I was riding 
to our meeting, it opened with satisfaction to my mind, 
the more my enemies hate me, the more I will love, if 
that can be ; and I had hearty desires to come up in the 
practice of this resolution ; and I then thought I should 
come up with them all, for if a man loves and prays for 
his enemies, if they are gained, he is instrumental to 
their good, and so hath cause of rejoicing ; and if they 
are not gained, he heaps coals of fire upon their heads ; 
so that every true christian, by keeping under the cross 
of Christ, and in the practice of his doctrine, gets the bet- 
ter of his enemies. 

In the beginning of the sixth month, I was at the burial 
of Robert Fletcher, a worthy man, and one universally 
beloved by all sorts of people, as far as ever I heard ; 
there was a large meeting at his funeral, wherein several 
testimonies, suitable to the occasion, were borne : some 
of his last words were mentioned, which were, that he 
had lived according to the measure of grace given him. 
And the doctrine of the resurrection was maintained ac- 
cording to the scripture, and the people were exhorted to 
prepare for their final change. The death of this friend 
was a loss to the country, to our society, and to his neigh- 
bours, as well as to his fiimily and friends. 


After meeting, I travelled towards Uwchland, had a 
meeting there on first day, and on second day another 
meeting at Lewis Walker's, and on third day was at the 
general meeting at Haverford : Friends were exhorted to 
dwell in the love of God, one towards another ; for if 
they lost their love they would lose their religion, their 
peace, and their God ; for *' God is love, and those that 
dwell in God, dwell in love." 

My neighbour, Daniel Worthington, accompanied me 
in this rough travel, some part of the way being hilly, and 
very stony and bushy, and the weather wet. We had 
four meetings, and rode about fourscore miles ; and 
though I had travelled nmch in this province, I had never 
been at some of those places before : but a few nights 
before I set out, I had a plain prosjiect of them in a dream, 
or night vision, as I saw them afterwards, which I 
thought somewhat remarkable. 

The people inhabiting this province are now become 
numerous, and make many settlements in the woods, 
more than I have observed in my travels in any of the 
British plantations ; and there hath long been a desire in 
my mind that they might prosper in the work of true and 
thorough reformation ; and a godly fear and concern 
being upon me, I have sometimes put them in mind of 
the state of this land, when their fathers first came and 
settled in it ; and to caution them of growing careless, 
and forgetting the Lord, lest he should forsake them, and 
turn their now " fruitful fields into a barren wilderness," 
as this was so lately ; which it is easy with him to do, if 
he pleases, for the sins of the people. 

After my return home, I visited many meetings, as, 
Abington (youths' meeting), Philadelphia, and Chester. 
At Chester I was concerned to direct the people to that 
power in themselves, which is the life of religion, and to 
be careful not to rest in the best forms without it ; for if 
we had only the form of godliness, and had not the lire 
and power of it, it might be as reasonable for people to 
turn away from us, as it \\'as for our forefathers to turn 
away from other societies. 


In the seventh month, I was at our yearly meeting held 
at Burlington, for the provinces of New-Jersey and Penn* 
svlvania, which was a very large meeting, there being 
friends from New- England, Rhode- Island, and Europe. 

First day morning I went to Evesham, to the burial of 
our serviceable friend Jervice Stockdale ; he being in 
good esteem, there was much people : the meeting was 
in a good tender frame, and continued several hours so, in 
which divers testimonies were delivered, in order to stir 
up people to ti uth and righteousness, and godly living, 
that they might die well. I lodged the night before at 
Peter Fearon's, and in the morning I was awaked out of 
my sleep, as it were by a voice, expressing these words : 
*' He thcvt liveth and believeth in me shall never die." 
This I took to be the voice of Christ ; I do not know 
that it was vocal, but it was as plain as one. From these 
expressions I had to observe to the people, the happy 
state and privilege of those M'ho live and believe in Christ, 
and that such must not live in sin. 

During the time of our yearly meeting, some rude 
people came up the river in a small sloop, provided by 
them for that purpose, and spent their time in drinking, 
carousing, and firing of guns, to the grief and concern of 
friends, who were religiously discharging their duty, in 
serving and worshipping the Almighty ; and, it is observ- 
able, that one of these disorderly persons had his hand 
shot off at that time, and that the chief promoters and ac- 
tors in this riotous company were soon after cut off by 
death, in the prime of their days. 

After the general meeting was over, which ended well, 
friends in the love of God departed in peace for their 
several habitations, praising and glorifying God. 

In the beginning of the eighth month, having some 
business at Cape May, I ferried over to Gloucester, and 
went the first night to James Lord's, lodged there, got 
up before day, it being first day morning, and rode near 
50 miles to Salem, where we had a good meeting, and 
so went to Alloway's creek, Cohansy, and through a 
barren wilderness to Cape May, where we had one meet- 
ing, and returned home by way of Egg- Harbour; in. 


tvhich journey I travelled upwards of two hundred miles* 
At Cape May I was concerned to write a few lines con- 
cerning swearing, as follows ; 

" Christians ought not to swear in any case, for these 
reasons : 1st. Because Christ, their Lord, torbade it ; 
unto whom the angels in heaven must be subject, and, 
doubtless, so must mortal man, to whom he gave the 
precept. We must and ought to be subject to Christ, 
Ivho is Lord of lords, and King of kings, and the Judge 
of the quick and the dead : to him all mortals must be 
accountable for their disobedience. He says, in his ser- 
mon on the mount, thus, **I say, swear not at all:'* 
wherefore, how can Christians (or such who are his 
friends) swear, since he says also, " Ye are my friends, 
if ye do whatsoever I command you " So consequently 
those who disobey his commands must be his enemies. 
To this command it is objected, that Christ only spoke 
against common or profane swearing: but this must 
needs be a great mistake, because Christ says, " It was 
said in old time, thou shalt perform unto the Lord thine 
oaths" (alluding to the law of Moses), which oaths were 
solemn and religious ; therefore Christ did not only pro- 
hibit vain and profane swearing, but all swearing; if 
we understand the word all, and what all signifies, then 
all and any swearing whatsoever is not lawful for a chris- 
tian, according to Christ's law and command, which is 
positive to his followers. 

*' 2d. James, the holy apostle of Christ, our lawgiver 
and our king, says, "Above all things, my brethren, 
swear not, neither by heaven, neither by the earth, nei- 
ther by any other oath." Christ says, "Swear not at all;" 
and James his disciple and apostle, says, " Swear not by 
any oath ;" wherefore, if swearing on the Bible be an oath, 
or is swearing at all, it is contrary to the express doc- 
trine of Christ, and his apostle James, as is plain from 
the above cited texts. 

*' 3d. The primitive christians did not swear at all, 
in the first ages of Christianity. Query, whether our 
modern swearmg christians are better than the prim- 
itive ones, who, for Christ and conscience sake, could 


not swear at all, even before a magistrate, though legally 
called ? 

*' 4th. Many christians have suffered death, because 
they, for conscience sake, could not swear, and so break 
the command of Christ their Lord ; and do not our mod- 
ern christians trample upon their testimony and suffer- 
ings ? some of whom suffered death for not swearing be- 
fore the heathen magistrates, and some were martvred 
by the papists ; judge then whether the persecuted or 
persecutors were in the right. 

" 5th. Many of our worthy friends and forefathers, 
since the former, have suffered to death in jails for not 
swearing,^ when required by persecuting protestants, be- 
cause for Christ's sake and sayings, as above, they could 
not swear at all : and this hath been a testimony which 
our society hath constantly borne ever since we have 
been a people, for the reasons above, and more also, if 
there were occasion, which might be given." 

The 23d of the eighth month I was at the morning 
meeting at Philadelphia, on a first day of the week, which 
was large, and I was concerned therein to exhort friends 
to labour to purge and cleanse our society of those under 
our profession who live in open profaneness, and are riot- 
ous in their conversations. I was at the Bank meeting in 
the afternoon, where we had a comfortable time : and 
the next sixth day of the week I was at our monthly 
meeting, where it was unanimously agreed, in considera- 
tion of some late indecent conduct of some persons pre- 
tending to be of our profession, that a testimony from 
that meeting should go forth against such disorderly do- 
ings, and unchristian practices ; and that all such per- 
sons, who were irregular in their conversations, be dis- 
owned to be of our community, until they, by repentance, 
manifest their reformation ; which was accordingly soon 
after published, and read in our first day morning meet^ 
ing, and in our youths' meeting. And about this time, 
our governor issued a seasonable proclamation against 
drinking to excess, gaming, swearing profanely, revelling, 
night walking, and disturbing the peace, and other im- 
moralities ; xvhich afforded some satisfiiction to sober ;,ind 

A a 


well inclined friends, and others : yet there remained n 
great exercise and concern upon my mind, that some 
vcui-.g people, whose parents had been careful in training 
them up, Were grG\\n so wicked, that, b} their extrava- 
gant conduct, they not only disturbed our religious meet- 
ings, but likewise became obnoxious to the peaceable- 
government we live under. 

In the ninth month 1 was at divers meetings, at Mer- 
lon, GerniuUtown, Fairhill, Abington, and Philadelphia, 
in which were several marriages solemnized in a relig- 
ious manner. And in the tenth month 1 went into the 
county of Salem, about my afliiirs : it happened to be at 
the time of the quarterly meeting for Salem and Glou- 
cester counties ; but I did not know it, until I came to 
Salem, where friends were glad to see me, as I also was 
to see thtm; there were some of us whose hearts were 
knit and united togeiher as Jonathan's and David's, the 
divine love of God being much shed abroad in our hearts 
at that meeting : when it was over, and I had finish- 
ed my business, I could not be clear in my mind with- 
out having some meetings in the said counties of Salem 
ar d Gloucester ; and though it was a sickly time, and 
people died pretty much in those parts where we were 
going, JL.mes Lord and I, in the love of Christ, visited 
the meetings at Alloway's creek, Cohansy, Pile's-grove, 
Wocdberry, Newton, aiW:;':Haddoniield, having meetings 
every day in the Week, except the last, and sometimes 
riding nearly twenty miles after meeting, the days being 
at the shortest, and the weather very cold ; but the Lord 
\vas with us, which made sufficient amends for all the 
bodily hardships we met with. 

1 got home well, but weary ; and was well and joy- 
fully received by my loving spouse, children, and ser- 
vants ; and 1 was truly thankful to the Most High, for 
his presence and goodness continued to me ; so that, 
though I perceived my bodilv strength to decline apace, 
niy siglit, hearing, and voice, failing much, I have occasion 
to believe, at times I was hcliied e\'en beyond nature in 
the work of Christ, my dear Lord and Master. 


The 27th of the tenth niontli, I heard the news of the 
dearh of my dear friend John Lee, by one sent to desire 
my company at his burial, it affected me with sorroAV, he 
being- an old acquaintance, and inward friend of mine, 
with whom I had travelled many miles : he was a living^, 
serviceable minister of the gospel of Christ, and instru» 
mental to convince divers of that principle of divine light 
and truth which we profess. I could not be at his bur- 
ial, because of my indisposition, and the unseasonableness 
of the weather ; yet I think it my duty to say this con^ 
cerning him ; that our love and friendship was constant 
and entire unto the end, having- been acqu-ainted about 
35 years, as near as I can remember. 

In the eleventh month, as I was meditating in my 
closet, on the duty and beauty of that great virtue of 
temperance, it appeared very bright to the view of my 
mind, and the great benefit of it to those who loved and 
lived in it : 1st. As to religion, it tends to keep the 
mnid in an even temper, which is a help to devotion, and 
the practice of religious duties : 2d. It is a great preserv- 
ative to health and a good constitution : 3d. It is a bless- 
ing to posterity, in many considerations. Whereas in- 
temperance destroys the health, stains the reputation, 
hurts posterity, in respect to a healthy constitution of 
body and estate, ruins many families, brings to poverty 
and disgrace, and, what is yet worst of all, is a great let 
to religion and the true fear of God, and is a great scan- 
dal to any who make profession of the christian religion. 

In this month I accompanied William Piggot, who 
lately arrived from London, on a religious visit to the 
meetings of friends in America. From Philadelphia we 
went to my house at Frankfort, and from thence to 
North- Wales, and had two large satisfactory meetings on 
the first day ; next day we were at the monthly meeting 
at Abington, the third day at Frankfort, and fomth day 
at Germantown. Fifth day I went to Philadelphia week 
day meeting, and the said friend to Abington general 
meeting, and a few days after we met agiin at the 
quarterly meeting of ministers and elde,rs at Philadel- 


The 8th of the twelfth month was our youths' meeting 
at Frankfort ; many dying about this time, 1 was con- 
cerned in the meeting to put friends in mind of their 
mortality ; and that 1 had told friends lately, at their 
meetings at Abington and Philadelphia, that as I was 
riding from my house to iMiiladelphia, about a mile 
from the city, I saw, in the vision of life, the hand oi the 
Lord stretched over the city aud proviiice, with a rod in 
it, in order to correct the inhabitants for their sins and 
iniquities ; which sight affected my mind greatly, and 
although I did not hear any vocal voice, nor see any vis- 
ible hand, yet it \vas as plainly revealed to me as though 
I had ; and that notwithstanding I understood some 
blighted that testimony, yet I observed to them, that since 
that time, more people were taken away than common, 
as they now might see ; and indeed that inward sight and 
sense I had of the displeasure of God, for the sins of the 
times, nicide great im])ression on my mind ; and that no 
flesh might glory, the Lord took, from the evil to come, 
several sober, well inclined } oung people, as well as 
divers whose lives and conversations were evil and vic- 
ious ; so that all had need to be warned to be watchful, 
and turn to the Lord lest he come at unawares, and call 
us suddenly out of the world imprepared. In the twelfth 
and first months many died, of all ages and professions ; 
and now some, who would hardly give credit to what I 
had delivered in sevenil meetings, began to see the ful- 
filling of it, and great talk there was about it : and many 
solid and large meetings we had with the people at divers 
funerals about this time, exhorting the people not to 
slight the present visitation of the Almighty, and to pre- 
pare for eternity, to meet the Judge of the quick and the 
dead, who stands at die door. And among many that 
were taken aw.,y by death, were some few of my particu- 
lar friends ; and first, dear Hannah Hill, who was a bright 
example of piety and charity; she was like a nursing 
mother to me in my afflictions, as was her husband more 
like a brother, than one not related, whose generous en- 
teitainment I ma} never forget at times. Thomas Grif- 
fith, and Elizabeth his wife, died also about this time ; 


Thomas was a serviceable man, and well esteemed in our 
society ; and his wife a noted woman for being helpful 
to, and visiting the sick : she chose the house of mourn- 
ing, rather than the house of mirth. These were wor- 
thy ancients, who made peaceable and good ends, and to 
whom may be properly applied that remarkable text of 
scripture, " Mark the upright, and behold the just, for 
the end of that man is peace." 

In me second month, 1727, I proceeded on a voyage 
to Barbadoes, on account of business, for the support of . 
my family, and in order to discharge my just debts, 
which were occasioned by great losses by sea and land. 
Many of my friends were kind to me, and sent a cargo 
of goods, in the sloop John, Anthony Peel, master, con- 
signed to me for sales and returns. When the vessel 
was loaded, she proceeded down the river, and I went by 
land to Salem, and was at meeting there on first day, and 
on third day went on board the sloop at Elsenborough. 
On the 8th of the second month, we took in our boats 
and anchors, and proceeded to sea. From Elsenborough 
and the Capes I wrote to my wife, giving her an account 
how it was with me, and encouraged her to bear my ab- 
sence with patience : it was indeed very hard for us to 

I may not omit taking notice of an exercise which I 
felt one night as I lay on my bed in Philadelphia, on the 
21st of the first month, my sleep being taken from me, 
which I recollected and wrote down on board the afore- 
said vessel, and was in this manner : 

*' That the Lord was angry with the people of Phila- 
delphia and Pennsylvania, because of the great sins and 
wickedness which were committed by the inhabitants in 
public houses, and elsewhere : and that the Lord was 
angry with the magistrates also, because they use not 
their power as they might do, in order to suppress wick- 
edness ; and do not, so much as they ought, put the laws 
already made into execution against profaneness and im- 
morality : and the Lord is angry with the representatives 
of the people of the land, because they take not so much 
care as tliey ought to do to suppress vice and wicked- 


ncss, and wicked houses, in wliich our youth arc grossly 
corruj)ted : and also the Lord is ani^ry with ni in\- of the 
better sort of the people, because they seek after and love 
the things of this world, more than ihe things of bis 
kingdom : and it was shewed me that the anger of the 
Most High would still be agiiinst us, until there was a 
greater reformation in these things." It is worthy of 
commendation, thut our governor, Thomas Lloyd, some- 
times in the evening, before he went to rest, used to £^o 
in person to public houses, and order the people he found 
there to their own houses, till at length, he was instru- 
inental to promote better order, and did, in a great meas*- 
ure, suppress vice and immorality in the city. 

For some days after we w^re at sea, the weather was 
pleasant, and we had our health, for which my heart was 
truly thankful. I exhorted the sailors against swearing ; 
and though they had been much used to it, they left it 
off, so that it was rare to hear any of them swear ; for 
which reformation, so far, I was gliid. I lent and gave 
them several good books, which they read, and shewed 
much respect to me : but soon after the wind was con- 
trary, for some days, and some in the vessel were quar- 
relsome. I asked them what they thought of the saying 
of Christ, "If a man smite thee on one cheek, turn to 
him the other also ;" at which they were silent, and bet- 
ter conditioned to one another afterwards, and we had 
some reformation both from fighting and swearing. 
This voyage I was not so sea sick as I formerl}- had been, 
though i had, before I left home, some uneasy thoughts 
about my usually being sea sick, which I took as a pecu^ 
liar favour from, heaven. About the latitude of 20 de- 
grees north, we met with calms and contrary winds, 
which was ver}' hard for some in the vessel to bear, they 
putting themselves much out of temper about it ; as for 
my own part, I hud been used to disappointments, and 
therefore did not so much mind it. I spent pretty much 
of my time in reading and writing, and God being gra- 
cious, it was, in the main, a comfortable time to me ; and 
I enjoyed my healtli as mcII as ever I did at sea in my 
life, lor which I often breathed forth inward thanks to 


the Almightv. On the 5th of the third month we arriv- 
ed at Burbadoes, and I was lovingly received by our 
friends, but came to a very low market for my goods. 

I visited friends' meetings on the island, and had sev- 
eral open meetings at Bridge-town and Speight's-town, 
and likewise at Piimpkin-hili, and the Spring. On the 
day of Pentecost (so called) we had a meeting at Bridge- 
town, in which was shewn the work and operation of 
God's spirit on the old world, and under the law ; and 
the everlasting duration and Operation of the same holy 
spirit under the gospel dispensation, which Christ said 
should abide forever. At the quarterly meeting at 
Speight's-town were Judge Allen, and the captain of the 
man of war stationed there, with several others, not of 
our society. I was much drawn forth in this meeting to 
speak of the power of the, Father, Son, and the Spirit, 
opening to the people how we had been misrepresented 
in respect to our belief in the Trinity, or the Holy 
Three which bear record in heaven, the Father, Word, 
and Spirit, which three are one ; for that it was clear 
and plain that we are more orthodox in our belief in the 
Deity, than those who do not believe in the operation of 
the Holy Ghost ; as also that none could be true Chris- 
tians \A ithout it. It was queried, how could they be clear 
in their belief in the Holy Trinity, or the Three that 
bear record in heaven, who believe the Holy Spirit is 
ceased in its operations, gifts, or immediate revelations, 
and, if ceased, when, and where, to W'hom, and how? 
The people were very sober and attentive, and stayed 
all the time, and after the meeting was done some time, 
divers expressed their satisfaction with what was said. 
My good friend, Peter Sharp, of Maryland, was with 
me at this meeting, on whose account some of the peo- 
ple came. He had good service in the meeting, and I 
was glad of his company in this island, where we joyfully 
met and parted in the love of Christ. At this meeting we 
had each of us a certificate from friends, signifying their 
unity with our conversations and services. The last 
meeting I had at Barbadoes was at Speight's-town, on 
a first day. It was a solid, good meeting, in which I 


took my leave of friends there, and exhorted them to 
beheve in and hear Christ, he being a teacher that could 
not be removed from them, as men often were ; and, 
though they were but few, they were desired to meet in 
Christ's name ; and I had to shew them the difference be- 
tween us and other christian professors, who hold no public 
Avorship, if there be no outward teacher : whereas, if but 
two or three meet in the name of Christ, he has promis- 
ed to be in the midst of them ; and he is the best teach- 
er we can have. 

On the 14th of the fourth month we set sail from this 
island, and, for the most part, had fair weather and fair 
winds, and saw several ships, but spoke with none. 

I was one evening leaning over the side of the vessel, 
as being very lonesome (having little conversation with 
any in the vessel, for divers reasons), I turned from all 
outward things to the Lord, and was glad to feel his 
presence and goodness, which was a comfort to me in 
my lonesome state ; and as my travels and concerns had 
called and caused me to be much on the seas, it also 
pleased my good and gracious God, to support me there- 
on many times, in divers trials, temptations, and exer- 
cises ; for all which, I bow in awful reverence before 
him, and return thanksgiving and praise to his great 

The 1st of the fifth month, about noon, we came to 
the capes of Delaware, and sailed up the bay ; but, in a 
little time, we touched the ground with our vessel sev- 
eral times ; there being little wind we got no harm ; but 
two hours after, or thereabouts, a gust, or storm of wind, 
took us, which, if it had met with us on the shoals where 
we struck, in all likelihood we must have perished ; 
which I took to be a remarkable deliverance. Next 
tide we got to Newcastle, and. it being first day, I had a 
meeting with friends there, with which we were greatly 
refreshed in the Lord, and in one another. After meet- 
ing I went on board the sloop, and, having a fair wind, 
we sailed for Philadelphia, where we arrived about the 
eleventh hour, lodged that night at Paul Preston's, and 
next day went home to my family at Frankfort, where 

'The journal of thomas chalkley. 185 

tny wife, children, and servants, received me with much 

When I was in Barbadoes, P. M, who accompanied 
me from Bridgetown to windward to counsellor Weeks', 
told me, that when I was in the island before, he and I 
had some discourse concerning the use of the sword, he 
then, not being of our society, wore a sv/ord, but now 
had left it off, and his business also, which was worth 
some hundreds a year. 1 had reminded him of Christ's 
words, that, " Those who take the sword, shall perish 
with the sword," Mat. xxvi. 52. and, " Resist not evil, 
and if a man smite thee on one cheek, turn the other also : 
love your enemies, do good to them that hate you, pray 
for ihem who despitefuUy use you, and persecute you." 
After I had used these arguments, he asked me, if one 
came to kill me, would I not rather kill than be killed ? 
I told him, no ; so far as I know my own heart, I had 
rather be killed han kill. He said, that was strange ! 
and desired to know what reason 1 could give for it. I 
told him, that I beinjr innocent, if I were killed in my 
body, my soul might be happy ; but if I killed him, he 
d} ing in his wickedness, would consequently be unhap- 
py ; and if I were killed, he might live to repent ; but if 
I killed him, he would have no time to repent ; so that, 
if he killed me, I should have much the better, both in 
respect to myself and to him. This discourse had made 
so much impression, and so affected him, that he s.^id, he 
could not but often remember it. And when we parted 
at Bridgetown, we embraced each other, in open arms 
of christian love, far from that which would hurt or de- 

After I had been at home some time, I visited the- 
meetings at Philadelphia, Burlington, and Germantown, 
ir which places 1 had service of divers kinds, and wa:^ 
lovingly received by friends and others. 

In the fifth month, Joshua Fielding and John Oxle5' 
had a large and satisfactory meeting at Frankfort. Joshua 
came from London, on a religious visit to America, and 
having been on divers islands, he landed on the main at 
South- Carolina, and from thence traveiied through the. 

B b 


U'ildemess 400 miles, or more, where no public friend 
had ever travelled before : the journey was perilous, but 
the Lord was with him; who may, in his own time, make 
way for his servants in those desert places. John Oxley 
came on the same account from Barbadoes, and had good 
service among friends in his public ministry. 

In this month we thinking it convenient to send our 
little children to school, and not having a schoolmaster of 
our society near us, concluded to put our son and daugh- 
ter under the care of Nathaniel Walton, to whom I 
tliought it my duty to write a few lines about the saluta- 
tions and language I would have them trained up in, 
ivhich were on this wise. 

<* Frankfort, 30t/i of the 5th Months 1727. 
" Loving Friend, Nathaniel Walton, 

** 1 HOPE thou wilt excuse this freedom which I 
take with thee, in writing this on account of my children, 
in the se particulars, viz. Respecting the compliment of 
the hat, and courtseying, the practice thereof being against 
liiy professed principle ; 1st. because I find nothing like 
it in the bible ; but, as I think, the contrary. Thou 
knowest the passage of the three children of God, who 
stood covered before a mighty monarch ; and Mordecai, 
who could not bow to great Haman : and, 2d. I believe 
those practices derived from vain, proud man. And as 
to language, I desire my children may not be permitted 
to use the plural language to a single person ; but I pray 
thee to learn them to say thee, and thou, and thy, and 
to speak it properly, divers using it improperly, and the 
rather I desire it, because it is all along used in the di^'ine, 
inspired, holy writings. I suppose thou art not a stranger 
to its rise, being from the grandeur and apostacy of the 
Romish church ; and also, that 2/ou, to a single person, is 
not consonant to the book of God, nor the true rules of 
grammar. I know it is generally objected, that the end 
of speech is to be understood ; but it is understood better 


kt and according to the language of God, Christ, and the 
Koiy Ghost, in the Bible, and the language of kings, and 
all people, as we read it in the holy scriptures ; why then 
should we be ashamed of it, or shun it, and bring in and 
uphold a custom contrary to it ? The same care I would 
have thee take about the names of the days and months, 
which are derived from the names of the gods of the 
heathen, and are not found in the bible. I suppose I 
have the mind of all those of our society in the above, it 
being consonant to our principle and profession, and I 
write in a motion of divine love to all. 

'* As to the school learning of my children, I leave to 
thv management, not questioning thy ability therein ; and 
if they want correction, spare not the rod. 

" i hope thou wilt observe this direction in teaching 
my children, in which thou wilt oblige thy assured friend^ 


The latter end of the fifth, and the beginning of the 
sixth months, the weather was exceeding hot, so that di- 
vers people died suddenly of the heat, as it was sup- 

The beginning of the sixth month I was at the youths* 
meeting at Abington, which was large, and open to 
many ; and I not having been there since I came from 
sea, divers expressed their gladness to see me ; and we 
were that day favoured with some showers, both celes- 
tial and elementary, to our comfort. 

In the same month I was also at the youths* meeting in 
Philadelphia ; it had been a sickly time, but many had 
recovered. That passage opened on my mind, to speak, 
of in the meeting, concerning the lepers which Christ 
cleansed and healed, being ten in number, and that but 
one came to return thanks to God, for being healed, and 
restored to health. Luke xvii. 12. Friends were exhort- 
ed to prize their health, and to shew their thankfulness 
to God the giver of it, by fearing and serving him, and 
taking heed to Christ, the word, in their hearts. The 


meeting- was in a s^ood, solid frame, and we praised the 
Lord together, and gave him thanks for his merciful vis^ 

About this time I heard of the death of our king, 
George the 1st. a prince whom 1 loved and honoured ;. 
VI hich news was very sorrowful to me on divers accounts, 
his lo\ e and kmdness to our society was well worthy of 
our grateful remembrance. 

On a third day, being our week-day meeting at Frank- 
fort, Elizabeth VVhartnaby and Mary Smith were there ; 
it was a comfortable opportunity : they were two nights 
at my house. Elizabeth was preparing to leave this land 
for Barbadoes and Europe, intending a religious visit to 

The i20th of the sixth month, going into my closet, I 
there met with a paper of my so i in-law, Isaac Brown's, 
and iinding tiie contents were religitms, as I hud done of 
several of l»is late writings, I found it on my mind ta 
write to him after this manner. 

^' My dear son Isaac, 

By several waitings of thine, of late, I perceive that a 
good thing is at \\ ork in thy mind, the which 1 pray the 
all wise and infinite B(.ijig to promote in thy heart, to thy 
eteinal salvation, and his glory. I now begin to be in 
some hopes that my prayers and tears for thee, in the 
Lord's time, may be answered ; and I do believe, if 
thou kee))est low in thy mind, that God will more and 
more visit thee, 'j'he advice of David to his son Solo- 
mon, when he also gave him the kingdom, comes before 
my mind to give thee : " My son, know thou the God of 
thy father, and serve him with a perfect heart, and with 
a willing mind ; f(^,r the Lord searcheth all hearts, and 
understands th all the imaginations of the thoughts ; if 
thou seek him, he will be found of thee : but if thou for- 
sake him, he will cast thee off for ever." 1 C/iroti. xxviii. 
9. Dear Isaac, this was coutisel from one of the great* 
est and best of kings, to a wise young prince, who pe- 


titioned the Almighty for divine wisdom, before riches, 
or honour, or long life ; which petition so pleased God, 
that he answered his request, and, over and above, bless- 
ed him in an extraordinary manner. 

*' I perceive thou art inclined to read pretty much ; 
I pray thee, that thy chief study in books may be the 
holy scriptures. Let all other books, though of use, and 
good, in their places, be subservient to them ; for their 
authority, of all other writings, to the true believers in 
Christ, are most divine ; they having a supernatural 
spring and divine evidence in them to the virtuous and 
pious readers. Thou, my son, wilt much comfort the 
heiu-t of thy tender mother, and of me thy loving and 
careful father, if thou followest and perseverest in the 
ways of virtue and truth ; which, that ihou mayest, is 
the prayer of tliy affectionate father-in-law. 

T. C." 

The latter end of the sixth month I went to the general 
meeting of ministers and elders for the east part of New- 
Jersey, and to the quarterly and youths' meeting at Bur- 
lington, and to a general meeting at Stony- Brook, and to 
the quarterly meeting of the county of Bucks. John 
Oxley, of Barbadoes, and Joshua Fielding, of London, 
were at divers of those meetings ; wherein we had open, 
seasonable opportunities ; and I had a large, affecting ac- 
count from Joshua, of his long and difficult travels in the 
service of truth to the West- India isles, and thence to 
South- Carolina, from whence he came through the wil- 
derness, by land, through North- Carolina, Virginia, Sec. 
to this province. 

The 16th of the seventh month began our yearly meet*. 
ing at Philadelphia, which was attended with the gracious 
presence of God, to the comfort and great satisfaction of 
many souls. In this meeting divers young men and 
young women appeared, who were lately come forth in 
the ministry, and, as I believe, had received a measure of 
tlie gift of Christ's gospel; which was cause of rejoicing 


to the faithful among us, and excited our thanksgiving* 
and praises to the Ahnighty Lord of heaven and earth. 

At this meeting we had the company of four minis- 
ters from Great Britain, and one from Barbadoes, and 
many from divers other parts, it being a very large 
gathering of some thousands of people, as was believed, in 
which many were strengthened in their faith in Christ, 
and comforted through the power of the Holy Ghost, 
that blessed comforter, which Christ promised to his 
church, who should be with them for ever, and guide 
them into all truth. 

Next first day after the yearly meeting, I, with several 
of my neighbour!}, v, ent over Delaware to a meeting up 
Pensawken- creek ; in which the wonderful love of God 
was declared, in sending his Son upon earth, who, as he 
was man, died for man, ajid is now by his spirit present 
with all those that truly believe in him ; he being the 
messenger of the covenant of God to mankind. And 
on second day, being the 25th of the seventh month, I 
had the sorrowful tidings of the death of my beloved 
friend James Lord ; who, on his death-bed, desired that 
I might be sent for to his burial. In the consideration 
of that christian love which was between us, I think I 
may truly note, that we were always glad to meet each 
other; therefore the thoughts of this so sudden change, 
and final parting, brought, for the present, a sadness and 
heaviness over my mind ; considering his station in that 
neighbourhood, and service in that congregation to which 
he did belong ; for therein he was well beloved, and very 

And, Oh ! the loss that his dear wife and tender chil- 
dren will have of him, really affects me with sorrow in 
penning these notes ; but the sorrow, in these things, is 
all on our side ; for he, without doubt, is at rest with 
his great Master in heaven. We had a larger meeting 
at his funeral than ever was known to be there before, 
as an ancient friend told me, which was solemn and ser- 
viceable to many. 

Some time after, having been at divers meetings a- 
bout home, John Oxley and I, in company, visited 


friends on Long-Island. At Flushing we were at the 
burial of Jonathan Dickenson : many people of divers 
persuasions, were at the meeting on that occasion, and 
were very sober and attentive. I was at the yearly meet- 
ing for the south side of the island, at a place called Sec- 
cataug, which meeting was large, many friends and 
others coming to it over the Plains. I was afterwards 
at the yearly meeting at Shrewsbury, in East-Jersey, 
which held three days, and was very large, and the last 
day the people were very still. Joshua Fielding was at 
this meeting, and was therein concerned to preach the 
gospel of Christ with good authority, and matter suit- 
able to a true gospel minister ; John Oxley was ill of a 
fever, so that he could not be there; but there were 
brethren from divers parts, and the power and presence 
of the Most High was with and among us; blessed be 
his name. 

I was also at Rahway river, where was a solid, good 
meeting. From thence I returned home, having been 
abroad about a moath, and at above twenty meetings, 
and travelled above three hundred and fifty miles. 

In the eighth month, at Frankfort, we had three burials 
out of one house, at one time ; the mother, daugh- 
ter, and grand-daughther, of which I had never known 
the like instance before. On this occasion we had the 
company of many neighbours, and a very solemn meet- 
ing at our meeting-house at Frankfort. 

About this time I was at divers meetings at Philadel- 
phia, Abington, and Burlington : we had an evening 
meeting at Burlington, with Richard Smith, jun. who 
had been so ill that he could not get out to meetings for 
some months : it was such a satisfactory meeting, that he, 
and I, and others that were there, will not easily forget, 
Gur hearts being broken together. 

The world still continued to frown upon me ; but, tho* 
my case was such in this world, yet, at times, I had great 
consolation in Christ; and, in the midst of my troubles 
when I looked back, I could truly say, that I had not been 
extravagant, but frugal ; not covetous, but charitable ; 
not idle, but industrious ; not willing to be such an in- 


ficlel as not to take care for my family ; it was some solid 
comfort to my mind ; and I bless the Almighty, th it I 
always preferred his work and service to my own, and 
therein had great ])eace. This I can also sa\ , if it were 
the last I should say, that I never wilfully, or knowinglv, 
wronged any man, woman, or child, since I came to 
years of discretion ; and yet I have nothing to boasi of; 
it is the Lord's grace and mercy which saveth us. 

Having occasion to make another voyage to B rrbadoes, 
I wrote to the teacher of my children as followeih. 

" Frankfort, 10th of the 10th Month, 1727. 

** Loving Friend, 

" I BEING going to Barbadoes, leave the charge 
«f my little children to thy care, not doubting thy man- 
agement of them, by their growing in their learning; 
please to instruct them to sobriety, and the fear of God, 
and faith in Christ ; and, if I should never see them nor 
thee any more, our lives being uncertain in this world, 
pray let them know that it was their father's will and de- 
sire, that they should mind their learning, and, above all 
things, mind the fear of the Most High. When my lit- 
tle daughter hath read her testament through, I would 
have her go to writing ; and George the same, on the 
same terms. Please to learn them the use of chapter and 
verse, that if any ask them where they are learning, they 
may tell. And, kind friend, inasmuch as I perceive thou 
hast followed my former directions, I look on myself 
obliged to thee ; therefore am so much the more free to 
impart my mind to thee, now on my departure ; which, 
with real love, is from thy loving friend, 

T. C." 

" P. S. Although my care is great for my children's 
learning their books, yet it is much more so as to their 
learning true piety and virtue." 


On the 25th of the tenth moith we set sail from Phila- • 
delphia, in the sloop Dove, Oswald Peel, master ; having 
taken a solemn farewell of my dear wife, children, and 
friends, in order for the support of my family, and an- 
swering my just debts, which 1 had contracted. On the 
27th day of the month, in the evening, we took in our 
boat, and put to sea ; had some rough weather in our 
passage, but lived comfortably ; we being all loving and 
obliging one to another. On the 15th of the eleveuh 
month, we safely arrived at Speight's-town, in Barbadoes ; 
and the 18th, between the hours of five and six in the 
morning, vv^e felt the greatest earthquake that I had ever 
felt ; having been sensible of three, one at London, one 
at Jamaica, and one at Frankfort, in Pennsylvania. I was 
thankful m my heart to the Lord for my safe arrival, and 
that we were all preserved safe in our stormy passage, 
and deep loaded vessel; one vessel being lost that came 
out a little time before us ; and another, which came 
from our port to this island a few days sooner than we, 
lost three men by the violence of the storm, and received 
much damage otherwise ; one of them being a neighbour 
©f mine, with whom I was well acquainted, it affected my 
mind very much. I visited friends meetings in Barba- 
does, and some divers times over ; and had occasion in 
some meetings to mention the earthquake, which I told 
them I did believe was a visitation from the Almighty, 
in order to put people in mind of mortality, and to re- 
form them from the evil of their ways, and call them to 

While I was in Barbadoes, Francis Gamble died, whom 
I went to visit several times in his sickness : at his fune- 
ral was a large gathering of his neighbours, and others ; 
and divers, not of our society, expressed their satisfac- 
tion with the meeting. The people in and about 
Speight's-town, in Barbadoes, were very lo\ing and kind 
to me, more than I ever had observed before ; even some 
vile, profane men, whom I could not forbear to repro\ e 
for their swearing, and taking the sacred r;amc in vain, 
yet they shewed respect, notwithstanding 1 reproved 
them sharply. Who (\an take the sacred name m God 


into their mouths in vain, and be guiltless? or, who caa 
hear it, iind forbcur reproving it, without being remiss in 
their duty ? This great evil is too frequently praetised 
in this rich (p('Or) island of Barbiidoes, rich in earthly, 
but poor in heavenly treasure, which caused me many 
times to mourn in secret before the Almighty, praying 
him for the rtformati(;n of the people, for Christ's sake, 
and for the glory of his own eternal name. 

The 27th of the first month, 1728, having done my 
business in Barbadoes, and seen friends generally, an op- 
portunity offered for my return home, in the brigantinc 
Sarah and Mary, Samuel Gallop, master, bound for Bur- 
lington, in company M'ith W iiliiim Dury and William 
Callender, both of Barbadoes. Our master was exceed- 
ingly kind to us in the voyage. The w'md hanging north- 
eriy, we could not go to windward, but drove to leeward, 
and sailed by the isles of Lucia, Martinico, Dominica, 
Guadaloupe, Antigua, Montserrat, Rodondo, Nevis, 
Christopher's, Eustatius, Saba, Martin's, Anguilla, Bar- 
tholomew's, Sombrero, and four other small islands, wlich 
are called the Saints. It was very pleasant sailing by 
these islands, only some of them were so exceedingly 
high, that in some places we were becalmed, and the 
clouds appeared below the tops of divers of the moun- 
tains. At Christopher's, which is counted the highest of 
them, there being a small river of good fresh water, we 
sent our boat on shore for some, having none very good 
on board : we lay off and on about two hours, but did not 
come to. I was thankful for this water, it being my con- • 
slant drink ; it was also very serviceable to the people on 
board. After we left the isle of Sombrero, we saw a sail, 
which we thought stood after us, and hearing at Christo- 
pher's that several Spanish privateers were on that coast, 
our master, and some others on board, were a little sur- 
prised ; but we soon left her out of sight, and we after- 
wards went pleasantly on our way, till we came to the lat- 
itude of Bermuda, where the winds blew fresh, and much 
against us ; and this winter having been very hard, we 
felt the sharp blasts of the latter end of it. We had a 
passage of about thirty days, and came very pleasantly up 


the bay and river ; and it pleased God that I got home 
once more to my beloved wife and children, and was 
joyfully received by all my family, whom I found ia 
a good degiee of health ; for which I did, as I had oc- 
casion to do, bless and praise the great name of the Most 
High, who is worthy forever. 

After I came home, I was at many meetings in Penn- 
sylvania and Jersey, viz. at Philadelphia, Burlington, 
Bristol, Bybury, Frankfort, Germantown, N<. w-Hanover, 
Cros wicks, &c. in all which meetings, I had some ser- 
vice to friends' satisfaction, and was comforted with the 
goodness of God in the midst of my afflictions. My 
business lying much at Burlington, 1 spent pretty much 
of my time there for several weeks ; where my friend^ 
manifested a tender and hearty respect towards me, and 
sympathized with me in my troubles and travels ; and 
there I prepared for another vo} age ; for I was fully re« 
solved, through divine assistance, to pay all my just debts, 
which I contracted, and lay on me, through many losses, 
or else to die in the pursuit of it ; in which resolve I had 
inward peace and satisfaction ; though such labour, 
travail, and separation from my family, was a great cros§ 
to nature. 

On the 14th of the fifth month we went on board the 
brigantine Sarah and Mary, Samuel Gallop, master, for 
Barbadoes ; and on the 16th we sailed down the bay, and 
put to sea, and I wrote a loving, tender letter, to my wife 
and famil}', and another to my friends at Burlington. We 
had fair winds for about two weeks, after which they 
were contrary for several days, during which two of our 
men had a fever, and our vessel proved leaky, though 
tight in smooth water, which was some concern to us, 
and obliged us to pump every half hour; but the leak 
being much the same, while at sea, we were the more 
easy about it : I took care of those two people that 
were sick, who soon recovered. The 3d and 4th days 
of the sixth month it was very windy, with lightning, 
thunder, and rain ; in which rough weather one of our 
best sailors put his shoulder out of joint, and they brought 
him to mc to see if I could do him any service ; I was 


not forward to meddle ; but the man and the people be- 
lie viig, if I would undertake for him, I miglu iicip hnn ; 
1 told them, that though I did not understand bone set- 
tiiig, I would instruct them the best 1 could ; then 1 or- 
dered liim to sit down upon the deck, and to be stript to 
the waist, and got a round piece of wood as thick as his 
arm, and wrapt a piece of cloth about it, that it might not 
bruise his liesh, and put it under his arm, and ordered 
two men, one at each end of it, to lift up strongly, and a 
third man to stretch his arm out, and keep it down with- 
al ; which being done, the bone went into its pUice ; for 
\Ahich I was thankful in my heart to the Almighty. 
About the 10th of the sixth month we safely arrived at 
Speight's town, in Barbadoes, being the first day ol the 
week. From whence I had an opj^ortunity, b} Alex- 
ander Seaion, master ol a vessel bound to Pennsylvania, 
to send an account of our safe arrival. 

I iiad many meetings in the isl:ind, and made several 
visits to divers sick pers(>ns, one of which was particular- 
ly to the satisfaction of the person visited, and his rela- 
tions : he died, aid was buried at Hcihcott's-ljay, where 
we had a large meeting at cur meeting-house, where were 
many people, and it w<.is argood, seasonable opportunity ; 
in which 1 had occasion to remind them of their morlal- 
jtv, and press l^iem to a holy life, the way to a happy 
immortality. I had divers meetings at Bridgeto\\n, 
S, cight's-town, and the Spring; where the testimony of 
Christ's gospel was well recei\ ed. And after a sta\ of 
three weeks, 1 left Barbadoes on the first of the seventh 
month, ai)d took my passage in the Aniiiy, Charles Har- 
gnve, master, who was very fvi( ndh' to me in my pus- 
sagt, as were all on board. We arrived at onr ])ort 
without casting anchor in all our voyage, and laid the 
vessel to the wharf at Phiiadelj:)hia ; and on my landing 
I inmiediately went into the meeting of ministers and el- 
ders, it being just met ting time, where we were much 
comforted together in Christ; after which I went home> 
being lovingly receiAcd b} my wife and family, having 
been from home about ten weeks. 


After I came home from this voyage, I visited the 
meetings of friends at Phihidelphia, Frankfort, German- 
town, the Falls of Delaware, Burlington, New-Hanover, 
Mount-Holly, Fair-Hill, &c. 

The 2d of the ninth month I was at the quarterly- 
meeting of ministers and elders at Philadelphia, where I 
met with Joseph Taylor, a friend, who had visited our 
meetings pretty generally on the continent of America, 
in the ministry of the gospel, and was now on his return 
homewards, with whose visit friends had good unity, and 
certified the same to our brethren of the meeting where 
he lived in Great Britain. 

After this I was at divers meetings in Pennsylvania 
and Jersey ; and the latter end of the ninth month, Sarah, 
the wife of Jeremiah Elfreth, died very suddenly, having 
been the day before walking in her garden ; she was a 
sober young woman, and her death was much lamented ; 
her burial occasioned my stay at Philadelphia, which I 
had divers times shuned, because a concern had been 
on me for some time, to declare to the people of that 
city, that the lord was angry with the legislators of Penn- 
sylvania, because they were not so much concerned to 
promote religion and piety, as they ought, and to make 
such laws as might prevent the excessive increase of 
public houses, which often prove seminaries of Satan ; 
but strove to promote parties more than religion : and 
that the Lord was angry with the magistrates, because 
they did not so much as they might, and ought to do, to 
put those good and wholesome laws in execution, which 
were already made, against vice and immorality ; and 
that the Lord was angry with some of the better sort of 
people, because they seek and mind the things of this 
world, more than the things of God and his kingdom. 
But I was helped to clear myself in the morning meet- 
ing, to the satisfaction of many of the honest hearted, and 
uiiburdcn my mind of a great exercise that I had long 
laid under. 

In the afternoon we had a large meeting at the Bank 
meeting-house, occasioned by the aforesaid burial ; the 
resurrection of the dead was declared in that meeting, ac- 


cording to the doctrine of our S.viour Jesus Christ, the 
great author of the christian religion, and also of that 
eminent apostle Paul ; and that old and false calumny, 
that our society denied the resurrection of the dead, was 
publicly denied and refuted. The people were c xhortt- d 
to live well, that they might die well ; and then they 
need not doubt, but that they would rise well at the re. 
surrection in the last day. The meeting concluded w^ith 
praise to the Almighty for all his mercies, and prayer to 
him, that he would sanctify that day's service to the 

In the tenth month I prepared for another voyage to 
the island of Barbadoes, and had the ship Bristol Hope 
consigned to me, but the winter setting in sooner than 
common, caused our stay much longer than we expect* 
ed, whereby I had the opjiortunity to visit divers meet- 
ings, as Burlington, the Falls of Delaware, Ncshaminy, 
Wright's-town, and Philadelphia. In this city a con- 
cern was on my mind to declare to the people, that the 
Almighty had shewed me, that he had often visited those 
in Philadelphia and Pennsylvania with his own hand, and 
with his own rod; but if that did not work the designed 
end for which he visited them, (of which they were told 
also before it came to pass), he then would chastise 
them with the rod of man, and this was as plainly spo- 
ken to me in my own habitation, as though it had been 
the voice of a man, though it was not vocal. 

The 12th of the eleventh month, being first day, I 
was at Horsham meeting, and had a tender bowing time 
therein ; and in my way home visited some friends who 
were sick, it being a time of general visitation in those 
parts ; and the next seventh day I was at the meeting of 
ministers and elders at Philadelphia, where we had a good 
meeting. Here I was earnestly desired to be at the 
funeral of Edmond Orpwood, the eldest friend belong, 
ing to Frankfort meeting ; but was in a strait, this friend 
being my neighbour, and I had before engaged to be at 
the burial of one with whom I had been acquainted near 
forty } ears, therefore I did my endeavour to be at both, 
being each of them buried in tlie afternoon, and five 


miles distant ; the days being short also, divers told me 
it was impracticable ; I told them they might be mistak- 
en, as they were ; for though we had a large meeting, 
and the company of Rowland Wilson, from Britain, who 
had large and good service therein, yet after meeting we 
mounted, and got to Philadelphia about a quarter of an 
hour after the corpse was brought into the meeting-house, 
as I was informed. We had a large, and, as I thought, 
a good meeting ; after which I went home, being weary 
in my body, but thankful in my heart, that the Almighty 
had been with us, and helped us to perform that day's 

On the 20th of the eleventh month, and second day 
of the week, I went into a piece of ground (which I 
was clearing for meadow) in order to give directions to 
the workmen ; one of the trees fell contrary to the kerf, 
and also to the wind, which was then at north-west, and 
when I saw it falling towards me, I ran from it, but be- 
fore I could get out of the way, it fell upon me, across 
my back, from my shoulder to my hips, and struck me 
down to the earth, where for some time I lay speechless, 
and in all likelihood I should have been immediately 
killed, if I had not been providentially preserved by the 
body of the flilling tree laying on a stump, which pre- 
vented its crushing me, as I lay on the ground. A friend 
that was near me, with a horse, desired the wood-cutters 
(when they were recovered from the surprize, and I to 
the use of my speech) to help me on his horse, and I 
rode home, but in extreme misery, and I was under 
great concern, lest I should surprize my wife and chil- 
dren suddenly. We sent to Philadelphia for Dr. Grif- 
fith Owen, who came in about two hours, and let me 
blood, and ordered several things to be applied and ta- 
ken, which through divine favour proved very service- 
able to me ; notwithstanding which, I was in great pain 
many days, and long and tedious nights, not being able 
either to feed myself, or turn in my bed, for a great 
while. In this confinement I was at times favoured with 
a very comfortable sense of the presence of God, whose 
providence is over all his works ; and as his love to me 


was great, so the love of his people was also, many'oT 
whom, and of my neighbours, came to see me, sympa- 
thizing with me in my distress ; but among them 1 had 
one of Job's comforters, who wickedly abused me in this 
low state. 1 can scarce forbear mentioning his name, 
having example for it in holy writ, but through the Lord's 
help 1 will put on charity. 

The 9th of the twelfth month, I got abroad the first 
time to our meeting at Frankfort, with which divers ex- 
pressed their gladness to see me there again. In this 
meeting I exhorted them to think on eternity, and to pre- 
pare for it, by living to-day, as though they were to die 
to-morrow ; for I found it by experience to be needful, 
and then if sudden death comes, it will not surprize us. 

As I now found it continue my business to go to sea 
for a livelihood, I undertook the charge of the ship New 
Bristol Hope, as master, though it was a way of living 
to which I did not incline. I took care in our vessel that 
there should be no swearing in my hearing, nor drunk- 
enness, to my knowledge, without reproof; and if I 
could not be instrumental that way to break them from 
swearing, and drinking to excess, my manner was, to 
put them away, so that we generally had a pretty quiet 
ship. We left Philadelphia the 13th of the twelfth months 
but storms and contrary winds detained us in the river 
and bay, so that we did not get out to sea till the 21st 
of said month, when the pilot left us, by whom I wrote 
to my wife and famil}' ; and now I thought I felt the ben- 
efit of the good wishes of my beloved and dear friends I 
left behind, which did me a great deal of good, as it often 
hath done on the like occasion ; for faithful friends, and 
good christians, are as epistles written in one another's 
hearts. In our passage we took several dolphins, M-hich 
were very welcome to us, we having a long passage, and 
our fresh provisions nearly spent. The 19th of the first 
month we saw the island of Barbadoes, having had sev- 
eral meetings on board the ship in this voyage, the good 
effects I could sec but little of, only for that day they 
would be a little more sober, and some of them, addicted 
fo swearing, did not swear so often as they did before. 


The day following we safely arrived at Speight's-town, 
where we had the next day a very comfortable meeting 
for the divine worship of God. The fifth day following 
I was at Bridgetown, at their week day meeting ; and 
next first day, being the 30th of the month, I was at a 
meeting at Pumpkin-hill, where I was enlarged in the 
doctrine of faith. 

After this I went to the Bridge with a friend from 
New-England; we had two good meetings, it being the 
general meeting for the friends of the island, and after- 
wards I, with several friends, went again to Speight's- 
town, and on the 12th of the second month I was at the 
Thicket's meeting, at which were counsellor Weeks, col- 
onel Charnock, and justice Sims ; I dined with them at 
judge Weeks', and they discoursed of what was said in 
the meeting about dancing, I quoting Luther's words, 
*' that as many paces as the person takes in the dance, so 
many paces or steps they take towards hell :" and I told 
them, that I had heard that several had used that vain ex- 
ercise in our meeting-house, which was appointed for the 
worship of God ; and I said, I hoped for the future it 
would be so no more ; two of those persons who danced 
in our meeting-house, were then in the meeting, though 
I did not know it. This testimony so wrought on the 
colonel, that he said he could scarcely feel his lesrs since I 
spoke it ; and the justice said, if these words be true, he 
had taken many steps towards hell ; and the counsellor 
and judge said, it was home doctrine to some that were 
there : divers of them seemed to be touched with the 
testimony of truth, though not so solidly as I desired. 
Soon after, I went with Joshua Birch, to visit the gov- 
ernor of the island, colonel Worsley, who treated us with 
much freedom and civility ; he desired me to sit down by 
him, and then called for a decanter of wine, of which he 
kindly offered me a glass, but I told him I chiefly drank 
water ; he said, v»'ater is certainly the best drink in the 
world, and told me I was a credit to my drink, as I look- 
ed as well, or better, than most who drank wine. 

In the second month, I was at meeting on a first day at 
Bridgetown, which was somewhat larger than usual ; it 

]> d 


was a good open time in the morning, but more so in th6 
afternoon. At this meeting, there was a merchant of the 
town, who sent to know if our friends (he not being of 
our profession) would make a contribution for me, in 
consideration of my losses. He said he would con- 
tribute as much as any, although he had heard me only one time ; but he was informed that we received no 
money nor pay for our preaching ; yet his good will I 

The 4th of the third month, I was at meeting at the 
Spring, where I met with Joseph Gamble, and John Ox- 
ley, and his wife, and several others, not belonging to 
this particular meeting, and we were edified together in 
the love and life of Christ. I was concerned to speak of 
the divers visitations and speakings of God to the people 
since the world began ; quoting the words of holy writ, 
that, " God, who at sundry times, and in divers manners, 
spake to the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last 
days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed 
heir of all things :" and that this dispensation is the last 
and brightest dispensation of all, and is the greatest and 
most glorious manifestation of God's love to mankind ; 
and that beside this vocal speaking of Christ, when in 
the body on earth, he now speaks spiritually : which spir- 
itual speaking of Christ, in and to the true church, and 
true believers, will outlast time, and endure to all eter- 
nity ; the great Lord of all, for his unspeakable benefit 
therein, was praised and glorified, as being alone worthy. 

I had divers other meetings on the island, which I pass 
by, not being willing to be prolix. After a stay of about 
nine weeks, v^e proposed sailing. Judge Gray, a very 
noted man, and much esteemed among the people, took 
passage with us ; also Joshua Birch, of Bridgetown, for 
his health, and William Callender, and several others, as 
merchants. Tho' I came on account of trade, our friends 
gave me a certificate that I had good service among 
them, and in my outward affliirs had gained esteem among 
the people, as well as in my service in preaching Christ ; 
all which I acknowledge to be the effects of divine grace ; 
divers friend:^ aiid acquaintance came to the sea shore a(; 


Speight's-town, and in a great deal of tender christian 
love, and good desires, we took leave, and committed one 
another to the protection of the Almighty. We had a 
comfortable passage, and arrived at Philadelphia, where 
I was lovingly received by my wife and friends. 

In this voyage, a great and weighty concern came on 
my mind, on account of the young and rising generation, 
dc siring that they might be happy in this world, and ia 
that which is to come. And first, as to this world, I have 
taken notice, that divers of the youth are too apt to waste 
their outward substance, which often is given to them, 
(for when they get it themselves, they are for the most 
part more saving of it) and this wasting and spendmg, 
those sparks call generosity, liberality, good nature, gen^ 
tility, fine breeding, and abundance of other fine names, 
not considering the labour and industry, frugality, care, 
and watchings, of their parents or ancestors, to get what 
they have. May parents note this well, and not be anx- 
iously concerned to get much wealth, which may be a 
means to ruin their posterity ! and truly most of these 
spending, drinking, company keeping, gaming, chatting, 
tippling youngsters, take a great deal more care how they 
may get money from others, that they may spend it, than 
how to earn it, or faithfully labour for it themselves ; 
they will beg or borrow, or run in debt, but take little or 
no solid thought to pay ; by which means divers of 
those topping, beggcyly beaus, and spenders, have 
brought both themselves and relations, parents and 
friends, to shame and disgrace, and sometimes to poverty, 
where their relations, and parents have been too liberal. 
Let all indulgent parents note this also. 

And if any concerned person should advise those in- 
considerate youths of their evils, it is much if they gain 
not their lasting ill will, and the epithets of niggards and 
covetous, ill natured, censorious, sour, morose, &c. 
However I shall venture to stand the shock of their dis- 
pleasure, and in as moving terms as I can, consistent with 
the matter on my mind, entreat them to consider the end 
of their spending, slothful, idle life, which if continued 
in, must needs end ia their ruin, and they may repent 


when it is too late, crying out, Oh ! that I had hearken- 
ed to the advice of my lather and my indulgent mother ! 
Oh ! that 1 had taken the counsel of my good friends in 
time, then I had not been in this condition, nor in those 
straits I am now in. This, or worse, must at last inevit- 
ably be ihe condition of those unthinking, time wasting 
and money spending, evil company keeping young peo- 
ple of both sexes. Some of whom, if they can get it, 
will bpend more in a few hours, than their parents can get 
in so many days, which is very unreasonable, as well as 
unthinking ; for if the mdulgent parents do not hold their 
hands, truly they must all sink together ; and where the 
parents have been what these sorts of youths call liberal, 
whole families have by such liberality been undone, 
which is a case to be lamented by all sober people. 

1 pray our spending youths to consider, how many- 
brave, fine young men and women, whose parents have 
left ;hem estates and handsome incomes, have by such 
extravagances, soon spent all, and sometimes more than 
all, and disgrace and a jail have been their portion ; and 
how many, by living too fast, have died too soon, much 
sooner than might be exj)ected, according to the course 
of nature. 

Wherefore, I would advise them to regard what the 
wise king Solomon said, " Go to the ant, thou sluggard, 
consider her ways, and be wise ; she gathereth her food 
in the summer;" (i.e. she prepares against the winier) 
though this may be despicable in the eyes of our fine 
gentlemen and learned spending wits, yet there appears 
more wisdom in these little industriotis animals, than in 
those great spenders, who in the spring and summer of 
their years, take so little thought of saving what hath 
been with so much care gotten for them, or of getting 
more against their winter or old age ; which, if they 
live, will certainly overtake them, when their youth or 
summer is gone. 

But many youths object against this advice, crying 
out, as I have often heard, " The aged give this advice 
when they are old, but did as we do, when they were 
young as we are ;" although this may be true in some. 


yet it will not hold good in the general ; and if it do in 
some, is not that maxim good, " Let others harms learn 
us to beware, before it be too late, that we fall not into 
the same snare, which hath entangled or caught thous- 
ands to their great shame and reproach ?" Again, those 
who have been so overtaken in their youth, and are es- 
caped out of the snare, are more fit to caution or advise 
how to escape it, or to shew those paths which lead them 
into that labyrinth of wo and misery. 

The author of all evil useth his utmost skill and power 
to promote the practices of excessive drinking, &c. 
among mankind, it being a mighty support to his king- 
dom ; for when the nobility of the understanding is 
clouded thereby, then. Oh! how many wicked oaths. Oh! 
what corrupt language, what unhandsome, unbecoming 
words and actions, are brought forth ! How is the sober, 
chaste soul, offended, and, above all other considerations, 
how is God dishonoured, and the end of our creation 
frustrated, and man condemned ! 

When people are in those excesses, how do they take 
the sacred name in vain, and so bring themselves in guilty 
before God, and man ; for he has positively said, he will 
not hold those guiltless who take his name in vain ; so 
that let him plead never so many excuses, he is pro- 
nounced guilty by the Judge of heaven and earth: there- 
fore, let me persuade the youth to remember what the 
Lord by his servants said concerning drinking to excess : 
*' Wo to the drunkards;" and that " no drunkard shall 
inherit the kingdom." Again, " Wo to them that are 
mighty to drink wine, and men of strength to mingle 
strong drink," &.c. If it be objected, as it often is, when 
such poor souls are reproved, and their sins set in order 
before them ; we trust in the mercy of God and the mer- 
its of Christ ; I say this is a good trust and hope, if upon 
a good foundation ; but the wicked must forsake their 
ways, and the unrighteous their evil thoughts ; but what 
forsaking is that, when strong conviction is upon the 
soul, to make covenants, vows, and promises, and break 
them from time to time ? And though Christ hath satis- 
fied the justice of the Almighty for sinners, it is for those 


who forsake their sins, not those who plead for the prac. 
tice of them, and endeavour, by many vain excuses, to 
justify themselves in them. 

Since then the salvation of the soul is precious, and 
hath cost the precious blood of the Lamb of God, and 
is much more precious than health or wealtii, why should 
any be so cruel and hard-hearted to themselves, as, for a 
little vanity, froth, mirth, toys, trifles, vain sports, and 
evil pastime, to plun^^e and sink themselves into the 
eternal gulph of wo and misery ; pray, Oh ! pray con. 
sider it, dear youths. 

After my return from Barbadoes, in the fourth month, 
I visited friends' meetings at Burlington, the Falls of 
Delaware, Abington, Germantown, and was divers times 
at Philadelphia and Frankfort meetings ; which meetings 
were much to my satisfaction ; the Lord being pleased 
to manifest his goodness to many, as also to my poor 
exercised soul ; for which I was truly thankful unto 

In the sixth month I was at the general meeting of 
friends at Darby, in Chester county, which was a large, 
good meeting, divers friends appearing there in a lively 
ministry. About this time, some thousands of people 
came from Ireland, and also many palatines from Hol- 
land ; among whom, it was reported, were romans, or 
papists, several of whom, it was said, gave out threat- 
ening speeches, which caused some consternation among 
the people. 

At this large general meeting, I exhorted them to 
trust in the Lord, and not to distrust that hand which had 
hitherto preserved us by his providence without outward 
force ; and that though the people who came among us 
were many in number, yet we, having the Lord on our 
side, were more than they, in a mystical sense ; putting 
them in remembrance of the prophet, who, when his 
servant was afraid, prayed to the Almighty, to open the 
eyes of his servant, and when they were mystically open- 
ed, he saw the mountain full of chariots of fire, and 
horses of fire, and that they were more than their ene- 
mies. I was aiso concerned to exhort friends to be good 


examples to those strangers, who came among us in 
sucli great numbers ; and that our lights, in our conver- 
sations, might so shine, that those people, seeing our 
good works, might glorify our Father which is in heav* 
en, according to the doctrine of Christ ; and then we 
should do them good, and they would do us no hurt, but 
good also : but on the other hand, if we keep not our 
places, and do not live in the fear of God, nor accord- 
ing to our holy principles and profession, that then it 
might be just with the Lord God, to make them a scourge 
to us. Many were comforted in this meeting, and God 
%vas praised, who is worthy. 

On the 15th of the sixth month, having loaded the 
ship New Bristol Hope, a second time, I sailed in her 
from Philadelphia, and having a concern to visit the 
meeting of friends at Salem, I left the ship at Glouces- 
ter, under the care of the pilot, and went by land to the 
first day meeting at Salem, and from thence to Elsen- 
borough, and stayed till the ship came down ; and on 
the 20th of the month we got to sea, and had a fair wind 
^or several days, and lived very lovingly on board, being 
respectfully treated by my sailors. 

In this voyage we had several meetings on board, the 
first of which was, at the request of my second mate, 
to call the sailors together in the cabin ; I not being for- 
ward to propose it to them, lest they should suspect me 
©f some vanity, in desiring to preach to them ; they not 
knowing the cross of Christ in that exercise. 

On the 24th day of the seventh month, at noon, our 
ship, by observation, being exactly in the latitude of 
Barbadoes, we steered away west for the island, and on 
the 26th we saw it after five weeks and one day leaving 
sight of Cape Henlopen ; we having, after the first few 
days, light winds, calms, and head winds, which made 
our passage long, and our sea stores almost spent ; but 
now the sight of land made the people forget all uneasi- 
ness, and, for this favour, my heart was thankful to the 
great Preserver of men. 

This time we came to a tolerable market with our pro- 
yisions^ wh;ich made our stay but short ; yet I was divers 


times at Bridge-meeting of friends, as also at Speight's 
town, where my concerns chiefly lay ; and once at 
Piimpkin-hill meeting, in which meeting it was observed 
to tlie people, that the salvation of the soul is precious, 
and that true religion is a solid thing, a thing of the 
greatest moment to both body and soul, and that people 
ought to be very serious and solidly concerned about it, 
taking special care to lay, or build, their religion on a 
sure foundation ; it was shewed them, that Christ Jesus 
was the sure rock and foundation of all the righteous, in 
all ages ; he was the rock that followed Israel, which 
they drank of; any other found ition than him, no man 
can lay ; who is, in the truly religious, and the true be- 
lievers, the hope of their glory. Many other precious 
truths were manifested to us, in that meeting, for which 
we praised the Lord. 

Soon after, I went to Bridgetown, to clear out the 
vessej, and was at their week-day meeting; the subject 
matter I had to treat of in that meeting, was that '* the 
Lord bringeth low, and he raiseth up again;" and that, 
in divers respects, as to kingdoms, families, and partic- 
ular persons; and as to health, wealth, honour, &c. di- 
vers in that meeting were appealed to as witnesses of it. 
After this meeting, I went to visit the governor, who 
was courteous to me, and took my visit kindly, and de- 
sired to be remembered to our governor, and several 
others, and wished me a prosperous voyage, and well 
back again, which he hoped would be in about three 
months ; he said " Whoever lived to see it, Pennsyl- 
vania would be the metropolis of America, in some hun- 
dreds of years." He said, " he loved downright honest 
men, but he hated deceit and hypocrisy :" — a great man, 
and a great expression ! 

The 21st of the eighth month, 1729, we having done 
our business, weighed anchor, and went to sea : and on 
the 26th we had a good meeting with the ship's company, 
for the service and worship of God ; in which the gospel 
of Christ was declared without partiality, and the reign- 
ing sins of sailors openly exposed, according to the doc- 
trine of the gospel, and the most high Lord entreated to 


carry on in the earth the great work of reformation. 
Hitherto we bad fine, pleasant weather. 

The beginning of the ninth month, we had a very 
bhistering, stormy time, for many days, so that we could 
not carry sail, but sometimes lay by, and sometimes went 
with a reefed mainsail and foresail ; the ship hdd such a 
violent motion, that it broke our glasses, and about a 
dozen bottles of wine, and our earthen ware, and strain- 
ed our hogsheads and casks, so that we pumped out mo- 
lasses into the sea, and beat us back many leagues, and 
blew our sails out of the bolt ropes. 

After those storms, we had a calm, and the wind 
sprung up westerly ; our course benig north-west, or 
thereabout, we could barely lay our course ; yet, it being 
moderate, ^ve had cause to be thankful. 

The 12th of the ninth month we found ourselves in the 
latitude of 36 degrees, 17 minutes, north ; but the wind 
was ahead, and our fresh stock of provisions almost ex- 
pended, and winter coining on apace, the nights dctrk and 
long, made it seem tedious to our people ; the which I 
was helped to bear with patience. 

The 14th day, about eight o'clock at night, John 
Flasket, one of the best of our sailors, through the vio- 
lent pitching of the ship, fell into the sea from oif the 
bowsprit ; one of the sailors, seeing him fall, nimbly 
threw a rope to him, which he caught hold of, and the 
people helped him into the ship; though, in all probabil- 
ity, he had perished in the sea, if he had missed taking 
hold of the rope. I was thankful to the Almighty for this 
young man's life, and took it as a great favour from 
heaven. The next day it was dreadful stormy, the wind 
blew violently at south-west, with lightning, thunder, 
and much rain ; the seas ran so high, and the ship liad 
such a great motion, that the goods, or casks, shifted in 
the hold, and we lay by till next day ; our sails also were 
much torn, and, in many places, blown out of the bolt 
ropes, so that we were half a day mending them, and then 
proceeded on our voyage home, where we arrived the 
latter end of the month. 


After I came home from this voyage, in the small stay 
I was on shore, I was divers times at meetine^s at Phila- 
delphia and Frankfort, and was also at Germantown, at 
the burial of our ancient friend Dennis Cunrad, who 
tvas one of the first settlers of this town (as I understood 
the first meeting of friends, for worship in it, was kept 
at his house) ; he was a man of an inoffensive life, much 
given to hospitality, and left a good report behind him. 
The meetmg was large, and many of the first settlers of 
the country were there. I was also at the burial of Cath- 
erine, the daughter of Thomas Lightfoot, the wife of 
Ji.mes Miller, a worthy woman, who died soon after 
their arrival from Ireland, and was buried from our great 
meeting-house in Philadelphia, in a decent and exem- 
plarv manner. 

The latter end of the tenth month, Samuel Harrison, 
of New- York, and Oljadiah Laivrence, of Long- Island, 
favoured me with their company all night at our house, 
■where we ciilled the family together, and had a season- 
able time to take leave, they of me, and I of them, and 
my family also ; and the next day divers very dear 
friends came with me to the boat, to the river side, to 
take leave, and we parted with hearts full of love and 
good will to each other. 

So I went on board at Wiccacoe, and had a cold 
passage down the river and bay, and left the Capes the 
first of the eleventh month (being the third voyage as 
master) and the 17th we passed the Tropic of Cancer. 
Hitherto we had a comfortable passage, and though we 
had a crowded ship, yet we had peace and quietness to 
a greater degree than I expected ; for men that use the 
seas, are, too generally, inconstant as the winds and 
waters they pass through. We had several meetings on 
board the vessel, in this voyage, and were at sea about 
four weeks, before we arrived at Barbadoes, and when 
we arrived, the markets were dull, which occasioned 
our stay so long as about twelve weeks. 

During which time, I had divers religious and good 
opportunities with those of our own, and other societies, 
I believ« to general satisfaction ; having the good wishes 


of people of all ranks, from the governor to the poor 
negroes ; all of whom 1 profess to love for Christ's 

This voyage, in our return home, we had q full ship, 
and upwards of thirty passengers, and were on our pas- 
sage home about a month, and had good comfortable 
weather therein. 

Soon after I came home from Barbadoes, in the third 
month, 1730, I went to a meeting at Burlington, at which 
w IS married Thomas Evans ; Margaret Preston was also 
there. It was a good meeting, I crossed the river Del- 
-aware twice, visited a sick, person, and rode thirty miles 
that day. I also went to the Falls meeting, and after 
said meeting, appointed another at Neshaminy the same 
day ; after which, I went with Joseph Kirk bride to 
William Paxton's, and lodged : next morning Joseph 
Kirk bride rode with me home, and thence to Philadel- 
phia. I was divers times at Philadelphia, Frankfort, 
and Germantown, and at the general meeting at Frank- 
fort, where our friend John Cadwallader was married ; 
Isaac Norris, Samuel Preston, and Margaret his wife, 
and John Oxley, were at this meeting, with many other 
friends, a good share of whose company I got home with 
me, of which I was glad, ever loving and coveting the 
company of good men and women. 

I was now preparing for the fourth voyage, as master 
of the New Bristol Hope, for Barbadoes ; but it grevr 
harder and harder for me to leave my family, which, for 
many considerations, was very exercising ; yet I wa? 
obliged to continue going to sea, upon an honourable ac- 
count ; i. e. that no person might suffer by me, if I could 
help it ; and having got our vessel loaded, we sailed 
from Philadelphia the 9th of the fifth month. Next day- 
came to an anchor at Chester, and visited my old friend 
David Lloyd, who, with his good spouse Grace, treated 
me with tender, christian love ; the judge and I, being 
old acquaintance, and both of us in years, and he not 
well, we took leave, as if we were not to see one another 
any more, which happened accordingly, lor he died be. 
fore I returned. 


We weighed anchor at Chester, and got down to El- 
senborough, and went to Saicm meeting (it being the 
firsit diiy ot the week, and 12ih of the month), with some 
of" our passengers and saiiors. The meeting was pretty 
lai ge, and I was earnestly concerned for their welfare, as 
I fjad often been when 1 was absent, and \v'as glad I was 
with them that day. 

Aftc r this meethig we proceeded on our voyage, and 
left the Capes the 15ih of the aforesaid moiith ; had 
small and contrary winds, and sometimes calms, until the 
2d of the sixth month, and first day of the week, whea 
the wind was at south, and a hard gale, the sea high, and 
the ship having a great motio ;, therefore we had not a 
meeting as usual : many of the passengers were very sea 
sick ; aS for my part, I thought, if the Almighty was but 
with me, thiit would make up for all difficulties ; for in 
him was, and is, my life and chicfcst joy ; and, as an 
answer of peact in nn tossed condition, 1 sometimes liad 
comfortable times ; bein.^ inwardly refreshed with the 
lose and presence of God ; not only in the day, but also 
in I he night, in my sleep ; out of m hich I was awakened 
ore morning (in the morning watch), with these comfort- 
able words, " He took me to his banqueting- house, and 
his banner over me was love." These expressions were 
so fresh in my mind, for some days, that I could not for- 
bear but biess the holy name of the living Lord secretly 
in nn houl. 

The 16th of the sixtli month, we arrived at Barbadoes. 
The 17th there arose aboui midnight, a hard gale of wind, 
which, the (Baibadians call a luirricane, or tornado, and 
blew more than ten vessels ashore, great and small, which 
were wholly lost ; and our ship was very near the rocks, 
people looking every minute when she would come on 
shore : but through divine favour; we escaped, with only 
the boat stove against the rocks; I would have got on 
board, but that was impracticable ; but I got on the high- 
est place I could, from which I couid see them in the 
ship, and they mc on shore ; but we couid not, for the 
-vi(;ier:ce of the wind, hear one another; yet the} were so 
near the fort, where I stood, that I couid discern them 


one from another, and they me from the multitude of peo- 
ple, (many being in the fort with me), I seeing the chief 
mate look towards me, waved m\ hat towards him, and 
he in answer, his to me ; then I made a signal to him to 
go to sea, which they immediately did, letting slip their 
cables and went to sea, without eitht r boat, anchor, or 
cables, and came in the next day, and got their cables 
and anchors again, to the great joy of many of the inhab- 
itants, whose hearty prayers were for our safety, as many 
of them told me. This among many others, I put in my 
calendar of deliverances, and preservations from immi- 
nent dangers, by the hand of Divine Providence. 

We stayed this time in Barbadoes about five weeks, 
leaving the island the 27th of the seventh month ; and 
there I met with Robert Jordan, my friend and brother 
in the work and fellowship of the gospel of Christ, who 
took his passage with us for Philadelphia, whose com- 
pany was pleasant and comfortable. One evening he 
was repeating some verses of the excellent Addison's, 
which I willingly transcribed, as well in memory of that 
great author, as also that they answered my state and con- 
dition in my watery travels, and in the extremes of heat 
and cold, and some poisonous airs, I have often breathed 
in. They are as followeth. 


How are thy servants hlest, O Lord ! 

How sure is dieir defence ! 
Eternal wisdom is their guide. 

Their help Omnipotence. 


In foreign realms, and lands remote, 

Supported by thy care ; 
Through burning climes I pass'd unhurt, 

And breath'd in tainted air. 



Thy mercy sweet*ned every soil, 

Made every region please. 
The hoary Alpine hills it warm'd. 

And smooth'd the Tyrrhene seas. 


Think, Oh, my soul ! devoutly think. 

How, with affrighted eyes, 
Thou saw*st the wide, extended deep>. 

In all its horror rise. 

Confusion dwelt in every face, 

And fear in every heart, 
When waves on waves, and gulphs on gulphs^ 

O'ercame the pilot's art. 


Yet then, from all my griefs, Oh, Lord ! 

Thy mercy set me free, 
Whilst, in the confidence of prayer, 

My soul took hold on thee, 


For though in dreadful whirls we hung, 

High on the broken wave : 
I knew thou wert not slow to hear. 

Nor impotent to save. 


The storm was laid, the wind retir'd, 

Obedient to thy will ; 
The sea, that roar'd at thy command, 

At thy command was still. 


In midst of dangers, fears, and death, 

Thy goodness I'll adore ; 
And praise thee for thv mercies past, 

And humbly hope for more. 



My life, if thou preserv'st my life, 

Thy sacrifice shall be ; 
And death, if death must be my doom, 

Shall join my soul to thee. 

The 4th of the eighth month, we met with a hard gale 
of wind, which broke the tiller of our rudder, and split 
our bowsprit and mainsail, and overset many of our 
chests ; Robert Jordan narrowly missed his chest falling 
on him from one side of the ship to the other, which we 
looked upon as a merciful providence, and spoke of it to 
one another, remembering Addison's verses, which the 
night before were repeated. 

In this passage we saw three vessels only ; it was a 
blustering time, but the shortest from land to land that 
ever I had, being but fourteen days and fourteen hours, 
from the sight of Barbadoes to the sight of the main 
land : we arrived at Philadelphia, the 16th of the eighth 

In the ninth month, I proceeded on a fifth voyage, as 
master, to Barbadoes, and went down the river Delaware 
on a seventh day, and on first day, was at Chester meet- 
ing, at which time there was a burial of a child, and a 
large meeting ; our friends at Chester were glad to see 
me, and I them, and after meeting we set sail, and went 
down the river to Elsenborough, where we came to and 
landed Robert Worthington, whose son Ezra, was on 
board, and went to Barbadoes for his health, being in a 
deep consumption. 

This voyage we were on our passage about thirty-three 
days before we arrived at Barbadoes, when after doing 
my business, and visiting friends' meetings about five 
weeks, we put to sea on the 10th of the twelfth m.onth, 
and sailed along to leeward of divers islands, till we came 
to Anguilla, where we landed in expectation to get salt, 
but at this time there was not any to be had there. We 
came to an anchor here in the night, hoping to get to a 
harbour before it was dark ; but it soon being very dark,- 


and coming into shoal water, we saw a large rock, and 
came to by the side of it, in about five or six fathom 
water, taking it to be a ship, and when it was day we saw 
our mistake, and that instead of a vessel, we were too 
nigh a rock, and the wind coming about, tailed our ship 
towards it so near, that we were sensible of touching 
twice ; I ordered the men to heave a little farther ahead, 
and so we lay clear till morning. When morning came, 
of which we were glad, several boats, with a cable, came 
to us, and the people advised us to put a spring on our 
cable, and cut it, that she might cast the right way ; 
which accordingly we did, and it had the desired effect ; 
so that we soon got into a very fine harbour, it being 
about a mile off. Many thanks were given by many of 
the people for this deliverance to the Almighty. George 
Leonard, the governor of this island, heard in the morn- 
ing, that a vessel was on the rocks, and the people were 
running with saws and axes, in order to break her uj:), if 
she could not be got off: the governor seeing them, sent 
a lieutenant with orders, that let her belong to what na- 
tion soever, they should help to get her off, if it could, 
be, and if she was likely to be made a wreck, he charge d 
them at their peril not to meddle with her, nor any thing 
belonging to her, until they had first come to terms with 
the master, which is worthy to be recorded. 

We stayed several days before we could get our an- 
chor ; for after we were in the harbour, it blew very hard 
for four or five days ; so that with our four oars we could 
not row our boat ahead, but watching for a calm one 
night, our people went out and got it, and then we went 
into the principal road or harbour in the island, called 
Croaker's- bay ; the name of that we came from was 
Rendezvous-bay, where lived a very kind friend of ours, 
named John Rumney, who, with his wife and family, 
treated us with great love, and courteously received us 
irito their house, and he went with me to the governor's, 
who was my old acquaintance and friend, who, with 
much love and tenderness, when he knew me, took me in 
his arms, and embraced me, and lovingly saluted me with 
a kiss of chaTity, and thanked God for our deliverance^ 


and that he had lived to see me once more ; (I having- 
been there some years before), he was seventy odd years 
of age, as I remember, and had eighty odd who called 
him father ; they living much on roots and pulse, are very 
healthy in this island. I was here nine days, and had 
seven meetings with the people ; the longer I stayed the 
larger the meetings were ; so that I had some difficulty 
to leave them. Through the grace and gift of God I 
was helped to preach the gospel of Christ freely, and 
they received it both freely and thankfully, divers, if not 
all ; for their hearts and mine were very open one to 
another, the holy Lord's name be praised forever* 

The 3d of the first month, Ezra VVorthington died, 
and the 4th in the afternoon, he was buried on the plan- 
tation of John Rumney, near his house ; the governor 
and his son-in-law were at the burial, where I told them, 
that he was an inoffensive, innocent, sober young man, 
and that death was to be the end of us here, putting them 
in mind to remember their latter end. After I had done 
speaking, the governor said, that death was a debt due to 
nature, and that we must all pay it, and blessed is the 
man that in time truly prepares for it. This was a good 
expression for a man in his post, and worthy of my notice, 
as I thought. 

I was at one meeting, where was the governor and his 
daughter, with divers of the best and soberest people of 
this island ; it was a satisf ictory meeting, which ended 
in prayer ; and when I arose from my knees I found the 
governor on one side, ajid his daughter on the other side 
of me, both on their knees ; a posture in which people 
are too seldom found in tliis degenerate age of the 

On the 10th of the first month, we departed from the 
island of Anguilla, with a pleasant gale, and had fair 
weather and winds for several days. I spent some time of 
this voyage in reading, and met widi a passage of, or 
concerning friendship : the comfort and beauty of it, was 
notably set forth therein, yet most who treat upon that 
noble subject, place (too generally), the felicity thereof 
in humanity : whereas true and lasting friendship is of a 

F f 


divine nature, and can never be firmly settled without 
divine grace. Christ Jesus is the j)rime iriend of man- 
ki.ul, and from whom all true and lasting friendship 
springs and flows, as from a living fountain, himself being 
the head spring thereof; out of which holy fountain hath 
sprung as followeth : " Henceforth I call you not ser- 
vants, and ye are m\ friends, if ye do whatsoever I com- 
mand vou." And again, " By this shall all men know 
that ye are my disciples, if ye love one another." Oh, 
holy expressions ! much to be admired, and worthy every 
true and good man and woman's imitation and practice. 
Observe, that when they had done whatsoever Christ 
had commanded them, th^^n they were to be his fiiends, 
and they were not only to be his friends, but one an- 
other's friends, as he was their's ; and if occasion were, 
as he died, so they would die for one another. By this 
mark and truest seal of the truest friendship, all the world 
should know they belonged to Christ, that they were 
united to him, and in him united to one another. Noth- 
ing but disobedience and sin can ever separate this friend- 

Against this friendship, which is in Christ, and ground- 
ed and founded upon him, the gates of hell can never 
prevail ; all friendship, upon any consideration, merely 
human, is brittle and uncertain, and subject to change or 
mutability, as experience hath taught in all ages. 

If any person hath a desire to have a particular friend, 
let that person be sure to make choice of Christ, and such 
as choose him have a friend, in whom all lasting peace, 
comfort and delight, joy and pleasure, is, and in him 
alone is to be enjoyed forever. 

The 20th cf the first month, being the first of the 
week, we had a comfortable meeting for divine worship, 
in which the goodness of God was extended to us as we 
were rolling on the mighty waters of the great deep, after 
which we had pleasant weather, and a fair wind, for sev- 
eral days. 

On the 26th, the wind sprung up at E. N. E. a hard 
gale, which lasted several days, and having but little sea 
room, for about thirty hours it blew so hard that wc 


could dress no victuals : I then thou,^ht on the words of 
Job, when he spoke to his impatient wife, saving;, " Shall 
we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not 
n ceive evil also ?" (or that which is accounted or looks 
like evil in the eyes of man). In this time of exercise, 
the love and heavenly life of God, in his beloved Son, fill- 
ed my heart, and caused an overflowing of praises to his 
holy, glorious, and blessed name. Oh! it was exceed- 
ingly precious to my soul at "hat time. 

The first of the second month, we saw land, being 
driven to the southward nearly two hundred and fifty miles 
in this last hard weather ; but we soon after arrived at 
our desired port. 

After which I visited the meetings of friends at Phil- 
adelphia, Burlington, the Falls, Abinglon, Germantown, 
Bristol, and Frankfort, and found the people had been 
under a general visitation of the small-pox, insomuch that 
many hundreds, especially of children, were taken off the 
stage of this life, in the city of Philadelphia, and I was 
concerned to exhort friends in that city to bring their 
children to meetings, and educate them, when young, in 
the way they should go, that they might not depart from 
it when old ; and that he who had taken many awa)% 
could, if he pleased, take many more ; for though he 
might have laid down his rod at present, (the distemper 
in the city being much abated), he could soon take it up 
again. It is my belief, that the Lord Almighty will still 
continue to visit the city and people (if there is not a re- 
formation), with further, if not sorer, visitations, because 
he hath known them to do them good, and make them a 
blessing to many islands and people ; giving them the 
fatness of the earth, and that which is far more, the dew 
of heaven ; so that he may justly say to us, as to Israel of 
old, *' You have I known of all the families of the earth ; 
therefore I will visit upon you for all your iniquities." 

In the beginning of the fourth month, Robert Jordan 
was married to Mary, the widow of Richard Hill, (all 
three worthy friends). The meeting on this occasion was 
large, and the marriage solemnized in the fear of God. 
Divers friends were concerned to speak to the people, 


and it was greatly desired that those present, who wefc 
then spoke to, might be married to Christ, the great lover 
of souls, who laid down his life, the most precious life 
that ever was on earth, and shed his precious blood for 
our salvation, 

A few days after which I again took shipping for the 
island of Barbadoes, being the sixth voyage, in the New 
Bristol Hope, and left the Capes of Delaware the eighth 
day of the first month. The 22d of the said month, I 
being weary, laid me down to rest, fell asleep, and was 
^wakened out of it with these words, " Oh, heart in 
heaven ! it is an excellent thing to have an heart in heav- 
en !" Which words were comfortable to me, and left a 
sweetness on my mind all the day after, for which I was 
thankful, and greatly desired that my heart and mind 
might be set and fixed more and more on heaven and 
heavenly things, and that my treasure might be in heaven, 
that my heart might be there also, according to the doc- 
trine of my Saviour, Mat. vi. 20, 21. " Lay up for 
yourselves treasure in heaven, for where your treasure is,, 
there will your heart be also." 

The 27th day, being the first day of the week, we had 
a comfortable meeting, the weather being moderate ; and 
on the^ih of the fifth month, \vq arrived at Bridgetown 
in Barbadoes, where we imloaded part of our cargo, and 
from thence we went to Speight's-town ; where, after a 
stay of about five weeks, we accomplished our aft'airs. I 
also vi-iited all our friends meetings, and some several 
times, in which we were edified and comforted, and divers 
of us had occasion to bless the holv name of God for his 
mercy to us. Before we left the island, there happened 
a great storm or hurricane, Avhich did much damage to 
the ships, and to the island, blowing down many houses, 
and spoiling much provisions, destroying almost all the 
plantain trees on the island, which is a very wljolesome 
and pleasant fruit, and much used by many instead of 

I was clearing out the vessel when this storm happen- 
ed, and being twelve miles off, could not hear of or con- 
cerning her, but thought it altogether unlikely that sjie 


should ride out so great a storm, in so bad a harbour or 
road, it being open to the sea, and such a storm as had 
not been known for many years, and some said, never 
but once, to their knowledge, though much more damage 
hath at some other times been done to the shipping, by- 
reason that the hardest of the wind was not that way, 
which was most dangerous to them in Carlisle-bay, 
where they mostly lay ; for they all got out to sea, ex- 
cept two or three that were lost by the violence of the 
weather. It was indeed a very dismal time, the vessels 
which rode it out were much damaged, and one being 
loaded, ready to sail, sunk right down, and was lost in 
the bay. When I had cleared our ship, I set forward in 
order to see what was become of her ; but the floods 
were so great, and the ways were so bad, I could not with- 
out some danger get to her that night ; but next morn- 
ing set out from Joseph Gamble's, and, to my admira- 
tion, from the top of a hill (on which a house in the storm 
was blown flat to the ground), I saw our ship at an an*. 
chor, having rode out the storm, with one sloop by her, 
for which cause my soul was humbly thankful. 

On the 17th of the said month, with some more than 
ordinary fatigue, we got up our anchor, and took in our 
boat, and got our passengers and provisions on board, 
the sea breaking high on the shore, so that several of our 
people and our boat were in jeopardy of being lost ; but 
at length being all on board, we set sail, and having sailed 
slowly about six or seven miles, we met will'i a sloop 
which had lost her mast in the storm, and next morning 
we met w ith two large London ships, which had put out 
to sea, not venturing to ride it out. 

We had fine pleasant weather for several days after we 
left the island, and on the 22d of the sixth month, being 
the first day of the week, we had a meeting for the wor- 
ship of God, which was comfortable and satisfactory to 
us. The 4th and 5th of the seventh month we had very 
fiesh gales from the north-east to the nurth, and were near 
a water- spout, about a stone throw ofi", which surprised 
some on board, on which I came out of my cabin, and 
saw the water run up ^ut of the sea into the cloud, as 


plain as ever I saw the water run into the river, till it fill- 
ed the cloud with blackness, and then it would break in 
great quantities into the sea, which is dangerous, when 
falling on vessels. 

The 5th of the month, being the first day of the 
week, we had a good religious meeting for divine wor- 
ship, wherein our people were earnestly exhorted to a 
holy life, and to be earnestly concerned for the true faith, 
which is in Christ; that faith which works by love, and 
is the evidence of things not visibly seen, being man- 
ifest by works of piety and virtue. In this vo} age we 
were twenty-two days from the island of Barbadoes to 
the sight of Cape-Henry, in Virginia, and had a pleasant 
passage, in the main, to Philadelphia, where, in the sev- 
enth month, was held our yearly meeting, at which I had 
a desire to be, my watery employment having hindered 
my being at a yearly meeting for several years. At this 
meeting I met with my old acquaintance and dear friends, 
John Richardson, of Yorkshire, and Paul Johnson, of 
Dublin, both on a gospel visit to the brethren and 
friends in America. The meeting was large, and attend- 
ed with divine grace and goodness, and ended with 
thanksgiving and praise to God and the Lamb. 

While our ship was loading I was at several meetings 
in the country, as at Abington, Germantown, Fair-hill, 
and Frankfort, in Philadelphia county ; and at the Falls 
of Delaware, Buckingham, Neshaminy, and Bristol, in 
Bucks county. I was also at Burlington, at the mar- 
riage of William Callender, Jun. of Barbadoes, with 
Cciiharine Smith, daughter of Daniel and Mary Smith, 
of Burlington. 

On the 16th of the ninth month, I proceeded on the 
seventh voyage to Barbadoes, in the ship New Bristol 
Hope, as master, having on board several passengers, 
one of whom (Elizabeth Mariindalc) was on the passage 
convinced of the principles of truth, and afterwards suf- 
fered, in divers respects, for mi' king profession with us. 

We had a long passage down the river, the wind be- 
ing high and boisterous. On the 22d of the ninth month 
we left the capes of Delaware, and saw the island of 


Barbadoes the 21st of the tenth month, before it was 
day, and in the afternoon came to an anchor in the bay 
of Speigiit's-town. In this voyage I met with an acci- 
dent that was painful and troublesome to me, which hap- 
pened in a hard gale of wind : I being to the windward, 
and the ship having a large motion, and missing my hold, 
was canted from my place to the other side of the vessel, 
against the edge of a chest, and so bruised my leg that 
I could not do my business as I usually did, which was 
a great hindrance and disappointment to me : but in 
about a month's time, with the assistance of some of 
my friends there, I got indifferently through it, and also 
rode to Bridgetown, and had several meetings there. I 
was also at several good and comfortable meetings at 
Speight 's-town, where we had one the day we sailed, 
being the 21st of the eleventh month; and on the sea- 
shore parted with our friends in great love, and set 
sail, the wind being north-east, so that we could weather 
the island of Martinico ; we therefore sailed along by the 
islands of Dominico and Guadaloupe, and had calms un- 
der the islands, and sometimes the eddy winds from off 
the mountains or high lands, would take the sails, and 
carry the ship clear round, which made it tedious. The 
23d and 24th we passed by the islands of Montserrat, 
Antigua, Rodondo, Christopher's, Nevis, Bartholomew, 
Statia, Saba, Barbuda, Martin's, and Anguilla, the winds 
and weather being fair and pleasant. The 25th in the 
evening, it began to be hazy ; and in the night we split 
our main-top- sail, which cost us a great deal of labour, 
and loss of time, before we could get it mended and 
set again. We had pretty fair weather about twenty 
days, until we came on our own coast, and into sound- 
ings, when a hard gale of wind springing up easterly, 
set on the shore, was dangerous, and we had a long 
night coming on; but through the favour of the Al- 
mighty, we got off from the land. In the midst of the 
danger of this storm, my soul sung praises to the Lord. 
The 12th of the twelfth month, we met with another 
easterly storm, being in about thirty fathom water, it blew 
and rained very hard, and was also exceeding cold, and 


our coming from a hot climate made it more hard to bear. 
In this storm we saw divers lights, which the sailors call 
corpusants, one of them was exceeding bright, and sat, 
as near as I can compute it, about half an hour on our 
main-top- mast head, plain to the view of all the ship's 
company, divers of whom said they never saw they like, 
and I think I never heard of o^ saw the like before. 

The storm continued all night till day, when it abated, 
and, it being the first of the week, we had a comfort- 
able meeting, in which the people on board were advised 
to get divine and heavenly learning-, and not^to be fools 
in religion, or in the things of God, nor to hate his true 
knowledge ; for if they had all the natural knowledge, 
and brightest natural parts in the world, they would be 
but fools without the true fear of God, which the wise 
king Solomon says, is the beginning of wisdom. 

The 27th of the month we saw Cape Henlopen, hav- 
ing been 27 days from the island of Barbadoes : this was 
a close, foggy day, we could see but very little before 
us, and had like to have been a- ground on the shoals, 
which they call the Hen and Chickens, but went between 
them and the Cape, in three fathom water ; the wind 
blowing hard at south, we went up the bay by the lead, 
for we could not see land ; and the gale being so fresh, 
we got to Bombay-hook, from our capes, in about six 
hours, which is accounted twenty leagues ; where we 
came to an anchor, and there met with abinidance of 
ice. Merciful was the deliverance and preservation we 
met with from the hand of the Almighty this voyage ; 
may we ever gratefully remember it ! About a league 
above Bombay-Hook, when the fog broke up, we found 
ourselves close on the Jersey shore; and the wind sprung 
lip at north-west, and obliged us to come to an anchor ; 
where the ice carhe down upon us, which surprized some 
of U8 much. The sudden coming out of so hot a cli- 
mate, into one so severely cold, had a bad effect on most 
of our ship's comj^any ; and, for my own part, I had a 
sore fit of the phthisic, and was, at times, almost breath- 
less, and thought I must die, for I could hardly breathe, 
or speak ; but yet I resolved, as long as I was capable 


of reflection, I would think of God, and my beloved 
Jesus; in which thoughts and nieditatioiis I found some 
comfort and consolation. I sat up for divers nights, not 
being able to lie down for want of breath ; and I could 
not drink any strong drink, as rum, wine, ale, or punch, 
such as the sailors drank ; but, instead thereof, I drank 
sage tea, which was very helpful to me. 

The next day the ice came down more and more upon 
us, and we feared to put back, because, if we had gone 
a-ground in the bay, the ice might have demolished us ; 
so we took the most convenient time we could, and got 
up our anchor, with some difficulty, and stood for Reedy- 
Island, one of the best harbours upon Delaware ; but, the 
wind and tide failing us, we could not get in ; and the ebb 
brought down the ice mightily on us, so that it took a- 
way the head of our vessel, and cut her sides very much. 
The next tide we got into the harbour, and lay close to 
Reedy-Island, making the ship fast on shore. While we 
lay here, several vessels came to us, and fastened on shore 
as we did. The ice drove one vessel on us, and broke our 
spritsail yard. Here I went on shore, where the people 
were very kind to us, particularly the sheriff:' of the county, 
John Gooding, and his wife and family. I went also to the 
house of John M'Cool, who, with his wife, were very 
tender in their care and love towards me ; bathing my 
swelled and benumbed limbs until the frost was pretty 
well out of them. The good will, and tender love and 
care, I here met with, affects m}' mind in the noting of 
it : I pray the Most High, whom I love and serve, to be 
their rewarder. 

I had two meetings at our meeting-house at George's 
Creek, where were people of divers persuasions, who 
gave good attention. For these meetings I was truly 
thankful ; for though, through the extreme cold, I could 
hardly speak when on board, I now spoke freely, much 
to my admiration, and I believe to the people's satisfac- 
tion, more than is proper for me to mention, wherefore 
I praise God. When the weather was a little more open, 
and the ice gone, we sailed up the river to Philadelphia, 
where I was joyfully received by my friends ; and while 

G sr 


the vessel was repairing and fitting for another voyage, I 
was not idle, but visited friends' meetings at Pliil idel- 
phia, Burhngton, Abington, Germantovvn, Bybury, Fair- 
Hill, and Frankfort ; I)eing sometimes at four or five 
meetings ai week. I was also at Haddonfield and Eve- 
sham meetings, in West-Jersey ; both good and com- 
fortable meetings, and will not easily be forgotten ; for 
therein God was graciously pleased to visit us with his 
word, blessed be his name. 

The 4th of the third month we again set sail for 
Speight's-town, in Barbadoes ; and the 6th of the month, 
about six in the morning, left the Capes of Delaware. 
From the time we left sight of the Capes of Delaware, 
to the sight of Barbadoes, was twenty -five days, which 
was the quickest voyage that ever I had in this ship ; in 
which time we had three meetings for the public worship 
of Almighty God, and to me they were beneficial ; and 
for God's goodness, I could do no less than return praise 
to him, who alone is worthy forever. 

After I had done my business at Barbadoes, and visit- 
ed friends' meetings on the 5th of the fifth month, I 
sailed for South-Carolina, touched at the island of Chris- 
topher's, and landed some passengers there. From thence 
we went to sea, and the same night we had a storm, 
though we suffered but little, the wind being for us, so 
that we went before it, and, after it was over, we had a 
pleasant passage of about fourteen days to the coast of 
Carolina ; and when we saw the land, the wind came 
against us, which made some of our passengers very un- 
easy ; but in meditating on the Infinite Being, I was fav- 
oured with inward comfort and strong consolation, so that 
I was humbly thankful, and praised God. 

We were prevented by contrary winds, and a strong 
current, from getting into Charleston ; and while we were 
beating about the coast, we met with a vessel which 
came from thence, and gave us intelligence that many 
people died suddenly, and that they buried ten or twelve 
in a day. Hearing such news, and the wind being still 
against us, our passengers, who intended for Carolina, 
iconcluded to go for Philadelphia : so we tacked about, 


and stood for Delaware Bay, and then we had a fresh 
gale ahead again for several days, and spending so much 
time on the coast, our water was far expended, and we 
agreed to come to an allowance of it, a quart each man 
for twenty- four hours, for several days before we got in. 
We were about five weeks on our passage from Barbu- 
does to Delaware river. 

Soon after our arrival at Philadelphia, we got our ship 
on the ways, in order to refit and sheath her, in which 
time I travelled into several counties, and had many re- 
ligious meetings in divers places, in which I had good 
satisfaction ; and my old acquaintance and friends said, 
they rejoiced to see me again, after my sea voyages. I 
was thankfid in my heart for the good will of my good 
Master, and of my friends, in those journies, which was, 
and I hope ever will be, better to mc tlian choice silver, 
and fine gold. 

The winter setting in about a month sooner than 
usual, many vessels were detained from going to sea, 
being frozen up ; also many vessels could not come 
from sea up the river, so that a great damp was put on 
trade, and the frost coming so suddenly, many people 
were taken with colds, and many died in both the prov- 
inces of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. My dear friend 
and kind landlord, Paul Preston, died about this time, 
who, on his dying bed, said, " He had no desire to live, 
but to do good, and that it had been his care to keep a 
conscience vgid of offence towards God, and to all men, 
which now was his comfort." The hard weather continu- 
ing, I found an exercise and concern on my mind to visit 
friends' meeting in the county of Bucks, in Pennsylvania, 
and the county of Burlington, in West-Jersey ; in both 
of which I was at above twenty meetings, in about 
twenty days. In this journey I was favoured with the 
grace and goodness of the divine hand to a greater de- 
gree than I was worthy of, though I was sometimes ex- 
ceeding poor in my spirit, and, in my own judgment, 
very weak for service and labour, both in body and mind; 
our meetings, considering the severe season, were large, 
and, I hope, they were to general edification. 


On the 25th of tlic tcntli month, being the reputed 
1)irth-day of our Lord Jesus Christ, at a httle town uear 
the Falls, called Bordento\\ u, we had a meeting, where 
ue\ er any Irad been before of our friends, in one of the 
liouses uewly built by Joseph Borden, the proprietor of 
the place : he entertained us lovir.gly at his house, when 
he Mas so generous as to offer ground for a grave yard, 
and to buiid a meeting-house on, and a handsome sum of 
money towards building it, though he did r.ot make pro- 
fession to be of our society. Some that were at this meet- 
ing, who did not profess with us, came over the creek on 
the ice to Isaac Horner's, in the evening, \\ here we liad a 
satisfactory meeting, in which God, through Christ, was 
glorified. Daniel Stanton, my wife's sister's son, accom- 
panied me in this journey, -whose company and ministry 
was acceptable, both to me arid friends, and we had meet- 
ings at the Falls, Bristol, Middletown, Wright's-town, 
Bordentown, Crossw icks, Mansfield, Upper and Lower 
Springfield, Mount-Holly, Rancocas, Evesham and Ches- 
ter, and divers evening meetings at several friends' 
houses. It now being a sickly time, I was often sent for 
to visit the sick, in which visits we were comforted, and 
God's holy name was praised. 

On the 18th of the eleventh month, I was sent for to 
Bristol, to visit Ennion Williams, who was dangerously 
ill, and to Burlington, to the burial of Elizabeth, the wife 
of Jonathan Wright, who was buried from the great 
meeting-house at Burlington. The meeting was very 
large, she being well beloved by her neighbours and ac- 
quaintance, being a woman much^.'^iven to hospitality, 
(and indeed many of the friends of Burlington, have ex- 
ceeded in that respect, the most that ever I have observ- 
ed in my travels), she was a pattern of piety, a loving 
obliging wife, and tender, careful mother, a kind neigh- 
bour, a loving and faithful friend, and so continued to 
the end ; for some of her dying words were, that she de- 
sired her love might be remembered to all her friends, 
which was done openly in the said meeting, and tenderly 
affected many. 


After I came home, I was at the marriag-e of WiUiam 
Parker and Elizabeth Gilbert, at which marriage was 
our worthy, ancient friend, John Richardson, with divers 
other European friends. The meeting was large and 

The river still continuing frozen op, I had a desire to 
visit my friends and brethren in Chester county, whom I 
had not seen for some years ; and in order thereto, in the 
beginning of the twelfth month, I, Avith my kinsman, 
Daniel Stanton, set out from Phil.'Kklphia, and went to 
Newtown, where we had a meeting next day, being the 
first of the week, and afterwards an evening meeting at 
Evan Lewis' ; from thence we went to tlie monthly meet- 
ing at Providence, on third day to Middletown, fourth 
day to Concord, fifth day to Birmingham, sixth day to 
London-Grove ; after which we had an evening meeting 
at a widow's house ; from thence we travelled on seventh 
day to Nottingham, and were at a large meeting there on 
first day, and had an evening meeting at a friend's house, 
where some persons came, who had never been at a meet- 
ing of friends before ; on second day we had a meeting 
at Susquehannah ferry, to which divers people came over 
the ice, and it was a good opportunity to many of them. 
Third day we had a large meeting at West- Nottingham, 
and in the evening at William Brown's, and next we had 
a large meeting at New-Garden, and at Michael Light- 
foot's house we met with two friends from Ireland, 
Mimgo Bewley, and Samuel Stephens, who were now 
proceeding on the course of their religious visit to friends 
in Maryland, Virginia, and North- Carolina. From 
thence I went to visit my old friend and acquaintance, 
Ellis Lewis, who had a desire to see me : we had an 
evening meeting in his chamber, to our mutual comfort 
and refreshment ; and next day had a very large meeting 
in the meeting-house at Kennet ; after which we went to 
Concord to the quarterly meeting for the county of Ches- 
ter, and were at three meetings there, and likewise had 
three evening meetings at friends' houses ; at which 
meetings we had the company of my kinswoman Alice 
Alderson, and her companion, Margaret Coupland, who 


were lately come from the North of England, to visit 
friends in this and the adjacent provinces. 

We went on third day to the general meeting at Prov- 
idence, which was very large ; Joshua Fielding and 
Ebenezer Large were there ; and we had an evening 
meeting at Rebecca Minshall's ; and next went to Chi- 
chester, where we had a larger meeting than I expected, 
considering the season ; we lodged at John Salkeld's ; 
and on the fifth day we had a good, open meeting at Ches- 
ter, and, in the evening, another at Grace Lloyd's ; next 
day had a meeting at Springfield, which I believe will 
be remembered by some that were there, when we do 
not see one another ; afterwards we travelled to Philadel- 

In the year 1732, arrived Thomas Penn, one of the 
proprietors of Pennsylvania, and son of the truly hon- 
ourable William Penn, governor and proprietor of this 
province. A wise man, a good christian, and a mild gov- 
ernor : a great promoter of piety, and virtue, and of good 
men. May this his son walk in his steps ! 

In the first month was our general spring meeting, at 
which were several public friends from England, viz. 
John Richardson, Alice Alderson, and Margaret Coup- 
land. The meeting was large and edifying, the said 
friends having service therein to general satisfaction. 

The 2d of the second month, I proceeded on a voy- 
age to Barbadoes, (it being the first in the snow Barba- 
does- Packet, a vessel built on purpose for me). We got to 
the capes the 20th of the second month, in the evening, 
when we were obliged to come to anchor ; and the 21st 
we put out to sea, but the wind being against us, and 
looking like windy weather, I concluded to come to un- 
der our cape, and wait for a foir wind : as soon as our 
snow came to, we got our boat out, and went to Lewis- 
tow^n ; and next day, being first day, we had a meeting 
in the court-house. In this town is an Episcopal, and 
Presbyterian meeting-house ; but neither of their teach- 
ers were that day in town, aixl divers of the people were 
glad of a meeting, and I had a good opportunity with 
them. After meeting I went on board, and weighed an,- 


chor, and had a fair wind for above a week after ; in 
which time we overtook the ship Amity, Bowl- 
ing, master, near the latitude of Bermuda ; where we 
had smart gales of wind, which obliged us to carry our 
topsail double reefed : and, after having been at sea 27 
days and one night, in which time we had several meet- 
ings, we saw the island of Bdrbadoes; though for the 
most part we had contrary winds ; but all was well, and 
God blessed, who is forever worthy. 

The 20th of the fourth month, having done my busi- 
ness, and also visited friends' meetings, we sailed for 
Philadelphia ; and on the 25th of the fourth month, be- 
ing first day, we had a seasonable and serviceable meet- 
ing, wherein the Almighty was worshipped and praised, 
and the people exhorted to sobriety and temperance. 
We were about twenty days from Barbadoes to Phil- 

After having stayed at home about six weeks, and 
visited the meetings of friends in divers places, to mine 
and their satisfaction, on the 28th of the sixth month, I 
proceeded on another voyage for the island of Barba- 
does. We left sight of our capes on the 31st of the 
said month. The winds were, for the most part, con- 
trary, and, before we got into the trade wind, we met 
with two hard gales ; the last of which was a kind of 
hurricane, in which we could carry no sail at all, but 
let the vessel lie to the mercy of the seas, or rather to 
the mercy of Him that made the seas, and all that is 
therein, and in the earth also. In this storm we lost 
a square top- mast, and divers other utensils belonging 
to the vessel ; but all our people were well and safe. 
This voyage we had several comfortable religious meet- 
ings on board, in which we were exhorted to prepare 
for another and better world, this being so very uncert 
tain and momentary, and full of various exercises, temp- 
tations, and afflictions. 

I had on board three Whitehaven sailors, William 
Towerson, W^illiam Trimble, and William Atkinson, 
and I do not remember that I heard any of them swear 
an oath during the whole voyage, \vhich I thought wor- 


thy to stand on record, because it is so rare in sea-farint^ 
men. About the beginning of the eighth month (being 
in the latitude of Barbadoes) the thoughts ot my leav- 
ing my family and habitation, and many of my loving 
relations, and near and dear friends (as at divers other 
times also) made me pensive and sorrowful ; but it being 
on a principle o^ justice, and sometimes meeting with 
the presence and goodness of God, I was enabled to do 
my affciirs and business, and forbore to appear sorrowful 
as much as I possibly could, or to be of a sad counte- 
nance in the sight of men ; but to him, who knows all 
things, and sees in secret, I poured out my soul in all 
my afflictions, for he only is able to help me. I met 
with some who untruly censured me, as covetous of the 
things of this world, or to be rich ; and that, for the 
sake of these outward things, I might venture my life, 
imtil I might lose it. Really, as to my life, it hath long 
been my desire to be ready to resign it, and is so still ; 
and, as to those outward things, so far as I know, my 
heart is clear. Food and raiment, and to be clear and 
even with the world, having rather to give than receive, 
is all the grandeur I desire ; and if that be not granted, 
I hope to be contented without it, and to be thankful. 
I look upon crowns and sceptres, and all the fine things 
of this world, that are of the nature of it, but as trifles, 
and diminutive things, in comparison of a house and 
kingdom eternal in the heavens. In this voyage, as 
usual, I read in the holy scriptures, and met with strong 
consolation therein, especially in the New Testament ; 
I also read much in the works of that eminent judge, 
and good christian, Mathew Hale. 

Tlie 7th of the eighth month, we arrived at Barba- 
does, stayed three weeks and one day, and had divers 
religious meetings. I hastened to accomplish my affairs 
before winter, it coming on, and the time of the year 
dangerous for sailing on our coasts. On the 30th of the 
eiHith month, we left the island of Barbadoes, bound 
to Philadelphia; and on the 11th of the ninth month it 
pleased God to favour us with a gracious opportimity to 
Avorship him; wherein \\as declared to the ship's convpany 


the nature and advantage of good, and the fountain from 
whence it flows or springs ; as also the nature and disad- 
vantage of evil ; the one being or springing from God, 
and the other proceeding from Satan, or the devil, who 
is the root of all evil : and that men might be left 
without excuse, God hath sent the divine and supernat- 
ural light of his holy spirit, to shew to mortals what is 
good, and what is evil ; in order that they might embrace 
the good, and refuse the evil. 

The 21st of the ninth month we had a very hard gale 
Tof wind at north-west, which blew so hard, that it put 
us by from sailing, so that we were obliged to lay her 
to the wind ; for by the violence thereof we could not 
carry any sail, and it was so dark that we could neither 
see stars nor one another, nor hear one another, with- 
out we were very near, the seas rising very high : in- 
deed, the long, stormy, and dark nights, were very dis- 
mal, and some of our goods got loose in the hold. In 
the beginning of the night, about the seventh hour, 
Philip Kearney, my apprentice, fell into the sea, and 
was lost, which was a deep affliction to us for divers 

The 25th we saw the land, and next day we came to 
anchor in Delaware bay. The loss of this lad was a 
cause that we were not so joyful, as is usual for people 
fo be when come to the shore. 

The latter end of the tenth month I went the third voy- 
age, commander of the Barbadoes Packet, from Philadcl- 
phia, bound to Barbadoes : we were towed through the 
ice by two boats from Thomas Master's wharf, and in 
two days got to Reedy-Island; from whence we sailed 
down Delaware bay, where we lay two nights, the wind 
being contrary, blowing hard ; the nights being long, the 
days very short, and weather sharp ; we left our capes in 
the night, it being dangerous lying in the bay ; and after 
toeing out several days, we had favourable \\ inds, and 
pleasant weather ; but when we got into the trade wind, 
it blew hard, and mostly against us ; so that the first land 
we saw \vas the island of Christopher's, where we ar- 
rived in twcntv davs from our capes ;- and the market 

If h 


for provisions bciiit^ at that time better than any other 
of those islands, and the property of the vessel mostly be- 
longing to me, and the cargo generally consigned to me, I 
disposed of part of it. Here being no meeting of our 
society on this island, I had meetings on board the ves- 
sel in the harbour, and divers from the shore, and several 
masters of vessels, came to our meetings, the sno^v ha- 
ving large accommodations for such an occasion ; and, 
so far as I could understand, the people were generally- 
satisfied, and spoke well of our meetings. 

Of late times, and also in this voyage, meeting w ith 
many losses and crosses, and much afflictions, and vari- 
ous exercises, I was ready to say in my heart, Lord, 
why am I thus afflicted, now in my declining years, since, 
thou knowest, I love thee above all things, and that I 
would not willingly or knowingly offend thee, my great 
and dear Lord ? It was answered (as though vocally 
spoken), My only begotten and beloved Son, who never 
offended me, suffered much more. This word being 
such an evident truth, I begged patience to go through 
all my sufferings and afflictions, so that at last I might 
live with Christ in the glorious kingdom of God forever, 
where I might always bless and praise his holy name. 

Five or six days after our arrival at this island, a ves- 
sel, that came out five or six days before us, arrived, 
she meeting with the same boisterous weather as we did, 
5'et we made our passage ten or eleven days sooner. Di- 
vers other vessels, bound to Barbadoes, put in here, 
through these contrary winds ; and when I saw others 
in the like circumstances with us, I was the more thank- 
ful for being preserved safe, and so soon to this place ; 
yet it was a considerable loss and sore trial not to get to 
Barbadoes, the island I was bound to, and a great disap- 
pointment to me and many others. 

At this island, a person whose name was Galloway, a 
man of a great estate, hearing that I kept meetings on 
board the vessel, kindly invited me to have a meeting 
at his house, and said he would give notice of it to divers 
of the gentlemen (as he called them) of the island, tell- 
ing me, that I should be welcome to his house, which 


was much more convenient than the vessel ; but I was 
not very forward to accept of my friend Galloway's kind 
offer, being sensible of my own weakness and inward 
poverty, so that I made several excuses to evade it; but 
he obviated them all. 1st. I asked him, " If he could bear 
the reproach of having a quaker's meeting at his house ?" 
He answered, " Yes ; there are good and bad of all socie- 
ties." 2dly. I asked, *' If his wife would like it, or be will- 
ing that a meeting should be in the house ?" He said, 
*' She desired it, and would be very willing." 3dly. 
I asked, "If he thought he could sit in silence ?" He 
told me " He believed he could." I then told him, " I 
was obliged to him for his kind and friendly offer, and, 
God willing, I intended to come, and tell my people of 
the ship's company to come also, and desired him to 
give notice of it ;" which he did : and there was a large, 
satisfactory meeting. Oh ! may the Almighty sanctify 
it to some souls, is my desire. 

He and his wife were both very courteous to me, and 
invited many of his rich friends and relations. His 
wife's father was a judge in this island, of good repute. 
Divers people, of several professions, were at this meet- 
ing, and many expressed their being glad of it. An at- 
torney at law said, " He was thankful for the words he 
heard that day, and if I would stay with them, he would 
always come to our meetings." One judge Mills was 
at this meeting, and very kindly invited me to his house. 
Some meeting me next day, said, " They were sorry 
they were not there." The mistress of the house told 
divers of the people, who were persons of note, " That 
they should remember what they had heard ;" and spoke 
it with a religious concern, as it seemed to me. When 
I went to this meeting, I was very poor, and in much 
fear, speaking with a great concern on my mind, for the 
people's salvation, and that God, through Christ, might 
be glorified. 

After this meeting, it was, as though a voice, said 
unto me, " How dost thou know but for this cause, and 
for this meeting, thou art brought here to this island, 
though against thy will ?" The people told me that they 


did not remember that there ever was a meeting of 
friends before on this island. The meeting had this ef- 
fect, that the people had a better opinion of our society, 
than they had before. The subject in this meeting was, 
the excellency of the gospel dispensation, above that of 
the law, in that it brought us to the law, went through 
the law, and was above the law, and far from destroying 
the law, but fulfilled it ; for proof of which, they were re- 
ferred to Christ's most excellent sermon, which he preach- 
ed on the moUnt. Mat. v 

From the island of Christopher's I purposed, God 
willing, for Barbadoes ; which I apprehended would be a 
troublesome vo}age, it being about one hundred leagues 
to w^indward, and a strong current against us. On the 
lOih of the twelfth month, we sailed towards Barbadoes ; 
and the wind being ahead, and blowing hard, we tarried 
two nights at the island of Lucia, where we took in wood 
and water : the people here were mostly French, and 
were very civil to us. 

The 21st we put out again to sea ; but the wind and 
current being against us, obliged us to go into the har- 
bour from whence we came, and tarry for an oppor- 
tunity more favourable. While we were in this harbour, 
which is a very good one, several vessels came in on 
the like occasion ; and a vessel that left Christopher's 
about three hours after us, came here three days since 
we did. 

We went out again, in order to proceed to Barbadoes ; 
but, as before, the current was so strong against us, and 
the wind also, that we could not get forward on our way ; 
wherefore we put back again to Christopher's, and by 
the way, called at Antigua, where I had an open, satis- 
factory meeting, for which I was truly thankful, and so 
were some, not of our society, of whom there were di- 
vers, and some who had not been at our meetings be- 

The next day we arrived again at Christopher's, and 
there unloaded the remainder of our cargo, though much 
against my mind. After having sold the most of our 
cargo at 13asseterrc, we went to Sandy-point, and there 


sold the remainder, and took in our loading for Philadel- 

In loading our vessel, judge Brown was my very good 
friend, and helpful to me therein, for which I think my- 
self much obliged to him. 

While we lay here, 1 had a meeting on board our ves- 
sel, to which came five masters of vessels. It was a 
good meeting, though I spoke to them in much misery 
and pain, having very angry, painful sores on my legs, 
occasioned by a fall in getting out of the boat, the seas 
running high, and through the violence of the waves, I 
fell across the boat, and broke both my shins very griev- 

The 31st of the first month, 1734, we had another 
meeting on board our vessel, to which came several from 
other vessels, and some from the shore, among whom 
was a young baronet, and his host (a tavern-keeper), 
with him, who at first behaved airily, but after some 
time, he was more sober, and seemed respectful at part- 

I was invited to have a meeting next first day on board 
the ship King George, a large vessel ; the master told 
nie his cabin was large, and would accommodate many 
more than mine ; but we did not stay so long as till the 
first day. 

After this meeting was over, the master of the large 
> ship came on board, and said he was sorry he had not 
come sooner, so as to have had the opportunity to have 
been at the meeting. 

From Christopher's we set sail for the island of An- 
guilla, and had a meeting at the governor's house on a 
first day. We stayed at Anguilla three days, and there 
took on board some bags of cotton on freight, and sailed 
from thence the 10th of the second month. The, gov- 
ernor of this island, whose name was George Leonard, 
told me, that he should live and die in our principles, 
saving that he must defend his people. But he did not 
consider, that his defence might destroy both him and 
them, and that such defence was directly contrary to 
Christ's doctrine and practice. A remarkable and dis- 


mal passage he related to nie, that, some days before, a 
vessel came from the island of Saltitudas, (which went 
there to take in salt), the people going on shore, the 
master told him, that there lay at the landing the heads 
of above twenty men on one side of the path, and the 
quarters of them on the other ; which so surprised them, 
that they made the best of their way to Anguilla, where 
they related this dismal story, and supposed the slain to 
be Britons, by their appearances, and that they were de- 
stroyed by the Spaniards, who are known to be cruel to 
them. This action being far from the spirit of Christian- 
ity, is a reproach to the actors thereof. 

Not far from Anguilla is an island they call St. John's, 
the inhabitants of which are Dutch : the negroes there 
lately rose and took the island, killed the people, spoiled 
their plantations, and burnt their houses ; I lodged at the 
house of a person who went to subdue those negroes, 
who were too strong for him and his company, and the 
negroes killed divers of them, and among them killed this 
man's two sons, for which their mother and sisters were 
in bitter mourning, when I was at their house. The 
thoughts of the bloodshed, and vast destruction, which 
"war makes in the world, caused me to cry in my heart, 
*' How long. Oh, Lord ! thou holy, just, and true God, 
will it be till nation lift up the sword no more against na- 
tion, nor the people learn war any more." 

When I came home from this voyage, which was the 
30th of the second month, I met with the sorrowful 
news of the death of my only son, George, a beloved, 
dear youth, who was but ten years and seven days old, 
when he died, and, as he was much beloved for the 
sweetness of his nature and disposition, so he was greatly 
lamented by many who were acquainted with him. I 
have this account to leave concerning him, not so much 
that he was my son, as to excite other youths to serve and 
fear the Lord, and to love him above all, and that they 
might remember their Creator in their youthful days, that 
It might be well with them in this world, and when time 
here to them shall be no more. 


He was a lad much inclined to read the holy scrip- 
tures, and other good books, especially religious ones ; 
and was always obliging, obedient, and loving, to his pa- 
rents, and ready and willing to do any service he could to 
his friends ; any little services in his power he cheerfully 
performed, and took delight in ; he was very diligent, 
and ready to go to religious meetings, and an entire 
lover of religious people. In his sickness he behaved 
himself more like a wise man, than a youth of that age, 
bearing his pain and sickness with a great deal of pa- 
tience. I being in another part of the world, he would 
gladly have seen me, but said, he should never see me 
any more, and therefore desired his mother to remember 
his dear love to his father, and tell him he was gone to 
his Heavenly Father. He was very fervent in prayer in 
the time of his sickness, and prayed that God would pre- 
serve his people all the world over. One time, when in 
great misery and pain, he prayed to Christ, saying. Sweet 
Jesus ! blessed Jesus ! give me patience to bear my mis- 
ery and pain, for my misery is greater than I can well 
bear ! Oh ! come, sweet Jesus, why art thou so long a 
coming ? I had rather be with thee than in the finest 
place in all the world. Many religious expressions he 
spoke on his death bed, greatly to the satisfaction and 
melting of his friends and relations who came to see him 
in his illness ; one day he said, My misery and pain is 
very great, but what would it be if the wrath of God was 
in my soul ? He believing in the love of God in Christy 
made him desirous of being with him, and seeing the joy 
that was set before him, thought the time long to be with 
Jesus, as knowing that then he would be out of all mis*^ 
ery and pain. His heart was full of love to his relations,- 
acquaintance, and friends, who came to see him in his ill- 
ness ; and full of tender sweetness and divine love, he 
took his last leave of them, which greatly affected many. 
This was one of the most pinching exercises I ever met 
in all my days ; but as he said in his illness, so I now 
write : The wisdom of the Lord is wonderful. One 
time in this dear child's sickness he said,. Oh ! the good 


hand of the Lord help me, give me ease, and conduct mc 
safe, i. e. to God's kingdom, uttering this verse : 

Sweet Jesus, give me ease, for mercy I do crave ; 
And if thou'lt give me ease, then mercy I shall have. 

Although this was a great and sore exercise, and deep 
affliction to me, in losing this promising youth, and my 
only son ; yet, considering that he went off the stage of 
life like a solid, good christian, it was made tolerably- 
easy to me ; for he departed this life in much brightness 
and sweetness, and more like an old christian, than a 
youth of ten years of age. 

It was usual for me to advise his mother not to set her 
affections too much upon him, thinking he was too good 
to live long in this world, and too ripe for heaven, to stay 
long here on earth, or in this world of sorrow and misery. 
This dear and tender youth, when reading, (to which he 
was much inclined), if he met with any things that af- 
fected him, either in the sacred writings, or other good 
authors, he would write it down, and get it by heart ; he 
was, more than common, affectionately concerned for his 
mother, doing whatever he could freely and cheerfully to 
serve her, and told her not to do divers things which he 
thought too much for her, saying. Mother, let me do it, 
if I were a man thou should not do any thing at all, 
(meaning as to labour). My dear wife being very in- 
dustrious, and apt to overdo herself at times : and she 
being affected with his filial love and care for and to- 
wards her in his father's absence, it caused her some- 
times to turn about and weep, in consideration of his 
great care for and love to her. I thought a little mem- 
orandum of the life and death of this religious lad was 
worthy recording, in order to stir up other youth to obe- 
dience and love to their parents, who begat them, and 
carefully and tenderly nourished and brought them up ; 
and also to love and obey God, from whom they have 
their life, breath, and being, and to believe in Christ, who 
died for them ; who is the glorious light of all the nations 


of them that are saved, and walk therein, accordhig to 
sacred writ. 

As noted above, he got several pieces by heart out of 
the Bible, and other religious writings, first writing them 
with his pen : two short ones I may recite, of which na- 
ture were divers others, which pcrad\ enture may be ed- 
ifying to some, who may cast their eye thereon. 

One place which much affected my mind, that he 
wrote down, and got by heart, was the 15th verse of the 
57th chapter of that evangelical prophet Isaiah: " For 
thus saith the high and lofty One, that inhabiteth eter- 
nity, whose name is holy, I dwell in the high and holy 
place ; with him also that is of a contrite and humble 
spirit, to revive the spirit of tlie humble, and to revive 
the heart of the contrite ones." 

Another little piece was five verses, which, among 
others, he wrote, and got by heart, viz. 

As one day goes, another comes, 
And sometimes shews us dismal dooms, 
As time rolls on, new things we see, 
Which seldom to us do agree ; 
Though now and then's a pleasant day, 
'Tis long a coming, soon away ; 
Wherefore the everlasting truth 
Is good for aged and for youth. 
For them to set their hearts upon ; 
For that will last till time is done. 

I have now but one only daughter, Rebecca, left me 
out of twelve children, except my wife's son and daugh- 

After this long and tedious voyage, which ended in the 
second month, I stayed but a few weeks at home, and 
loaded with wheat and flour for Dublin, in Ireland ; had 
Alice Alderson, my kinswoman, and Margaret Coupland, 
passengers. We had a very comfortable, pleasant pas- 
sage, fair winds and weather, and good religious meet- 
ings. I think it was the most pleasant time that ever I 
crossed the seas. About Nantucket we saw several sloops 
a whaling, and spoke with one, by which opportunity we 


inquired of the welfare of our friends on that island, and 
sent our loves to them. Not many miles from the sloops 
we saw a shoal of whales ; 1 counted eight in a row lying . 
side by side in the water. 

We were four weeks and six days from our capes to 
Cape Clear, in Ireland : coming near the land, we met 
with fishing boats, and got plenty of choice fresh fish ; in 
the evening we got into Kinsale, took in a pilot for Dublin, 
and sailed next day from Kinsale, and were out one night 
at sea, got next day to Dublin-bay, where we went 
ashore, and were kindly entertained by our friends ; wc 
were at divers large meetings in that great city, which 
some of us, while we live, at times I believe shall re- 
member. My stay in Ireland was about seven weeks, 
in which time I visited several meetings in the country, 
and at Edenderry, the Moate of Greenough, Carlow, 
Ballytore, 8cc. 

We set sail from Dublin with a fair wind, in company 
with the ship Neptune, and our friends sent many pray- 
ers and good wishes after us. We were about forty per- 
sons, sailors, passengers, and servants, on board, and 
had a good passage, all things considered. We had di- 
vers religious meetings on board, and were on our pas- 
sage, from the sight of Ireland, to the sight of our land, 
five weeks and six days : it was the quickest voyage I 
ever made to Europe and back again to Philadelphia. 

When I came home, finding all well, I was thankful 
to God, in the name of Christ, for all his mercies, and 
the many preservations wherewithal he had favoured me. 

After being a little at home, and at several meetings, 
and not being clear of the world, in order to it, I under- 
took another voyage to Barbadoes, and from thence in- 
tending for London, in order to settle my affiiirs there, 
which I intended some years before, but losses and dis- 
appointments hindered me. W^herefore, the 7th of the 
tenth month, I proceeded on a fifth voyage in the Bar- 
badoes Packet, and left Philadelphia, and was at a meet- 
ing the next day at Chester, being first day, and in the 
evening we had a large meeting at Grace Lloyd's, where 
I met with my dear friend Joseph Gill, who had good 


service in said meeting: ; we rejoiced in Christ to see 
each other. We left Chester the 9th, and got that tide 
down the river to Newcastle, and, after visiting those 
few friends there, we set sail the 12th in the morning ; 
the wind being high, and the weather very sharp, freez- 
ing hard, our sails were so froze, that we had hiird work 
to get the vessel under sail. The 13th day, weighed 
anchor, and sailed down the bay, and the 14th we were 
clear of the capes. The first day following we had a 
good, seasonable meeting, for the worship and service of 
God ; and, in said meeting, as I was treating of disobe- 
dience to parents, and disobedience to Almighty God, 
our great parent and heavenly father, a youth, who was 
a passenger in the vessel, went out hastily and abruptly, 
as I was shewing the ungratefulness of the first, much 
more of the last. When I asked the reason of his going 
out, he said, it was because he could not forbear crying ; 
and thinking I spoke so because of him, he said, he could 
not hear me any more. Afterwards I understood that he 
was a youth who was very ungrateful and disobedient to 
his parents ; the which I knew not of, for his mother 
told me, and himself also, that he went to sea on account 
of his health. I thought his going out so hastily was 
occasioned by some indisposition of body ; but it was, 
as he gave us to understand, through resenting ill what 
was spoken, and by his taking of it to himself. I have, 
in like manner, sometimes observed, that divers people 
have shewn a restlessness and uneasiness in public as- 
semblies of worship and devotion, and sometimes going 
out. Sec. so that they have thereby exposed themselves 
to the notice of the people, as persons guilty of the mat- 
ter publicly reprehended, or spoken against ; just as 
though they were the only persons in the assembly, who 
were guilty of the evil then taken notice of : such public 
restlessness is a great folly and weakness, besides so 
openly and publicly exposing themselves. 

After we left our capes, we had divers hard gales of 
wind, which lasted several days. The 28th, being a first 
day, we had a meeting for divine worship, in which God 
was praised, and his holy name exalted, for his unspeak- 


able grace, in sending his only begotten Son, a divine 
light to enlighten the inhabitants of the world ; after 
which we had stormy weather and contrary winds for 
some weeks, so that our passage was tedious ; and of fif- 
teen times going to Barbadoes, 1 found this the most 
diflicult ; and the prospect was very discouraging of 
making a losing voyage, by the great expense I expect- 
ed for repairing and refitting the vessel, &c. so that 1 be- 
gan to despair of accomplishing my design of discharg- 
ing my debts in Great-Britain, and the thoughts and con- 
sideration of losing so much of the company and convert 
sation ot my wife, relations, and friends, and spending so 
much precious time, which cannot be recalled, to so lit- 
tle purpose, lay heavy on my mind ; yet, by the grace 
of God, my miiid was supported, and my resolutions con- 
firmed to praise the Almighty, for every dispensation of 
his providence. 

1 he 23d of the eleventh month we saw the island of 
Barbadoes, at the breaking of the day, having been from 
the Capes of Delaware forty days, and one night ; and 
were truly thankful, that, at last, we, through divine fav- 
our, got to our desired port ; where we were lovingly re- 
ceived by our friends at Speight 's-town, who were joy tul 
at our arrival. From thence 1 went to Bridgetown, and 
so on to the governor's, in order to enter our ^ essel ; 
but, staying a little too late, the governor, who was the 
lord Howe, was come from his house on his way to 
Bridgetown, with his coach and six, and his attendants ; 
but he seeing me, courteously stopped his coach, and 
did my business as he sat therein ; and though I made an 
essay towards an excuse, he would not admit of it, say- 
ing, There is no need of any excuse. He was indeed an 
extraordinary courteous man : he died soon after, much 
lamented, as he was much beloved. 

My stay at Barbadoes this time was the longest I ever 
sta}ed, believing it to be the last time I should go there, 
and that I should see them oo more. M} so saying 
troubled some of them ; j)ut growing in years, (being 
then turned of threescore), 1 thought it would be too 
hard for me to undertake such another voyage ; there- 


fore I was at all the meetings of our friends on the 

Here I met with Moses Aldridge, a friend from New- 
England, who came on a religious visit to friends of this 
island, with whom we had divers good meetings, his ser- 
vice in preaching the gospel being edifying and accept- 
able ; we were together at the marriage of Andrew 
Drury and Mary Lewis, after which meeting and mar- 
riage, I was ill of a fever several days, which distemper 
was very much among the people, of which near twenty 
masters of vessels, and some hundreds of people died ; 
and though 1 had been at Barbadoes many times, I never 
had so much illness there before ; Moses Aldridge, and 
several friends of us, had a large meeting at John Gib- 
son's, where were many people, not of our persuasion, 
who were generally sober ; but as I was recommending 
charity to the people, according to the doctrine of the 
apostle Paul, as the most excellent gift, I advised them 
to show it forth to all people of all professions, and also 
to their negroes, telling them, that some of the gentry of 
this island had observed to me, that the more kind they 
were to their slaves, they had their business the better 
done for it ; though I observed also, that I had been at 
some places, where I had watched to hear some expres- 
sions that might look like charity ; but in divers houses, 
and some of note, I could not hear any christian-like ex- 
pressions to their slaves or negroes, and that with sorrow 
I had seen a great deal of tyranny and cruelty, the which 
I dissuaded them from : this doctrine so exasperated some 
that they made a disturbance in the meeting ; one of 
which persons meeting me on the king's highway, shot 
off his fowling-piece at me, being loaded with small 
shot, ten of which made marks on me, and several drew 
blood ; by which unfriendly action, the man got a great 
deal of disgrace, it being highly resented by all who were 
acquainted with me ; the president of the island looked 
on it as a very base action, as did also divers of the jus- 
tices and the gentry, also the vestry, and several clergy- 
men and lawyers ; one of the la vyers told me, I should 
not be just to the country, myself, nor the man, if I did 


not prosecute him ; another professing the law, said, He 
ought to be abandoned by all mankind, if he shot at me 
with design ; many were for prosecuting him, for the 
people generally took notice of it with abhorrence ; but 
he sending for me, and signifying he would not do so 
again, I forgave him ; and I pray it may not be laid to 
his charge in the great day, and that he may be forgiven, 
he being ignorant of the love I had and have for him and 
all men, even them whom I know to be mine enemies. 
It would be too great a scandal and reproach, to expose 
his name and station in the world. Some thought I did 
well in forgiving him, and some thought I did ill in it : 
but I spoke my mind to him alone freely, in which I had 
satisfaction and peace. 

Intending my vessel for London, I made my chief 
mate, Ralph Loftus, master of her, not knowing wheth- 
er I might proceed the voyage, it being a very sickly 
time ; afterwards my mate had the distemper also, but I 
bless God, we both recovered a good state of health. 

It was this voyage, that my friends in Barbadoes pub- 
lished a little piece I wrote at sea, which I called, "Free 
thoughts communicated to free thinkers ;" done in order 
to promote thinking on the name and works of God ; 
which had, as far as I understand, a good acceptance 
among the people. The principal clergyman on the 
island thanked me for it, and said, " There was need 
enough of it:" but I could be glad another, or a better 
hand^ had done something of that nature, and more 
large. If this may be of any service, I shall be thank- 

I had also a meeting at John Lewis's, in Joseph's par- 
ish, at which were divers not of our profession, and some 
who were never at any of our religious meetings before ; 
who said they were glad they were there that day ; it be- 
ing a satisfactory open meeting. 

After I had visited my friends, and settled my affairs 
as well as I could, and loaded our vessel with sugars, for 
London, being willing, once more, to see my native land, 
and settle my affairs there, and see my relations and 
friends ; on the 6th of the third month, we set sail from 


Barbadoes for London, and had pleasant weather. The 
16th, being the first day, we had a religious meeting for 
the worship of God, in which I was concerned to speuk 
on the government of the tongue (having on board sev- 
eral hands, who did not sail with us before that voyage, 
that were much used to swearing). After that meeting, 
we had not so many bad words and oaths as before. I 
was thankful in my soul to the Lord, and blessed his 
holy name, for his goodness to us that day ; and in the 
night, my sleep was very sweet and comfortable, being 
sensible of the love of God, in the visions of the night ; 
so that I witnessed the fulfilling of the prophecy of Joel, 
chap. ii. 28. 

The 23d, being the first day of the week, we had a 
meeting, in which the grace of God, that comes by 
Jesus Christ, was magnified, and a blessing begged for 
all who love and serve God, throughout the world, by 
sea and land ; also a tender petition was put up to Al- 
mighty God, that as he was graciously pleased to look 
down on those eight persons in Noah's ark, so he would 
please to look upon us in our vessel ; and that as by his 
divine providence, they safely landed on the earth, so 
we, if it were his will, might safely land at our desired 
port, yet not that our wills, but his will might be done : 
which supplication was put up with great submission. 
Both day and night I often sought the Lord, and was 
much alone in this voyage. I read the Old and New 
Testament almost through, and much of it divers times 
over ; my time being mostly taken up in reading, writ- 
ing, and meditating, in which, at times, my heart would 
be broken into tenderness, and I was humbly thankful 
to God, that my heart was not hard ; he having prom- 
ised to visit the contrite ones ; the which he sometimes 
fulfilled, to my unspeakable satisfaction ; glory to his 
holy name forever. My heart was also thankful that 
God was pleased to visit me in my watery travels and 
troubles, and in my separation from my family and 
friends, which are much nearer, and more valuable to 
me than all riches, and a great cross to my natural in« 
clinaiion to part with. 


The 8th of the fourth month, being the first day of 
the week, we had a meeting, in which acquaintance 
with God was exhorted to, shewing the benefit of it, 
and of loving him above all things, and delighting in his 
law, and meditating therein day and night. The 19th, 
in the morning, a strong northerly wind came up, and 
blew so hard that we could not carry sail, but lay to the 
wind, under our mizen, which was split or torn with 
the violence of the wind, and the sea rose high, so that 
it came into the windows of our great cabin. It was 
very rugged for the time, and though it was mid-sum- 
mer, it was so cold, that we were obliged to clothe our- 
selves as in winter. The 22d, being first day, we had 
a comfortable meeting after the storm, wherein the great 
benefit of true religion was a little opened to our sm«.ll 
company, and the Lord, Most High, was praised for 
our deliverance and preservation. The 26th we sounded, 
and found about seventy fathom de])th of water. The 
29th we were a-breast the isle of Wight. From the 
time we left the island of Barbadoes, to the time we 
found ground, was seven weeks; Thus through many 
perils and dangers, we came to Great-Britain ; for all 
which mercies and providences, let my soul bless and 
praise the holy name and mighty power of the Most 
High. It was now a time of a very great pressing for 
seamen, and several men of war's boats came on board 
to press our sailors ; but they had prepared a place in 
the vessel to 'hide themselves, and the men of war's peo- 
ple could not find them. One lieutenant, with his men, 
came on board, and seeing us weak handed (the best of 
our hands being hid), he asked me if I had any more 
hands on board ? I made him little answer. He then 
said he was sure I could not bring the ship from Barba- 
does without hands. I told him sailors were hard to be 
got in Barbadoes, either for love or money, to go for 
London, for fear of being pressed, and I was obliged 
to take any I could get. He said it was in vain to talk 
much, but if I would say I had no more hands on board, 
he would be satisfied ; he having a belief that I woald 
speak the truth, though lie never saw me before ; and 


he said, if I would say there were no more men on board, 
he ^vould go away, for then he had no more business there; 
but I made him no answer, not daring to tell a lie. Now 
I know that there are men on board, said he : so he com- 
manded his men to search the ship to her keel. So they 
sti-i]:)ped and made a narrow search, and sweated and 
fretted, but could not find them. He being civil, 1 made 
him, when he went away, a small present. He wished 
me well ; and so I carried my people safe up to Lon- 

In the beginning of the fifth month, I came to London, 
and lodged at the house of Simeon Warner, in South- 
wark, and at divers kind friends and relations, in and 
about London. The tender and brotherly respect which 
I received from divers, in some of those families, in my 
sickness, will not, I believe, ever be forgotten, while 
I am in this world, at times by me ; and, I hope that 
he whom I serve with m}- might and strength, will be 
their reward. When in the country about London, my 
residence was mostly at Edmonton, at my dear brother 
George Chalkley's, who, with my sister and cousins, 
were a comfort to me both in health and sickness : for 1 
was often in London sorely afflicted with the phthisic and 
asthma, which sometimes made me very uneasy ; and, 
though my affairs required me to be often in the city, 
yet I was obliged to return to the country for air, and, 
both in health and sickness, was kindly and affectionately 
received and tended by my dear brother, sister, and all 
my loving cousins. The memory thereof is cordial to 
me in penning these lines. It may be truly said, we 
were very joyful in meeting one another, and our sorrow 
in parting not easy to be expressed. 

In London I sold my vessel, the Barbadoes- Packet, 
and settled all my affairs to general satisfaction, so flir as 
I know, on which account I had laboured for several 
}'ears, and was joyful that Pro\idence had favored me so 
iar as to see it accomplished : so that now I wholly intend 
to leave trading by sea, the which I never inclined to, 
only on a principle of justice; for I was fully resolved 
in mv mind that mv creditors should be paid their just 

K k 


debts, though I might lose my life in the pursuit of itj 
about which I had no anxious guilt, because I never was 
extravagant nor indolent, but met with divers casualties 
by fire and water; by the latter I lost many hundreds of 
pounds for several yeiu-s together ; and I would persuade 
all in their undertaking for a livelihood in this world, to 
be sure to have an eye to divine providence, who will 
not suffer us, if we do well, nor so much as a sparrow 
to fall to tire ground, without he think it best for us, he 
knowing what is for our good better than we know our- 
selves. Thus when I had paid my debts, and in a good 
degree settled my affairs, I visited several of my rela- 
tions, as at Kingsworth, Staines, Guilford, &c. Had 
a meeting at Market- Street, and one at Guilford, an- 
other at Staines, and one at Longford ; in all which I 
had some service, and my relations were joyful to see 
me once more, having never expected to see me 
again ; and when I had visited meetings in and about 
London, I went towards the North, in order to visit 
some places where I had never been, and some that I 
had been at. The number of meetings, and the names 
of the places w^here I had meetings (while I was this 
time in England) are as follows. While I was in and 
about London, I was at eighteen meetings in that great 
city, at tvv^o of which I was with May Drummond, a 
virtuous young woman, who hath a good gift in the 
ministry, and had a gracious opjDortunity of declaring 
her convincement to our noble Queen Caroline, our 
great King George's royal consort. The kind treat- 
ment, and good reception, she had with the queen,, 
spread so in city and country, that many thousands flock- 
ed to hear her, and more of the gentry aiid nobility than 
ever was known before, to our meetings. I had some 
private conversation with her, which ]3ut me in mind of 
the apostle's exhortation, where he adviseth the prim- 
itive christians, that their words be few and savoury, 
and that they should be seasoned with grace for this 
great reason, that they might administer grace to the 
hearers ; and truly I thought there was the influence of 
grace in her conduct and conversation, whom I pray 
Cod to preserve in Christ to the end. 


I had a meeting at the house of my brother with his 
scholars at Edmonton, and also with his family and di- 
vers of our relations, which some of us may have occa- 
sion to- remember. We had seven meetings at Totten- 
ham, at sundry times, and four at Hartford ; I travelled 
to Hitching, from thence to Baldock, and then to Stadt- 
fold and Ash well. The 7th of the eighth month (being 
tlie third day of the week) to Royston, fourth to Ives, 
iifth to Huntington, sixth to Ramsey. First day, being 
tlie 12th of the month, we had a meeting at a small town 
named Finding, and the same day, in the evening, had a 
large meeting at Wellingborough, in Northamptonshire. 
The 14th, being the third day of the week, we had a 
meeting at Northampton, fourth day at Bray brook, fifth 
day at Okeham, the county town of Rutland, sixth day 
at Long-Clackson ; and first day, being the 19th of the 
month, I was at a large and open meeting at Nottingham, 
where were many people, not of our society, who were 
very sober ; third day had a meeting at Fairnsfield, fourth 
day at Mansfield, fifth at Chesterfield, in Derbyshire; from 
whence we went over the moors and mountains, Benja- 
min Bangs, the younger, accompanying me, who came 
on purpose from Stockport to be my companion and 
guide thither : his company was both pleasant and prof- 
itable to me in that hilly country, through which we trav- 
elled to Stockport, where we had three meetings, and 
where I met with my dear, worthy old friend, Benjamin 
Bangs. When we met, we embraced each other in 
arms of christian love, having not seen one another for 
many years, Avith whom I stayed four days. This wor- 
thy friend, though upwards of fourscore years of age, 
went wijth me to Manchester, where we had two meet- 
ings, and then I went back with him to his house. He 
was a man of extraordinary character, and well beloved, 
he being a pillar in the church of Christ. 

When at Manchester, I went to visit a friend newly 
cut for the stone, who had one taken out of him, the 
measure of which I saw, and had the stone in my hand. 
It was nine inches about, and three over. Before I went 
out of those parts, he was well enough to ride home, 


Avhicli was near a hundred miles. He was cheerRi), as 
well as thankful. 

From Stockport I went to Macclesfield, to Joseph 
Hobson's, where I met with Joshua Toft and his broth- 
er, two choice ministers of Jesus Christ, of whose com- 
pany I was glad, though at that time I was very low and 
poor in my spirit. We had two meetings here ; on the 
2d of the ninth month, being first day. 1 was at a large 
meeting at Morley, and, in the evening, at the meeting at 
John Leigh's, at both which meetings there were many 
people, not of our society, who were very still, and some 
were broken into tenderness. From Morley I went, to 
Penketh, where we had a large, solid meeting, and had 
an evening meeting at Warrington, where I met with 
many brethren and sisters, who sincerely love our Lord 
Jesus Christ, with whom I was refreshed, particularly at 
Gilbert Thompson's and Lawrence Calen's. From 
Warrington I went to Langtree, Preston, and Clifton, 
where I had meetings, and so went on to Lancaster. I 
went to Wray, in order to visit my old ship-mate Eliz- 
abeth Rawlinson, (whose son, Hutton Rawlinson, went 
with me). When 1 came to Wray, they desired me to 
have a meeting with them ; and though there was little 
notice, yet we had a large meeting, divers neighbours 
coming in, and Christ Avas preached to them freely ; this 
was the 10th in the evening, and second day of the week. 
Third day I went to Kendal, and, in the evening, with 
very little notice, we met with several hundreds of peo- 
ple, friends and others. It was a surprize to me, I ex- 
pecting but a few, because of the shortness of time ; 
but I acknowledge it was a pleasant surprize, to see the 
willingness and readiness of the people 'to hear the gos- 
pel preached. Friends here are a great people, and well 
beloved and esteemed by their neighbours, and live in 
nuich love and unity. The fourth day many friends came 
to see me from divers parts, I giving them some notice 
that I designed no farther northward, and hastening to 
get ready to go to America, betimes in the spring ; hav- 
ing l)een from home near two years ; wherefore divers of 
my friends, some of whom had been at sea with me, met 


me here. We rejoiced to see one another, and, after a 
large and good meeting-, we took a solemn farewell, divers 
of us never expecting to see each other any more. 

In this journey and travel I endeavoured to be, as 
much as I well could, at such meetings as I had never 
been at before, and because I was short in this visit to 
r»\y friends, some were not so well pleased ; but my call 
was most to the American shore, where I thought my 
service mostly lay, and in order to return, I set my face 
toward London, and expected to meet with my friend 
and brother in Christ, Isaac Pickerell, in Cheshire, who 
designed to accompany me towards the south ; wherefore 
I went from Kendal to Lancaster, and was at Penketh on 
a first day. being the 16Ui of the ninth month, which 
meeting was large and solid ; after "this meeting we went 
to Sutton, where I met Avith Isaac Pickerell, also with our 
ancient friends, James Dickenson and Christopher Wil- 
son, a choice young man, his fellow labourer. We had 
meetings at Sutton, Newtown, Chester, and Shrewsbury : 
James Dickenson was about fourscore years of age, *md 
yet held out in travels to admiration, and was liveiy in 
preaching the gospel : he is a worthy elder, of whose 
company I was joyful ; at Shrewsbury we parted, and 
Isaac and I went to Colebrook, where, on a first day, we 
had a solid, good meeting ; from thence we went to 
Stoui*bridge, and after having a meeting there, we had an- 
other at Broomsgrove, and so went on to Worcester, 
where we had divers large and solemn meetings : we 
lodged at John Corbin's, who was very kind to us, as 
also were his hopeful children, and in great love and 
unity we both met and parted. From Worcester, we 
went to Evesham, where we had two meetings, and from 
thence to Oddington, and had a large evening meeting ; 
the people, who were mostly of other societies, were very 
sober, and gave good attention ; this was the fourth day 
of the week ; fifdi day we had a meeting at Chalbury, 
and a tender time with a friend very ^veak at Wallingford, 
who expressed his satisfaction and thankfulness for the 
visit ; his children were very tenderly affected also The 
good Lord, the great physician of value was with us, and 


his balsamic grace was at that time shed abroad in our 
hearts. From VV^allingford, we went to Reading, where 
my good companion and fellow traveller, Isaac Pickerel], 
dwelt ; we were lovingly received by our friends ; I 
stayed here, and rested several days, and had several sat- 
isfactory meetings with friends, they being a large peo- 
ple, living much in love and good will ; here Samuel 
Thornton, of Edmonton, my kinsman, and Isaac Brown, 
my wife's son, came to see me from London. From 
Reading, Isaac Pickerell accompanied me to Maidenhead, 
and to Jordan's, at both which places we had meetings. 
The house and burying ground at Jordan's are kept in 
the neatest order I ever saw, in which ground lie the 
bones of divers worthy friends, Isaac Penington, William 
Penn, Thomas Kh\ood, George Bowles, and their wives, 
as I remember. This meeting is often, if not mostly, 
kept in silence ; yet several have been convinced there, 
through the grace of God, and the power of the Holy 
Ghost, which Christ said he would send to the true be- 
lievers, and thiit should abide with the church forever : 
here my beloved friend Isaac and I parted in much love, 
having good desires for each other's welfare. From 
Jordan's I went with my kinsman to my brother's at Ed- 
monton, where I stayed and rested a few days from trav- 

Then a concern came upon me to visit friends meet- 
ings in the county of Essex, and I went from my broth- 
er's to Hartford, and had several meetings there ; and 
one I had also at Ware, which was very large ; after 
which I went to Hartford again, I having divers relations 
there ; from thence I went to Bishopstafford, where I had 
a meeting, and so on to Stebbing, where I had a large 
meeting ; and had a meeting at Braintree, Coggeshall, 
and a large meeting on a first day at Halstead, and there 
were abundance of people at Cone, at an evening meeting 
we had there, where I met with my worthy friend Joshua 
Toft, and his fellow traveller, Joseph Hobson, we rejoic- 
ing to see each other. From Cone, I went to Cockfield, 
which was a very small meeting ; from thence I went to 
Colchester, where I stayed sevenU days, and went to sev- 


tral meetings, as at Rockstead and Manningtree, and 
then back again to Coicheste r, where, on the first day, I 
had a large meeting in the afternoon, and after meetings 
divers of the friends came to see me, and were for ap- 
pointing meetings for me to be at, in the ensuing week, 
and desired to know my mind therein ; after a Httle pause 
I told them, I found a full stop in my mind from going to 
any more meetings at present, and that I would wait 
some days with them in the city, till I saw further ; 
while we were sitting together, a letter came to me from 
London, that a friend, Stephen Payton, had set up my 
name on the Exchange in London, as master of the Bar- 
badoes Packet, which was the vessel bought of me by 
John Agar, who sold her to said Stephen Payton, who in- 
tended her for Philadelphia, and next morning a messen- 
ger was sent for me from London : thus having such a 
favourable opportunity of returning home, I embraced it, 
and went on second day to Witham, where I again met 
with Joshua Toft and Joseph Hobson, at meeting ; from 
thence we went to Plaistow, where we had a meeting, and 
then went to Bromley, near Bow, and were at Joseph 
Olive's, had a meeting with his people and servants, 
which were many ; I thought it was a good meeting, a 
divine hand of love was reached out to the young peo- 
ple, and they were advised to give up their hearts to their 
Creator in their youthful days ; several scores of people 
belong to his family ; after this meeting I went to Lon- 
don, and prepared for the voyage. When our vessel was 
loaded, which was chiefly by Israel Pemberton, the 
younger, who went with us, as did our owner, Stephen 
Payton, and Isaac Brown, and four of my kinsfolks, 
whose names are Freeman, with divers others passengers: 
in the latter end of the twelfth month, my brother and his 
eldest daughter, Rebecca, with her husband, Samuel 
Thornton, accompanied me to Gravesend, where our 
parting with them was, a^at Edmonton, very solemn and 
sorrowful, we never expecting to sec one another more. 
From Gravesend we sailed the 3d of the first month to 
the Downs, and fr<^m thence do\\'n the British channel to 
the sea, and were at sea about nine weeks^ which we 


thought long, having many contrary winds ; but, after 
we came on shore, we understood, that tliere were divers 
vessels that were much longer. At sea we had divers 
meetings, M'hich Avcre some of them to my satisfaction. 
I came very unwell on board ; but, when at sea, I mend- 
ed ; for which fa\our 1 am truly thankful. We lamled 
all well and in health at Philadelphia, in the third jiionth, 
173G, where -vve were received with joy by our relations^ 
friends, and acquaintance ; it was much the more so, be- 
cause they had heard I was like to die ; I having, at Lon- 
don, had a sore fit of the asthma or phthisic, three per- 
sons sitting up with me for three nights, who 1 thought 
\\ ould s'ee my end ; but the time was not yet come that 
I must die, though indeed death was no terror to me, 
hoping my change would be much for the better ; for 
then, 1 hoped, I should be forever with him ^vhom I lov- 
ed better than life. 

After I had been at home some time, I went to Salem, 
and from thence to Cohansey, and, in my return, \\'as at 
Woodberry- creek, and liad meetings at each place : and, 
soon after, I visited the meetings of friends at Bristol, 
Burlington, Trenton, and Bordentown, and, in my return 
home, at Middletown ; b}- the way called, to see my an- 
cient friends, Joseph Kirkbride, and the widow Warder ; 
she was ninety-two }ears of age, and perfect in her un- 
derstanding ; she said, she did not know for what end 
the Almigliiy should prolong her days to that age ; but 
she was satisiied in his will. 

In the fifth month, 1 visited the meetings of friends at 
Haddoniield, in West-Jersey, and at Newton, Hartford, 
Germantown, Abington, North- Wales, and Plymouth, 
and was divers times at Philadelphia and Frankfort. 

After many exercises, and large travels by sea and 
land, my brethren, and divers others, not of our society, 
expressed their gladness to see me, rejoicing that I was 
like to spend my time more on the land, hoping that I 
would go no more to sea; the which, God willing, I de- 
termined, having so settled m\ .ifTairs, tliat I could stay 
on shore : and am truly and humbly thankful to the AU 


mighty, that he, by his good hand of providence, in his 
due time, had favoured and helped me so to do. 

In the sixth and seventh months, I again visited the 
meetings of friends at Bristol, Burlington, Bybury, 
Abington, Horsham, Germantown, Fairhill, and divers 
times at Frankfort and Philadelphia. 

In the eighth month I went to Cohansey and Salem, 
and was at two meetings at Cohansey, and one at Allo- 
way's-creek, where I met with Edward Tyler, a friend 
on a religious visit from Europe, and John Sykes, a 
friend living near Crosswicks, in the Jersey's ; here we 
had an open satisfactory meeting ; from whence I went 
to Salem, it being their week day meeting, which was 
large, and to the edification of many. I was also at Piles- 
grove fifth day, and at Woodberry- creek sixth day : in 
which last meeting the obedient son was encouraged, and 
the disobedient earnestly called home to his heavenly 
Father's house. In this journey I had John Bringhurst, 
the younger, for my fellow traveller ; his father being 
untvilling that I should go the journey alone. 

After I had been at home some time, I, with some 
others, went to the yearly meeting at Shrewsbury, in 
East- Jersey, which was on the 23d of the eighth month : 
it was exceeding large, and the quietest and the most 
settled meeting that ever I was at there ; and many di- 
vine truths were delivered therein. From thence I went 
to Manesquan, and had a meeting, and then back to 
Shrewsbury, and so to Middletown, where we had a 
meeting in the baptist meeting-house, divers of whom 
were there, and glad of the meeting ; thence came back 
to Shrewsbury, and had a meeting on the first day, being 
the 30th of the month : from whence, on my return 
home, had meetings at Moses Robin's, Allen's-town, at 
Crosswicks, (where I met with divers of my old friends), 
Bordentown, and Mansfield ; some of which were large, 
open, and satisfactory meetings. After the last meeting, 
we went to Burlington, and next day came home, accom- 
panied by Richard Smith, Jun. After being a kw days 
at home, I was sent for to Chester, to the maiTiage of 
John Lee, (who had sailed several voyages with me), 

L 1 


next day I went to the week day meeting at Providence, 
and on first day was at Springfield ; from whence I re- 
turned home. 

The 23d of the ninth month, I left home again, and 
went to Philadelphia, and from thence with Daniel Stan- 
ton, John Easton, and John Proud, Jun. (the two latter of 
Rhode- Island), to Radnor meeting, and from tht^nce to 
Goshen meeting, and by the coldness of the weather, and 
crossing several creeks, I got a cold, which settled on my 
kmgs, so that, in conversation, I was hoarse ; but I was 
helped in meetings to admiration; for which I was truly 
thankful to the Almighty, the great helper of his servants 
and children. Wc had a meeting with an ancient friend, 
who said she had above two hundred who called her 
mother being her children by blood and marriage to the 
fourth generation : we took our leave of her, as never ex- 
pecting to see each other more, and parted in tenderness 
of heart. One of this friend's grandsons went with us to 
Concord, where, on a first day, we had a very large meet- 
ing, and an evening meeting at Moses Mendenhall's ; and 
the remainder of the week we had meetings at Birming- 
ham, Kennet, New-Garden, Marlborough, and the 
monthly meeting at Center, on the seventh day following, 
at which were many young people ; for whose sakes I 
was drawn and moved, in my exercise of the ministry, to 
shew the rise and design of our meetings of discipline. 

1st. That the same power that gathered us to be a 
people, inclined our elders to establish those meetings, 
and settle them in most parts where we were gathered, 
and had meetings for the worship of God. 

2d. They were advised to do their business, and speak 
to their affairs, in the sense of the same power, spirit, and 
wisdom of Christ, which, as it had raised us, would, as 
we kept to it, preserve us to be a people to the praise of 
God's holy name. 

3d. They were advised, in doing their business, not to 
run out into many unnecessary words, which might lead 
to contention, and spending much time to little purpose ; 
religious affairs being done best in a meek and quiet 
spirit, that being of great price with the Lord ; great evils 


having been known in many ages, through hot and long 
contentions about religion. It is also good to avoid, in 
matters of difference, respect of persons, on account of 
being acquainted or related, so as to be swayed thereby 
from justice. 

4th. They were advised to be very careful of giving 
any just occasion of offence to any, to Jew or gentile, to 
Indian or negro ; for, " Wo to them," says our Saviour, 
*' by whom offences come ;" and if any will take offence 
when none is justly given, it is the best way to be patient, 
and take our Saviour for our example, who got the vic- 
tory through suffering; a safe way, and glorious in the 
end. And, as to few words, the apostle says, " Let your 
words be few and savoury, seasoned with grace, that they 
may administer grace to the hearers." 

5th. I was engaged, for the sakes of the youth of both 
sexes, to shew them, that a material part of the service of 
these meetings, is, that care be taken therein, to see that 
persons are clear of prior engagements or entanglements, 
in relation to marriage, and that they have tiie consent of 
parents, or parties concerned, as guardians, &,c. and also, 
that they, and all that belong to our society, walk orderly 
in conversation ; otherwise they could not be in unity 
with us, or owned by us, as a society of religious peo- 
ple : we do not own scandalous persons, nor admit them 
to be married amongst us, without acknowledging their 
faults, and promising amendment for the future, through 
divine grace and assistance. Also, in those meetings, 
the widows and fatherless are taken care of, that they 
may be supported and visited, and youths put out ap- 
prentices to learn trades, &c. 

This meeting concluded with supplication for the rising 
generation, and for the king, and all his subjects, and 
with thanksgiving and praises to the sacred name of Him 
who lives forever. 

After the abovesaid meeting, we went to Wilmington, 
a newly settled town on Christiana-creek, which I be- 
lieve will be a flourishing place, if the inhabitants take 
care to live in the fear of God, and seek his glory, and 
the riches of his kingdom, preferring it to any thing or 


things of this world. Wc had a pretty large meeting 
here, considering the season, (for it was very cold), which 
was held in a large house of William Shipley's ; but they 
are making provision for a meeting-house. From this 
town wc went to Newark, and had a comfortable meeting 
at George Robinson's in the evening, and next morning 
set out for Philadelphia. 

As it was now the winter season, and having been 
divers times at this season of the year in the warm cli- 
mates, the cold was become harder for me to bear than 
usual, so that I stayed at and about home pretty much, 
being divers times at Philadelphia, Frankfort, German- 
town, and Abington meetings. 

The latter end of the tenth month, on a first day of the 
week, I was at a large, open meeting, at Darby, in Ches- 
ter county. After meeting I rode home, about fourteen 
miles ; but it was so cold, that my limbs were much be- 
numbed, and were not fully recovered in more than a 
week. Coming home, between Schuylkill river and 
Philadelphia, we observed the largest meteor that ever I 
saw, though I had seen many by sea and land ; this was 
in sight almost a minute, as near as I could guess ; it was 
a mighty stream, like a fiame of fire, leaving, as it were, 
sparks of fire behind it, as it went along, and then settled 
like a star, and disapjDcared. A few days after this me- 
teor, there appeared in the sky an uncommon redness, 
with streams like fire. 

About this time was buried at Frankfort, John Hur- 
ford, who was about ninety years of age ; at whose bur- 
ial, the coldness of the season considered, were a pretty 
many friends, neighbours, and relations of the deceased ; 
as also divers from Philadelphia. 1 was concerned to 
advise those present, to prepare for their final change ; 
that being certain, though the time is uncertain ; which, 
generally, none knows but the Almighty ; therefore we 
ought always to be preparing for our dissolution, and al- 
ways watching and praying, lest we enter into temptation ; 
as said our dear Lord, " If the good man of the house 
had known in what hour the thief would come, he would 
have watched." Luke xii, 39. And, we not knowing 


whether death will come in our youth, our middle, or old 
age, therefore, were earnestly desired to prepare our 
hearts to meet death, so that we might dwell with God 
and Christ in his kingdom forever. It was also ob- 
served, that though this friend had lived to a great age, 
yet that few lived so long, no, not one in a thousand, and 
many die very young ; therefore they were earnestly en- 
treated, in the love of God through Christ, to prepare 
for their latter end, and not to set their hearts and affec- 
tions on things below; for, by how much they set their 
hearts and affections on natural or outward things and 
objects, by so much the harder it would be to part with 
them, when death should come. This meeting ended 
with prayer for reformation and preservation to the end 
of life ; and praises, yea, high praises were given to him, 
who had given to all present our life, our breath, and our 

It being exceeding severe weather, with much rain, 
wind, and snow, there were great floods, so that we could 
not get over Frank fort- creek to meeting ; wherefore the 
friends on the west side met together at my house, and 
we had a satisfactory, good meeting, in which we were 
exhorted to build our religion on the sure foundation ; 
that neither storms, rain, or winds, might be able to 
shake us from this foundation, which is Christ, the rock 
of ages. 

This winter we were visited at Frankfort with the 
small-pox, of which many died at Philadelphia, and sev- 
eral in our neighbourhood. 

The latter part of this winter staying much at home, I 
spent my time much in reading and writing, often being 
sensible of the love and goodness of God, my exceeding 
great reward ; he, by the spirit of his Son, comforting 
me, and sometimes melting my heart into tenderness, in 
consideration of his many mercies, which caused me to 
praise his holy name, who is thereof worthy, beyond ex- 
pression, forever. 

In the first month, I went with my friend John Oxley, 
of Barbadoes, to Bristol, where we had a large meeting ; 
thence went over the river Delaware to Burlington quar- 


terly meeting : we were obliged to get to the Jersey shore 
on the ice, laying boards thereon for about one hundred 
yards together ; and being long on the ice, and poorly as 
to health, I took such a cold, that I could not get to 
meeting next day, but was at the youths' meeting third 
day following ; fourth day I went to Ancocas meeting, 
thence to a large meeting at Mount- Holly, where was a 
marriage ; afterwards to Evesham and Upper Spring- 
field, or Hanover, and then returned to Burlington, and 
next day was at the monthly meeting there, which, to 
me, was a good open meeting, wherein church discipline 
was somewhat treated of, and friends advised to wait for 
that spirit which leads into all truth, to guide them in their 

In the second month, 1737, I went to Cohansey, in or- 
der to negociate some affairs there, and while there, had 
three meetings at Greenwich, and one at Alloway's-creek; 
and on the 9th of said month, being first day, was at Sa- 
lem meeting, which was large and open : and, in the 
evening, we had a heavenly meeting at Bartholomew 

After my return from Salem, on the first of the third 
month, I took a journey to the eastward, having a desire 
to see friends in those parts, whom I had divers times 
visited, in the service of the gospel, in my young years ; 
and though now upwards of threescore years of age, was 
willing to visit them once more before I died, who, in 
some places where I had formerly travelled, were now 
grown very numerous. I set out with Joseph Gilbert, 
and several other friends, and we travelled together to 
Long- Island, where we parted, and I went to Newtown, 
where I met with John Fothergill and Samuel Bowne ; 
at which place we had a meeting, which was appointed on 
John's account, and his service therein was to the satis- 
faction and edification of friends. From thence John 
went to West- Chester, on the Main, and I went to 
Flushing, where we had a large, open meeting : it was a 
solid, good time, and the sacred name of Him who lives 
forever was praised. 


From Flushing I went with my old friend and school- 
fellow, Joseph Latham, to his house. Our conversation 
was pleasant and comfortable to each other, wherein we 
remembered our walking to and from school, in the sub- 
urbs of that great and populous city, London ; when we 
were beaten, stoned, and abused, only for being the chil- 
dren of those called quakers : the priests, who had mon- 
ey for preaching, had preached and printed so many lies 
against our friends, that the common people were almost 
ready to make a sacrifice of us ; they telling us (when 
we pleaded our innocency, by telling them, we went 
quietly along the streets to school) that " It was no more 
sin to kill us, than to kill a dog :" but now, through 
the grace and favour of the Almighty, we enjoy the 
exercise of our religion, according to our consciences, 
free from jails and prisons, in which our primitive 
friends suffered much ; for which we ought to be truly 
thankful to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus 

From Joseph Latham's we went to Westbury and 
Matinicock (after a meeting at Cowneck) and afterward 
to New- York, where I had also religious service and a 
meeting; and from New- York I took my passage in 
Robert Bowne's sloop for Newport, on Rhode-Island, 
was two days and nights on the water, and on my arri- 
val at Rhode- Island, the brethren lovingly received me, 
and we were joyful to see each other. 

After having had divers good meetings on Rhode- 
Island, I went to Dartmouth, where we had a large, 
serviceable meeting at a place called Ponyganset, many- 
hundreds being added to the church since I first visited 
those parts. From this place I went to Holder Slo- 
cum's, and he lent us his shallop to go over to Nantuck- 
et ; but the wind not favouring, we had a satisfactory 
meeting at a large farm of his on an island bearing his 
own name, and after meeting set sail for Nantucket, had 
several large meetings there, and I rejoiced to see the 
growth and increase of friends on this island ; where 
God hath greatly multiplied his people, and made them 
honourable ; glory to his name forever. 


The priests, who have money for preaching' ; the law- 
yers, who have it for pleading ; and the physicians, who 
have money for givnig receipts for health ; are poor trades 
on this island. 

At Nantucket I had been about thirty-nine years be- 
fore, at which time there were only two men and one 
woman who joined with our friends in profession, and 
now it was computed there were above a thousand who 
Avent to our meetings, they being a sober, religious peo- 
ple ; and there is a great increase of friends in divers 
other places in New-Kngland ; and whereas formerly wc 
were greatly persecuted for our religion, now we are 
treated with more civility and respect in those parts. 

From Nantucket, Nathaniel Starbuck and Elijah Col- 
lins went with me, with several other friends, to the 
yearly meeting at Rhode- Island ; which was so very 
large, that it was difficult to speak so as to be heard all 
over the meeting ; but the last day of the meeting, our 
friend John Fothergill, who had a high voice, being at- 
tended with the divine power, gave good satisfaction to 
the meeting, and it ended well. After this meeting was 
over, I went with Benjamin Bagnal, to Boston, and from 
thence to Lynn and Salem, had several satisfactory meet- 
ings, which tended to the imiting our hearts together in 
the love of Christ, and the fellowship of his gospel. 
From Salem I went with Zaccheus Collins and his wife 
to their house, and lodged there three nights, and was 
lovingly entertained, as I was also at many other friends 
houses. From Lynn, Zaccheus Collins accompanied me 
to Boston, where we had a meeting on a fourth day of 
the week, and the next day there was a very large meet- 
ing, (the greatest gathering of people which had been 
seen there at friends' meeting-house for a long time), 
occasioned by the marriage of John Mifflin, of Philadel- 
phia, to Benjamin Bagnal's eldest daughter. 

From Boston I returned to Rhode-Island, and had di- 
vers meetings at Newport and Portsmouth, wherein our 
hearts were made glad in Christ, and we wert strength- 
ened in our faith in him ; blessed be his holy name for- 


From Rhode- Island, I went to Conanicut, and from 
thence over to Kingston, in the Narraganset country, and 
had meeting's, and then back to Rhode-Island again, and 
thence by water in company with divers friends to 
Greenwich, where I was at two large meetings : at this 
place they shewed me the trees under which about forty 
years since I had a meeting ; but now they have a pleas- 
ant meeting-house. 

The next first day, I was at a large, solid, edifying 
meeting, in a new meeting-house at Tiverton. From 
thence I went to visit Joseph Wanton's wife, who had 
been long sick ; and in her chamber (with several of her 
friends and relations) I had divers religious seasons, with 
which she expressed much satisfaction : she died of this 
sickness, and I was at her burial, which was large, she 
being well known, and well beloved ; the next day I was 
at an appointed meeting at Portsmouth, which was large, 
and to satisfaction, for which we blessed the holy name of 
God. I had divers good opportunities at Rhode- Island 
in private families, and was at several meetings over the 
Beach at John Easton's who was about ninetv years of 
age ; he had formerly travelled with me, when I was a 
young man ; we took leave of each other, never expect- 
sing to meet more in this world. 

Now, after divers meetings on Rhode- Island, I took 
my passage for Long-Island, in my return homeward; 
and after a boisterous passage, and being four nights on 
the water, I got well again to my loving friend Joseph 
Latham's, were I had left my horse, and on fifth day had 
a meeting at Cowneck, where I met with Elijah Collins, 
Rose Tibbets, and Patience Barker, we rejoicing to sec 
each other, after their long journey by land, and mine by 
water, they being likewise going for Pennsvlvania. These 
friends went to Flushing first day meeting, and I went to 
Westbury, where was a large meeting, in which there 
was a drunken schoolmaster, who disturbed the meeting, 
though at last it ended quietly, and I hope well also. The 
next fourth day I was at the monthly meeting at West- 
bury, where many friends met from divers quarters, and 
it was a solid good time. We had a meeting at Thomas 

iM m 


Rodman's, who wiis unwell, and had not been at a meet- 
ij g for some months ; he took our visit kindly, express- 
ing^ his love to us ; we had also a meetini^ at Jeremiah 
\\', to good satisfaction. Fifth day we had a 
large gathering at Matinicock, and in the evening a ten- 
der broken meeting at Samuel Underhiil's, and sixth day 
a good meeting at Newtown, wherein primitive Christian- 
ity was opened, and experimentally declared to the peo- 
ple ; and in the evening we had a good opportunity to de- 
clare the truth of Christ at the house of Richard Hallet, 
among several of his sober neighbours. Next morning, 
being the seventh of the week, we went to West-Chester, 
to a yca:!y m.eeting, which was much crowded, and the 
people very uvisettled, so that it was not so satisfactory as 
could have been desired. After meeting we went over 
again to Long- Island, and then to New- York, where we 
had a large quiet meeting in the evening. At New- 
York, third day in the morning, divers dear and loving 
friends accompanied us to the water side, where we sol- 
emnly took leave of one another in the love of Christ, and 
in the fellowship of his gospel; some of us not expect- 
ing to see each other any more ; and from thence, pass- 
ing over Long and Staten-Islands, to Elizabeth-town, we 
travelled to Rahway, and had a meeting at friend Shot-i 
Mell's, on a fourth day in the evening, where many 
nt ighbours came in, and after meeting a certain person 
was dissatisfied about women's public speaking in relig- 
ious meetings ; (Rose Tibbels having publicly exhorted 
them in this meeting to be religious, and to fear God, and 
having prayed to God for us all, and praised his holy 
name), which said person desired we would endeavour to 
SI tisfy him about it, inasmuch as the apostie Paul for- 
bade it, as he apprehended. To which it was answered, 
that the apostle Paul only forbade, or did not permit for- 
ward or over busy women, to speak or ask questions in 
the church ; but advised therri to ask their husbands at 
home, and that doubtless he never intended to debar such 
godly women, who had a real necessit)^ laid on them, and 
were concerned, bv the Almighty, to speak unto, or pray 
for the people, else he would not have shewed them, how 


they ought to behave themselves in their speaking unto, 
or [iruying for the peojile or chureh ; for if he hud any 
design to hinder such, whom the Ahnighty should coi;- 
cern, then he must have contradicted himself, (where he 
shews how they must behave themselves in their dut}' of 
speaking or praying), and he would likewise thereby have 
opposed the apostle Peter, who said, " Now is fulfilled 
the prophecy of tlie prophet Joel, that in the latter days 
sons and daughters should prophecy." So that it is clear 
and plain, they who would limit or silence those, who 
have a gift from God to preach or pray in public, from 
the words of the apostle Paul, oppose him to himself, 
and to the apostle Peter, and also to the prophet Joel. 

From Rahway we went to Woodbridge, where we had 
a meeting, and there I parted with my fellow travellers, 
having a concern, (though much in the cross to my own 
will), to go back in the woods, to a meeting about eight 
or nine miles off; which meeting was much to my own 
satisfaction, as well as of those present, as divers of them 
expressed. From this place I went to Stony- brook, had 
a pretty large meeting, considering it was rain}', in the 
time of the meeting's gathering. At this place, my son- 
m-iaw, Isaac Brown, with several friends, came to meet 
me, whom I was glad to see, and after meeting went with 
them to Trenton, and next day to Bristol, it being their 
third day meeting, which was large, and after meeting 
went home to Frankfort, and there was lovingly received 
by my wife and family. In this journe}^ I was from 
home three months and nine days, had fifty- five meetings, 
and travelled by land and water above a thousand miles. 
A'ld I may truly say, that therein I was favoured with the 
divine presence and grace of God by Christ in a good 
degree, and also with the fellowship of many sincere be- 
lievers in him, which in my return caused my soul to 
bless his holy name, who lives forever. 

In the sixth month, after having had divers meetings 
at and about home, I went to Darby, Chester, and New- 
castle, having meetings in each place, which were to the 
tendering of some mournful souls, and to the comforting 
and strengthening them. From Newcastle I ferried oyer 


Delaware river to Penn's-neck, v\'here I had a meeting, at 
which were several that had never been at any of our 
meetings before, who went away well satisfied. From 
thence I went to Salem monthly meeting, which was 
very large, and thence to Cohanse}^ to the third day meet- 
ing, and stayed till next first day meeting, which, though 
smail, by reason of rainy, stormy weather, was a very 
precious meeting. After I negotiated some affairs at Co- 
hansey, I returned to Salem, where I met with my fellow 
tniveilcr, Elijah Collins, of Boston, with whom I went 
on to Philadelphia, and from thence home ; having much 
satisfliction in this journey, in which I had nine meet- 
ings, and travelled about one hundred and fifty miles. I 
cannot be clear in my mind without saying, that 1 did 
not, nor do I study what to preach to the people. Nor 
did I, nor do I receive any pay, or natural consideration 
for preaching, it being, as I really believe, contrary to the 
dortrine of Christ, and his apostles and disciples. 

This fall I visited several of the meetings of friends in 
Bucks county, and the meetings at and about home, as at 
Frankfort, Philadelphia, Abington, Bybury, and German- 
town. In the ninth month 1 was appointed, with several 
other friends, by our monthly meeting, to visit the fami- 
lies of friends in Philadelphia. My. lot was to visit the 
upper part of the city, in company with Phebe Morris, 
Hannah Parrock, and Daniel Stanton ; in which service 
we were of one heart and mind, and we performed said 
service in pure self denial, and in the cross of our holy 
Lord Jesus Christ. And wonderful it was, how the 
presence and goodness of God went with us from house 
to house, and opened the states and conditions of the 
f miiiies to us, to the tendering of many hearts, both of 
parents, and of their children. We visited about forty 
families of friends, when the winter setting in, and I being 
but weakly, having had a sharp spell of the fever, we, by 
consent, were willing to defer the conclusion of this 
work, until longer days, and warmer weather. 

In this month I Avas sent to, in order to be at the bur- 
ial of the wife of Richard Smith, Jun. She was a vir- 
tuous woman, and well beloved, at whose funeral were 


many of her neighbours and friends. It was a very sol- 
emn time, in which meeting, it was desired that those 
who had lost their parents, would live so that they might 
not be a dishonour to them ; for it was observed of some 
children, after iheir parents were dead, they grew worse 
than when they we'-e alive, taking undue liberties, which 
their f ithers and mothers could not have allowed of, 
which was a sore grief and trouble to their friends, and 
such as wished them well. Therefore they were ex- 
horted not to do that now, when their parents were dead, 
which they would not have done if they were living; 
which would be heavy on them, and tend to bring a blast 
on them in this world : and they were desired to consider 
how ihey would answer it in the world to come. 

It was also observed, that sometimes the death of pa- 
rents had a good effect on divers sober young people, 
they being thereby led more seriously to think on their 
own mortality, and to consider the great loss of their 
caivful and religious fathers and mothers, and the good 
eximple and counsel they gave them. This meeting 
concluded with a solid, weighty frame of mind in many. 
From Burlington 1 went to Mount-Holly, had a large 
meeting at the meeting-house, and another in the even- 
ing at Mount- Holly town, at the house of Thomas 
Shinn ; both of which were open meetings, and divers 
people, not of our profession, were there, who were 
well satisfied therewith. From Mount-Holly I went to 
Evesham and Chester, as also to Haddonfield, at all 
which places I had large meetings, and then I went back 
to Burlington, and was at their fifth day meeting. From 
Burlington I went with Richard Smith, Caleb Raper, 
and Jonathan Wright, to visit a friend who was sick, 
after which the said friends accompanied me to the ferry ; 
after I was over the ferry I rode home, where I found 
my family well, for which I was thankful. 

In the fore part of the tenth month, our worthy friend, 
John Fothergill sailed in the brigantine Joseph, Ralph 
Loftus, master, for Barbadoes, he having made a 
third visit to America from Europe, on a religious ac- 
count. His visit was acceptable and serviceable, and 


we parted in great love and tenderness. The night be- 
fore, about the eleventh hour, was an earthquake, which 
was the greatest known in this province, the whole city 
ot" Philadelphia being shaken, and most part of the ad- 
jacent provinces, though little or no damage was done 
thereby, which shews the abundant mercy of a merciful 
God ; as also, if it were the ple^isure of his will, how 
soon he can lay cities and countries waste and desolate, 
and bury thousands in a moment. But, notwithstanding 
the mighty power of the eternal Jehovah, Oh ! how hard 
are the people's hearts, and how they hate to be reform- 
ed, and how unconcerned are the inhabitants of the land 
about their eternal peace and well-being ! This is really 
lamentable. Oh ! how do earthly mindedness, pride, 
covetousness, and drunkenness abound, with many other 
evils, which were scarcely known amongst the first set- 
tlers of this peaceful, and now plentiful land of Penn- 

The 26th of the twelfth month (being the first day of 
the week) was buried, at Merion, Edward Jones, aged 
about ninety-two years. He was one of the first settlers 
of Pennsylvania, and a man much given to hospitality ; 
a lover of good and virtuous people, and was likewise 
beloved by them. There were man}' hundreds of peo- 
ple at his funeral. I had a concern to be at this meeting 
before I left my place at Frankfort, and before I heard of 
this friend's decease. 

The beginning of the first month (being the fifth day 
of the week) I was sent to, in order to be at the burial 
of Hannah, the wife of John Mickle, at NewtowMi, in 
West-Jersey. My kinsman, Daniel Stanton, was with 
me at this burial. It was a solid, heart-melting time ; 
my heart was broken into tenderness with many others. 
This deceased friend was much beloved by her friends 
and neighbours, and there was much mourning among 
her relations at the grave, among whom she will be 
greatly missed. The people vv^re desired earnestly to 
prepare for their latter end, and final change ; and that, 
as we had all reason to hope it was well with our deceas- 
ed friend, we might likewise have a well grounded hope 


that it would be well with ourselves, when we came to 
put ofl^ our mortality, and put on immortality. The 
meeting ended with fervent supplication for our future 
well-doing and well-behig, both here and hereafter, and 
praise to the Most High, who is alone worthy forever 

As soon as I returned to Philadelphia, on the sixth day 
of the week, I heard of the death of Joseph Kirkbride, 
at Israel Pemberton's, who told me I was desired to be 
at his burial. He, his son, and William Logan, accom- 
panied me as far as Samuel Bunting's that afternoon, 
with which journey I was exceedingly tired, so that I 
could hardly stand or go when I alighted off my horse, 
but being refreshed with a good night's rest, I went in 
the morning to the house of my deceased friend. There 
was a multitude of people at the burial, among whom 
we had a good opportunity to invite them to lay hold on 
truth and righteousness, and prepare for another world. 
They were reminded, that neither natural wisdom nor 
riches, youth nor strength, crowns nor sceptres, would 
nor could secure them from the stroke of death. Robert 
Jordan was at this meeting, and had good service there- 
in ; it concluded in supplication for the widow and father- 
less, and for mankind universally. Fourth day, being 
the fourth of the first month, I was at Middletown meet- 
ing, in company with Thomas Brown, wherein the div- 
inity of Christ, and his being made flesh, born of a vir- 
gin, crucified, dead and buried, and his being raised 
from the dead by the divine power, was largely opened 
to the people, and that the same power must be witness- 
ed to reform our lives, and give us the true saving faith 
and knowledge of God the Father, and Christ the Son, 
and of the Holy Ghost. 

This month, at our general spring meeting, I acquaint- 
ed friends, that I had a desire, once more to see my friends 
in Virginia, Maryland, and North- Carolina, if health and 
strength did permit, and divine providence favoured, I 
not having yet fully recovered my former health and 
strength : the meeting consented to my request. 


The latter end of the first montli I was at the burial of 
Robert Evan, ot North- Wales ; he was upwarck of four- 
score years of age, and one of the first settlers there. A 
man who lived and died in the love of God and his neigh- 
bours, of whom, I believe it might be truly said, as 
our Saviour said of Nathaniel : " Behold an Israelite in- 
deed, in whom there is no guile." He was a minister 
of Christ, full of divine and religious matter. In this 
month I was at Fairhill, at a meeting appointed for Ruth 
Courtley and Susannah Hudson, who were on a religious 
visit from Ireland, to friends in this and the adjacent 
provinces. It was a good meeting, the friends speakings 
to the state thereof. 

The beginning of the second month, I went over 
Delaware, and so to Cohansey, intending home be- 
fore I set out for my journey to the southward ; but 
my affairs not answering to come home, and afterward, 
to reach the yearly meeting of friends at West- River, 
the which I proposed to our general meeting ; I now 
wrote to my wife and family, that I intended to proceed 
to West- River meeting, it saving me much time and 
riding, and after having been at several meetings at Co- 
hansey, and at the yearly meeting at Salem, and at a 
meeting at Piles-Grove ; being accompanied by a friend 
of Salem, I proceeded, and \\ ent over Delaware river, 
and first had a meeting at Gtorge's-creek, and from 
thence to the head of Sassafras river, where we had a 
meeting, but by reason of the wet weather it was but 
small : thence we travelled to Cecil meeting, and so on 
to Chester, where we had a meeting on first day ; then 
to Queen Ann's county, and back from thence to New- 
town, on Chester river, at which town we had a large 
Siitisfactory meeting ; in which it was shewn that no 
Christian might or could break the moral part of the law, 
for it, said the apostle, is a school-master to bring to 
Christ, and that those who come to the gospel of Christ, 
G^n in no wise break the least commandment of God. 
As for example, the law saith, Thou shait not forswear 
thyself; but if a man (according to Christ's gospel) 


swears not at all, then that man cannot forswear himself. 
Again the law saith, Thou shalt love thy neighbour and 
hate tliine enemy ; but Christ says, love your enemies ; 
the which if we do, there is no doubt but we shall love 
our neighbours. Again the law says, Thou shalt not 
commit adultery ; but if according to the doctrine and 
gospel of Christ, a man doth not look on a woman with a 
lustful eye, there is no danger of committing adultery with 
her, &.C. Those things were largely spoken to and open- 
ed in the meeting, and the people (ih-re being many not 
of our society) were very attentive and sober, and tae 
good hand of the Almighty was amongst us in this meet- 

From Chester river, we crossed Chesapeak bay, to 
the yearlv meeting at Wesi-River, with Chester friends, 
in William Thomas's boat, and sent our horses over by 
Keiit- Island to West-River, where we met with our 
friends Michael Lightfoot, Elizabeth VVyat, and Grace 
Mason, with divers others : (E izabeth and Grace, being 
on their return home from a religious visit to North- Car- 
olina and Virginia) : we all being far from home, and well 
acquainted, were glad to see one another, being thankful 
to the Almighty, who had been pleased to preserve us 
so far on our way. After the meeting was ended at 
West-River, taking leave in the love of Christ of divers 
friends, with hearts full of love, and eyes full of tears, as 
never expecting to see one another again, I with my 
companion and Armiger Trotter (who came up with the 
friends from Virginia to West- River) set out for Vir- 
ginia, and having passed over Patuxent river, had a meet- 
ing among the family of the Plummers, one of whom, 
with another friend, accompanied us to the river Poto- 
mac ; we rode as near as we could compute it sixty miles 
that day. I being heavy and aged, and the weather hot, 
was very much tired, and laid down in my clothes all 
night, and the next morning ferried over the river Poto- 
mac, computed about three miles over, and parted with 
our guides. When over this river, we travelled fifteen 
miles to William Duft's, had a meeting there, and from 
tlience to a meeting of friends at John Cheagle's, and so 

N n 


to Black-crcfk, had a meeting there, and then went to 
the monthly mtetiii_^ of friends on the west side of James- 
Ri^•er, and so to William Lad's, after which v/e went to 
the monthly meeting of friends at Nansemond-River, and 
from thence to Carolina, and on a first day had a large 
meeting at a new meeting-house built to accommodate 
the yearly meeting; it was a good, solid meeting, and 
there the friends a])pointed for us the meetings follow- 
irig. Third day of the week, being the 13th of the fourth 
month, at Joseph Barrow's, fourth day at Jacob Butler's, 
fifth day at Samuel Newby's, sixth and first day at the 
iip])er meeting-house at Little- River, and thiid day at 
the lower meeting-house on said river, and fourth day at 
Pasquotank, and fifth day at Amos Trueblood's, up Pas- 
quotank river, ar;d then we went to the quarterly-meeting 
for friends in North-Carolina, which was very large ; the 
ptople were exhorted to overcome sin as Christ over- 
came, that they might sit with him in his kingdom, as 
he overcame, and is set down in the kingdom ot God his 
father : that subject was largely spoken to that day, and 
we had a good opportunit} with the people, and the great 
name of God was exalted over all. After this quarter- 
ly-mteting we had a meeting at James Wilson's, in the 
Barrens, which was a large, good and open meeting : in 
the conclusion thereof, I told them, that I came amorg 
th( m in great love (though in a cross to my own will, 
with respect to my age, and the heat of the weather) be- 
ing willing to see them, in that province, once more be- 
fore I left this world ; and, as I came in love, so I parted 
with them ; desiring thtm, to dwell in love, and peace, 
and then the God of love would be with them. 

From Carolina we travelled into Virginia (Zachariah 
Nic ksoi^ accompanying us)aiid had a meetingat the widow 
Newby's, and fiom thence had a meeting at Nansemond, 
and so to the Branch, where we had a very large meet- 
ing. Many people were there not of our society, and 
were very attentive and sober : and next day, being the 
second day of the week, we had a satisfactory meeting 
ai Benntt's-creek ; and thence to Chuckatuck ; and so 
on to Rasper- neck ; und then lo Pagan- creek ; thence in- 


to Snrrv county, to S imuel Sebrell's ; and thence to 
Robert Honiciit's ; had a meeting there, then to Curl's, 
up James- River ; to Thomas and John Pleasant's, had a 
meeting there on a first day, and then to the Swamp and 
Cedar-creek ; and so on to John Cheagle's. 

We came to John Cheagle's the 20th of the fifdi 
month, being the fifth day of the week; and, being un- 
willing to be idle on sixth and seventh days, (intending 
to have a meeting at his house on first day, I asked 
John if he could tell me where we could have meetings 
sixth and seventh days? He said he could; and ac- 
cordingly he appointed one about three miles from his 
house, and another about six miles off; at which places 
we had good service: and then had a very large meet- 
ing at his house, on first day, which was, I hoj)e, to 
pretty general satisfaction, to the religious part of the 
people. From thence we travelled' to William Duff's, 
(John and another friend going with us), and hid a 
m< -ting at their meeting-house ; and afterwards Will- 
iam went with us over Potomac river, as far as Piscat* 
away, in Maryland. This river is computed to be near 
four miles over. When we were about the middle, 
there was a large swell in the river, so that our horses 
could not stand,, and the motion of the boat made them 
fall down, and the boat having much water in it, being 
very leaky, she was near oversetting; they in the boat 
were in some concern and consternation, saying, when 
we came to the shore, that they did not remember that 
they were ever before in the like danger. And I ap- 
prehend we were in danger ; and if the boat had overset, 
in all likelihood, we might all have been drowned. And 
I then thought I was in the service of Christ, my great 
master ; and I also knew, I must die, and I thought I 
might as well die in his service as my own ; so I gave 
up my life for Christ's sake, and he gave it to me again. 
Oh ! may I, with all those who sincerely love him, serve 
him truly all our days, is my desire ! 

From Piscataway we travelled to Patuxent, to the fom- 
ily of the Plummers, vvho were ten sons of one father 
and mother, and were convinced about the time I first 


had meetii^gs in those parts, and, so far as I know, they 
are all sober men. 

After this meetinj^ we went to Gerard Hopkins', and 
from thence to Patapsco, had a lart^e meetinj^, the house 
being full beibre the friends came, so that they were 
hard set to get in ; to me it was a good, seasonable op- 
portunity, as was our next in the forest of Gunpowder 
river; where friends have built a new meeting-house, 
\A hich, at this time, could not contain the people. From 
Gunpowder river we went to Bush-river, had a good, 
o])en meeting, and one at Deer-creek, and so over Sus- 
quehannah to Elihu Hall's. 

At West-Nottingham I parted with my companion, he 
having about a day's travel home. I had two meetings on 
first day at the great meeting-house at West-Notting- 
ham, which were very large, and Friends glad to see 
me once more. And after having meetings at Christi- 
ana-bridge, Wilmington, Center, and Kennet, went to the 
quarterly-meeting of ministers at Concord, and was there 
first and second day, and third day at Darby; all which 
were very large meetings, and friends were satisfied and 
comforted, arid I was encouraged in the work and service 
of the gospel of Christ. From Darby I went home, hav- 
ing been abroad about four months, and rode, by compu- 
tation, above eleven hundred miles, and was at about 
sevent} meetings. 

While I was on this journey, I had an account of the 
death of my dear and only brother, George Chalkley, a 
religious, prudent man ; he died the 24th of the ninth 
month, 1737, near the seventieth year of his age, and 
left behind him a mournful widow and four daughters, 
all virtuous women. 

When in Virgiriia, I wrote to those of our society at 
Opeckon, Shenandoah, &c. (many of whom went out of 
our ])rovince to settle in the government of Virginia) to 
the following eft'ect. 



" Virginia, at John Cheagle's, 2\sf 5th Mo. 1738. 

*' Dear Friends who inhabit Shenandoah and Opeckon, 

*' Having a concern for your welfare and prosperity, 
both now and hereafter, and also the prosperity of your 
children, I had a desire to see you ; but being in years, 
and heavy, and much spent and fatigued with my lo]ig 
journies in Virginia and Carolina, make it seem too hard 
for me to perform a visit in person to you ; wherefore I 
take this way of writing to discharge my mind of what 
lies weightily thereon : and, 

1st. I desire that you be very careful, (being far and 
back inhabitants), to keep a friendly correspondence with 
the native Indians, giving them no occasion of offence ; 
they being a cruel and merciless enemy, where they think 
they are wronged or defrauded of their right, as woful 
experience hath taught, in Carolina, Virginia, and Mary- 
land, and especially in New- England, &C. and, 

2d. As nature hath given them, and their forefathers, 
the possession of this continent of America, (or this wil- 
derness), they had a natural right thereto, in justice and 
equity ; and no people, according to the law of nature and 
justice, and our own principle, which is according to the 
glorious gospel of our dear and holy Lord Jesus Christ, 
ought to take away, or settle, on other men's lands or 
rights, without consent, or purchasing the same, by 
agreement of parties concerned; which, I suppose, in 
your case, is not yet done. 

3d. Therefore my counsel and christian advice to you, 
is, my dear friends, that the most reputable among you, 
do, with speed, endeavour to agree with and purchase 
your lands of the native Indians or inhabitants : take ex- 
ample of our worthy and honourable late proprietor, 
William Penn ; who, by his wise and religious care, in 
that relation, hath settled a lasting peace and commerce 


with the natives, and, throut^h his prudent management 
therein, hath been instrumental to plant in peace, one of 
the most fl jurishinj^ provinces in the world. 

4rh. Who would run the risque of the lives of their 
wives and children, for the sparine: a little cosi and pains? 
I am concerned to lay those things before you, und^ r an 
uncommon exercise of mind, that your new and flourish- 
ing little settlement might not be laid waste, and, if the 
providence of the Almighty doth not intervene, some of 
the blood of yourselves, wives or children, be shed and 
spilt on the ground. 

5th. Consider you are in the province of Virginia, 
holding what rights you have under that government ; and 
the Virginians have made an agreement with the natives, 
to go as far as the mountains, but no farther ; and you 
are over and beyond the mountain*^, therefore out of that 
agreement ; by which yoiu lie open to the insults and in- 
cursions of the southern Indians, who hcive destro\ cd 
many of the inhabitants of Carolina and Virginia, and 
even now have destroyed more on the like occasion. 
The English, going beyond the bounds of their agree- 
ment, eleven of them were killed by the Indians while we 
were travelling in Virginia. 

6th. If you believe yourselves to be within the bounds 
of William Penn's patent from King Charles II. which 
will be hard for you to prove, you being far to the south- 
ward of his line ; yet, if done, that is of no consideration 
with the Indians, without a purchase of them ; except 
you will go about to convince them by lire and sword, 
contrary to our principles ; and, if that were done, they 
would ever be implacable enemies, and the land could 
never be enjoyed in peace. 

7th. Please to note, that in Pennsylvania no new set- 
tlements are made, without an agreement with the na- 
tives; as witness, Lancaster county, lately settled; 
though that is far ^^ ithin the grant of William Penn's pat- 
ent from King Charle«; II. ; wherefore you lie open to in- 
surrections of the northern as well as southern Indians. 

And, lastly, thus having shewn my good will to you, 
and to your new little settlement, that you might sit every 


one under your own shady tree, where none might make 
you afraid, and that you might prosper naturally and 
spiritually, you and your children; and having a little 
eased my mind of that weight and concern, in some 
measure, that lay upon me, I, at present, desist, and sub- 
scribe, in the love of our holy Lord Jesus Christ, 

Your real Friend, 


After my return from this journey, I stayed much at 
home that winter, travelling now being hard for me, so 
that I could not perform long journies as formerly, being 
more broken in the long and hard travelling in this jour- 
ney, than in divers years before. 

In the year 1739, I took several short or lesser jour- 
nies, and had many meetings in divers places, as in Sa- 
lem and Burlington counties, in West-Jersey, and Phil- 
adelphia, Chester and Bucks counties, in Pennsylvania, ^ 
having many large and comfortable meetings, and some 
satisfactory service in divers of them. 

This year the war broke out between Great-Britain 
and Spain ; the Spaniards giving great occasion of of- 
fence to the Bri ish nation; notwithstanding which. King 
George IL sought to accommodate matters peaceably ; 
but the crown of Spain not complying with the terms 
agreed on for an accommodation, therefore war was pro- 
claimed ; which occasioned much disturbance and dis- 
traction in our little peaceable province and govern- 
ment ; war being destructive to life, health, and trade, 
the peace and prosperity of the people, and absolutely 
against the doctrine and practice of the Prince of life 
and peace, our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ ; a great 
concern came on my mind to promote his doctrine ; in 
order to which I was largely concerned to treat thereof in 
or at the general spring meeting at Philadelphia ; with 
which service divers wise and pious people were well sat- 
isfied, though some were offended. 


When the meeting was over, 1 having a desire and 
coneern once more to visit friends in the lower counties, 
Newcastle, Kent, and Sussex, among whom I had not 
travelled lor near twenty years, and being now a little 
better in health than 1 had been, I set out from my 
home, and went to Chester, and from thence to Wil- 
mington, and had a meeting there ; and then to New- 
castle, where we had another ; William Hammond being 
with me, he and I went from Newcastle to George's- 
creck, had a meeting there ; and then went to Duck- 
creek : after having two meetings at Duck-creek, I went 
to Little-creek meeting, and so proceeded to the Mother- 
kills, where I had a large, open time, in preaching the 
gospel to the people, which divers of them received with 
gladness ; and there were many, not of our society, who 
were very sober and attentive, a door being open among 
them ; yet, notwithstandmg there may be much open- 
ness both in speakers and hearers, I have observed, with 
sorrow, that there are but few who retain the truth so as 
to be really converted ; many are convinced, but few 
converted and come to be regenerated or born again, as 
our Saviour taught. 

From Mother-kills I went back to Little-creek, to 
Timothy Hanson's, he accompanying me; and fiom 
Timothy's I went to Duck-creek, and from thence to Ap- 
poquinamy to the burial of a friend's son, who died of 
the small-pox ; on which occasion we had a solid meet- 
ing, the mournful relations being thankful for our com- 
pany. From Appoquinamy I ^vent to John M' Cool's, 
and from thence to Newcastle ; whe we had a large, 
open meeting, to the satisfaction of divers ; though I was 
very weakly and poorly^ as to my health, so that it was 
hard for me to stoop to take any thing from the ground, 
and with difficulty I walked from the friend's house to 
the meeting ; but being helped by grace, and carried 
through the service of the meeting be} ond my expecta- 
tion, was, with divers others, truly thankful to God the 
father, and Christ, my Lord and Saviour. 

From Newcastle I went to Wilmington, had a meet- 
ing there, and from thence to Newark, to the marriage of 


Alexander Seaton. The meeting was uncommonly large, 
and to general satisfaction. 

From Newark I went back to Wilmington, and from 
thence to the Center monthly meeting, and so on to Ken 
net, where was a very large meeting. Here divers, 
who had professed among us, refrained coming to the 
public meetings for divine worship; with whom, next 
day, we had a meeting, wherein the evil consequence 
of forsaking the assembling ourselves together was spoke 
to, and that it would be a great hurt to the young and 
rising generation, and themselves also ; being a bad ex- 
ample to them, and contrary to the advice and counsel 
of the holy apostle, " Not to forsake the assembling 
ourselves together, as the manner of some is." 

From Kennet I went to Concord, to the burial of 
Benjamin Mendenhall, where we had a large and solid 
meeting, several lively testmionies being borne therein. 
This friend was a worthy elder, and a serviceable man 
in our society, and one of the first or early settlers in 
Pennsylvania; a man given to hospitality, and a good 
example to his family, and hath left divers hopeful chil- 
dren surviving him. 

The night before this meeting I lodged at the widow 
Gilpin's, whose husband, Joseph Gilpin, was lately de- 
ceased. There was true christian love and friendship 
between us for above fifty years. When first I saw Jo,- 
seph in Pennsylvania, he lived in a cave in the earth, 
where we enjoyed each other's company in the love and 
fear of God. This friend had fifteen children, whoiii 
he lived to see brought up to the states of men and 
women, and all but two married well, and to his mind. 

From Concord I went to Wilmington, and from 
thence, after meeting, to Newcastle, where I, with 
George Hogg, went over the river Delaware into Penn's- 
neck, and had a meeting at James Wilson's. From 
Penn's-neck we went to Salem, and thence to Cohnn- 
sey, where I had several meetings at Greenwich, and at 
the head of AUoway's- creek ; also at David Davis's, 
where the people kindly lent us the benches, of theii" 

o o 


meeting-house, and many of them came themselves^ 
and were very attentive ; after which I went to I'ile's- 
Grove, and had a meeting there, and from thence to 
Wood berry -creek, and so to Gloucester, where 1 ferried 
over the Delaware to Philadelphia, and from thence 
home, having travelled about five hundred miles in this 
journey, after which I stayed at and about home for 
Some time. 

I was at the vearlv meetina: at Burlins:ton in the sev- 
enth month ; going to this meeting, my horse started, 
and threw me, which hurt my shoulder and hip badly, of 
which hurt I did not recover for above half a year. 

This meeting was very large, and though I was out- 
AV ardly in misery and pain, yet, in the sense of the love 
and goodness of God, and grace of our Lord Jesus Christy 
I was, with many others, much comforted in spirit. 

From Burlington I travelled to Shrewsbury, having 
•several meetings by the way ; as, at Bordenton, Cross- 
wicks, Trenton, Sec. This journey I rode in much 
pain ; but the satisfaction I had in meetings through the 
spirit and power of the Most High, made amends for all 
the labor and pain I underwent. I bless the sacred 
name of God, and may I do it forever ! I made what 
haste I could home, being in pain with my fall, and tar- 
ried at home most of the winter, which was one of the 
longest and hardest known in these parts by some of the 
oldest livers here ; divers people being frozen to death in 
several places, and many sheep and cattle perishing, and 
much of the winter grain killed with the frost, so that 
there was some apprehension of a want of bread : all 
which I took to be warnings of the just and righteous 
judgments of God for the ingratitude, pride, and other 
sins and iniquities of the people, the which I was divers 
times, and at divers places, concerned to put them in 
mind of. How well would it be if the people would lay 
the judgments of the Most High to heart ; and when 
his judgments are abroad in the earth, that the inhabit- 
ants would learn righteousness ! 

After this winter, I was at a general-meeting at Ger- 
•mantown, and at meetings at North- Wales, Horsham, 


and Bybury, and from thence, with Joseph Gilbert, 
went to Burlington, and was at a marriage there, and 
then returned home. 

In the second month, I was under an inward and re- 
ligous eng:igement in my mind to visit the meetings of 
friends in Gloucester and Salem counties, in West- Jersey; 
and the 19th of said rnonth, I went over Delaware river, 
and was at Haddonfield on a first day, and third day at 
Chester, fourth day had a meeting at the house of Josi- 
ah Foster, and fifth day at Evesham ; from which meet- 
ing I went to John Estaugh's, Ebenezer Large and 
Samuel Jordan being with me. In the morning we went 
to Woodberry-creek meeting, and next day down to 
Salem, in order for the yearly meeting, which began on 
the 26th of the second month, and was an extraordinary 
solid meeting, the divine presence and glory being richly 
manifested amongst us. 

From Salem I went, in company with John Evans 
and Elizabeth Stevens, to Alloway's-creek and Cohan- 
sey, where we had meetings, I believe, to the satisfac- 
tion of many. Here I parted with said friends ; and, not 
being well, I stayed at Greenwich, and they went to 
David Davis's, in order for Pile's-Grove meeting. 

The 3d of the third month, being the first of the 
week, I was at Cohansey meeting, which was solid and 
weighty; in which the mighty works of God, and his 
wonderful power was set forth to the people in divers 

1st. As to the work of the creation of the heavens 
and the earth, and of man to govern in the earth, re- 
serving to himself the government of man ; to whora 
he gave a law, for the breach of which he was turned 
out of Paradise, and brought death into the world. 

2d. Notwithstanding man's fall, God had love, mer- 
cy, and compassion towards him, and promised that 
the seed of the woman should bruise the head of the 
serpent, who led them astray, which seed was Christ, 
whom all are commanded to hear, believe, and follow, 
in the practice of his holy doctrine, which is contained 
in his words spoken to his immediate disciples andapos- 


tics, and likewise made known and revealed in our 

3d. That now in our day his righteous judgments arc 
abroad in the earth, as the sword, and a threatening of 
famine, or want of bread ; all which was spoken in the 
tender love and fear of God, and faith of Christ, and 
all Were entreated to lay these things to heart, and " turn 
to the Lord, and he will have mercy ; and to our God, 
and lie w ill abundantly pardon." In this meeting God 
was glorified, and his name magnified, through the as- 
sistance of the spirit of his dear Son, our Lord. 

From Cohansey 1 went to Salem, and thence to David 
Davis's, \v here Me had a meeting, at which were several 
people of divers professions, \a ho were satisfied and ed- 
ified therein ; and thence we went to Pile's- Grove meet-p 
ing, afterwards into Penn's-neck, and had a good open 
meeting at the widow Hugh's, and so to Woodberry- 
creck meeting, \\hich, I hope, was serviceable; ...fter 
which 1 went home with my friend James Lord's widow, 
who, with her sister Ann Cooper and Joseph Clews, went 
with me to Gloucester jail, where we visited one under 
sentence of death for sieaiing. 1 asked him if he truly 
repented of that sin of stealing, of which he had been 
so often gnilty ? He told me, he hoj)ed he had, and 
was willing to die. He was recommended to the grace 
of God, and to keep in an humble frame of mind, and 
beg mercy of the Alnjght) for the sake of Christ, for 
all his sins. While a friend was praying b) him, he 
was broken into icnderness. 

Here the afore said friends pari^ed from me ; I cross- 
ing the river Delaware to Philade!})hia, and so home to 
Frankfort. I was at ten meetings in this journey, be- 
sides the yearly meeting at Salem, and travelled about 
one hundred and fifty miles ; but travelling was jjainful 
to my body; for now^ I more and more felt the effects of 
many old falls and bruises, which much disabled and, 
hurt me in riding. 

In the fourth month I was at divers meetings about or 
near home, as at Fair-hill, Germantown, and at a meet- 
ing at Thomas Roberts' ; also was at Philadelphia meet- 


uig. In the beginning; of the fifth month, I visited 
friends meetings at Darby, Merion, and Haverford ; at 
the last place, the meeting was large, and very open ; 
wherein the mighty power of God was exalted over all 
and it was plainly manifested, that if there was any virtue, 
or any good gift or genius in the creature, it derived its 
excellency from the Creator ; and that man, in his best 
capacity, in either natural or spiritual attainments, hath 
no cause to boast or glory in any thing or things, 
which he, as an instrument in the divine hand, might 
help to do or perform ; wherefore we ought to humble 
ourselves under the mighty hand of God, attributing no 
glory to self, or the creature ; but all glory and praise to 
the Creator, who is in and over all blessed forever. 

The 20th of the fifth month, I set forward on a jour- 
ney, in order to visit friends at and near Burlington, and 
was next day at a meeting at Bristol, which was large, 
considering the heat of the weather, and the shortness of 
the notice ; next day being the fourth day of the week, 
and the 22d of the month, I was at Mount- Holly, at the 
burial of our ancient friend. Restored Lippincot : he was, 
as I understood, near a hundred years of age, and had up- 
wards of two hundred children, grand-children, and 
great-grand-children, many of whom were at his funeral ; 
the meeting was large, and thought to be a serviceable 
meeting by divers. After this meeting, I went with a 
few choice friends to visit Susanna Fearon, who had 
been long ill ; in which visit we were favoured with the 
divine presence and goodness of the Most High ; for 
which we returned him thanks and praise. After which 
we went to Burlington, and next day had a meeting, 
which was an acceptable op])ortunity to many. 

Next first day, being the 27th of the month, we had a 
good solid meeting at Trenton ; from thence I went, with 
divers friends, to Bristol, and so home to Frankfort ; and 
was thankful to the Almighty for the grace which he was 
pleased to bestow upon me, a poor worm ; and that, 
considering the extreme heat, I had my health better'than 
usual. After coming home, I visited divers meetings^ 
at Philadelphia, Haddonfield, Frankfort, &c.' 


In the sixth month there was a great mortality in Phil- 
adelphia, and many were taken away ; on a fifth da} , I 
was concerned to put the people in mind of it, and of 
their own mortality, and exiiorted them to prepare for it, 
they not knowin,^ whose turn it might be next, nor the 
hour when death might come to their own habitations ; 
and was concerned, in the same nature, at several large 
burials. In the meeting at Philadelphia, they were told, 
it was better to fall into the hands of the Lord than into 
the hands of men : and that since we had been settled in 
this province of Pennsylvania, we were preserved from 
the hands of men ; there having never been an enemy in 
it, in a warlike way ; our dependence being in Provi- 
dence, and our principle against war, and against spilling 
of human blood by wars and fighting, according to the 
doctrine of Christ, the peaceable Saviour ; wherefore I 
believe the hand of God was manifested in preserving us 
in peace : yet I would not be understood to be against 
the magistrates exercising the power committed to them» 
according to just law; but national wars, woful exjjeri- 
ence teacheth, are destructive to the peaceable religion of 
Jesus, to trade, wealth, health and happiness. Our dear 
Lord preached peace to the people, and against wars ; 
telling his followers, " That they must love and pray for 
their enemies, and rather take a stroke or a blow, than 
give one ; and that they should not resist evil;" which 
peaceable doctrine of Christ, the Jews could not away 
with ; no, no, by no means : " Oh ! (say they) if we let 
this man alone, the Romans will come and take away our 
place and nation ;" just as the people now say in this 
province, among and to those peaceable men, who, for the 
sake of Christ and his doctrine, cannot use the sword; 
" The Romans will come and take our country, if we 
do not build forts and castles, and have military prepar- 
ations :" and I wish it were not true, that some who pro- 
fess this peaceable principle, too much endeavour to 
smother, stifle, and keep under, this peaceable doctrine, 
through a slavish fear, and too much distrusting of the 
Divine Providence, which may cause the divine hand to 
deliver us to the Romans indeed ; at which I should not 


wonder, since we distrust that divine hand, that hath hith- 
erto preserved us, without our preparing for war, above 
these fifty years. To which I know that it is objected ; 
*' But now there are abundance of people who are not of 
that principle." I answer, then why did they come 
among us, if they could not trust themselves with our 
principles, which they knew, or might have known, if 
they would ? The King gave the province, and the gov- 
ernment of it, to our worthy proprietor, Williajm Penn ; 
who was a man of this peaceable principle ; for which 
the heathens loved him and honour his name and memory 
to this day, and those of his society and principles ; 
whereof I am a living witness. The sense of the sweet- 
ness and social life that the first settlers of the province of 
Penns) Ivania and the city of Philadelphia lived in, makes 
me express myself in this manner. Oh ! that the in- 
habitants of the city and country, did but live and dwell 
in that first love, and hold it fast ; and then I believe that 
the Almighty would not suffer any to take our crown ; 
which crown is righteousness, peace, and love, through 
true faith ; which true faith works by love in Christ 

On the last day of the fifth month, I acquainted my 
friends of the monthly meeting of Philadelphia, with a 
concern I had been some time under, to visit the people 
in the Virgin islands, and more particularly in Anguilla 
and Tortola ; in order to preach the gospel of our Lord 
Jesus Christ freely, to those who might have a desire to 
hear, as the Lord should be pleased to open my way : 
and my friends having unity with me therein, at their 
next meeting, gave me a certificate of their concurrence! 
soon after which, having settled my affairs, and taken 
leave of my dear wife and daughter, and the rest of my 
family and friends ; on the 19th day of the seventh month, 
I embarked at Philadelphia, in the sloop John, PeteF 
Blunder, master, bound for the island of Tortola. 

We sailed down the river, and came to an anchor 
near Christiana-creek that night, in which there was a 
violent storm, which drove several vessels on the 
marshes ; so tjiat when tlie tide ebhed^ one might walk 

2.'8S The journal of tkomas chalkley. 

round them. Next day we sailed to Reedy-Island, 
uhere we waited for a fair wind : we sailed down the 
bay in eompany with two sloops, one bound for Bermu- 
da, the other for the island of Christopher's ; and left the 
capes on the 23d day of the month, and in eighteen 
days from that lime fell in with the island of Thomas, and 
in one day more turned up to TortoUi. 

In this voyage we saw nine sail of vessels; but spoke 
with none of them : had a rough passage, the wind being 
high and contrary above a week, and much rain ; yet 
through the mercy and grace of God, I was preserved 
above all fear, except the holy fear of the living Lord, in 
which I blessed his holy name. 

On the 12th day of the eighth m.onth, John Pickering, 
the owner of the sloop, (who was likewise governor of 
the island) \\ith his spouse, met me at the water side, and 
lovingly embraced me, and led me up to their house, and 
the same evening, had a meeting at his house ; and 
on the 15th of the month, being the fifth day of the week, 
we had a large, satisfactory meeting, at which were many- 
people, divers of them not of our profession; and, I think, 
the good hand of the Lord was with us. I was concern- 
ed in this meeting to shew, that tlie last dispensation of 
God to mankind, in and through his dear Son, was a 
spiritual dispensation ; a dispensation of pure, divine 
love, which is to last and be with the true believers in 
Christ forever, according to his own doctrine in the New 

On the first day of the week, and the 18th of the month, 
we had another meeting, larger than the former, (and 
the governor told me, he had never seen so large a gath- 
ering on the island, on any. occasion), my spirit was 
much set at liberty in this meeting, and great openness 
and brokenness was among the people, so that the gos^ 
pel was freely and largely declared to them. The case 
of Cornelius, and of the apostle Peter going to his house, 
was treated of, with divers other matters, tending to ed- 
ification. I was so affected with the power, spirit, and 
srrace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that when the meetino- 
^was over I withdrew, and in private poured out my soitl 


before the Lord, and beg,^ed that he would be pleased to 
manifest his power and glorious gospel more and more. 
At this meeting there was a woman who had suffered 
much for her going to meetings ; her husband being a 
proud, haughty man, had beat her to the drawing of 
blood; he also drew his sword, and presented his pistol, 
with threatenings to kill her ; but she thanked God, 
that she was resigned to lose her life for Christ's sake : 
this woman expressed some words in supplication in this 
meeting in a broken manner. There was also another, 
(a beautiful young woman) whose father had turned her 
out of doors for coming to friends' meetings. 

I went, with the governor and his wife, to visit a few 
families up in the mountains, and had a meeting, in 
which was great brokenness and tenderness in the time 
of prayer. 

On second day we visited several families in the di- 
vision called the road, to which we went by water in a 
coble, somewhat like our canoes, there were four of these 
in company, five persons in two of them, and seven in the 
other two. In this visiting of families, the people came 
and filled the rooms, and we had seasonable meetings, in 
which the people were so loving, and well affected, that 
we could seldom go in a friendly way to visit our 
friends, but they would presently fill their rooms, and 
we scarcely could depart, without having a time of wor- 

Next day we went to visit a young man's habitation 
(who had not yet finished his house) and the neighbour? 
coming in as usual, we had a good meeting. 

I cannot but note, that the hand of the Lord God was 
with us, and I felt his visitation as fresh and lively ag 
ever ; for which I was truly thankful, and thought if I 
never saw my habitation again, I was satisfied in this 
g;ospel call, and religious visit ; though, being in years, 
it was sometimes a little troublesome to the flesh ; being 
in the sixty-sixth year of my age, and stiff in all my 
limbs from hurts with many falls and bruises ; but, as 
to my health, I had it better now than for several years 
past ; for which I am humbly thankful to him, in whom 



we live and have our being ; glory to his name, through 
his dear Son. 

Third and fourth days, visited several families, and 
had divers good opportunities : in one of those meetings, 
a } oung man, named Martin, spoke a few words 
in pra} er ; in which season we were, 1 think, all broken 
into tenderness ; so that in truth we might say, that the 
power and spirit of Christ was with and among us, and 
his great name was praised. 

Fifth day, being the week day meeting, it was larger 
than was ever known of a week day in that place ; there 
being divers friends who came from an island called Jos. 
Vandike's, and many neighbours and sober people, who 
were very attentive. 

Sixth day, was at several people's houses, and had re- 
ligious meetings ; which we could not well avoid, the 
people were so loving and desirous to hear what might 
be spoken to them ; they being many of them like 
thirsty ground wanting rain, andr our good and gracious 
Lord gave us celestial showers, which were refreshing to 
us, and thankfully received. 

Seventh day I went with several friends to the house 
of one who, with his wife, had been at our meeting on 
fifth day ; he kindly invited me to his house ; his name 
was Blake ; he and his wife were loving ; though he had 
formerly wrote against friends, he was now better inform- 
ed. From his house I went to Townsend Bishop's, and 
there being many friends from another island, we had a 
most comfortable, tender evening meeting, in which we 
oifered up an evening sacrifice of praise and thanksgiv- 
ing to the holy name of the living eternal God, and his 
dear Son our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, through 
the irifluence of the Holy Spirit, one God over all blessed 
forever. And, 

On the first day of the week, being the 25th of the 
month, we had a L rger meeting than ordinary ; and, in 
expectation of larger meetings than usual, the governor, 
John Pickering, had made several new forms to accom- 
modate the people yt his own house, w^hich he sent six 
miles on men's heads, the roads not being passable for 


carriage by carts, &c. This I think worth noting, that 
their zeal may be had in remembrance, and that others 
may be stirred up to a more rehgious concern, who will 
scarce go six steps to a religious meeting, or will not go 
at all. In this meeting I was concerned to speak of and 
set forth the doctrine of Christ, which he ])reached on the 
Mount, contained in the 5th, 6th, and 7th chapters of 
Mathew ; and to press the people to come to the practice 
of what is there commanded by the great author of 
the christian religion ; and to shew that the despi ed 
quakers had learned, out of that excellent sermon, much 
of their religion, which displeases many people, and di- 
vers of the great men of the world ; and to urge them to 
regard the grace of God, which bringeth salvation, and 
hath appeared to all men. In this meeting, Dorcas, the 
wife of John Pickering, spoke to the people in public 
testimony, to which they gave good attention. 

After meeting, we returned by water from the Road- 
Harbour to Fat-Hog bay, where John Pickering lives, 
being upwards of twenty of us in company, in three co- 

These two weeks I spent in the island of Tortola, to 
my great satisfaction. 

The Journal of this worthy friend ending liere^ the fol- 
lowing supplement is collected from some notes sent 
by a friend of that island^ giving an account of his 
further services^ sickness, and death. 



On the second day of the third week of his bein,^ among 
us, he vibittd some friends in the neighbourhood, uiid 
likewise the man who had treated his wife so cruelly for 
coming to friends' meetings. 

On third day, he was employed cheifly in writing to 
his family and friends ia Philadelphia. 

On fourth day, some friends from the road came to 
see him, which prevented his going out to visit the 
neighbours, as usual. 

Oa fifth day morning, being ihe 29th of the eighth 
inonth, he found himself much indisposed; yet he went 
to our week day meeting, about a quarter of a mile. 
When the meeting broke up, he had a hot fever upon 
him ; doctor Turnbull (the chief physician in our island) 
thought it proper to take some blood from him, and he 
being very willing, it was done that afternoon, and the 
fever abated some time that night ; and next day walk- 
ed about, and made no complaint until about eight 
o'clock in the evening ; about which time the fever re- 
turned, and continued very severe till first day morning, 
wiien the doctor advised him to take a vomit, which he 
declihtd that day, being desirous of attending the meet- 
ii g, which was held at my house, and was a large, sweet, 
and tender meeting ; in which he spoke to us concering 
temptations, and how Christ was tempted, and how 
to withstand them ; and afterwards on the parable of the 
great supper, and other subjects ; ending his testimony 
with the words of the apostle Paul, I have fought a good 
■fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith, 
henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteous- 
ness : which words, and most part of this last sermon, 


were delivered in great brokenness ; from whence I judged 
that he was sensible that he had not long to live, though, 
I believe, he was not afraid to die. 

On second day morning, the fever abated a little, and 
he complied with the doctor's prescription of taking a 
vomit, which seemed to have its proper effect ; but that 
night the fever returned, and continued on him until he 
died ; which was between two and three o'clock on fourth 
day morning, the fourth day of the ninth month, being 
speechless about seven hours before. 

A general invitation was given to friends and others 
to his funeral ; where three testimonies were borne, all 
in great brokenness, under a just sense of our great 
loss. After which he was decently interred on the even- 
ing of the said day, in a piece of ground which is since 
given to friends for a burial place, and on which a meet- 
ing-house is built by John Pickering, the governor of 
the island at that time. 

It is said in the scriptures. That the righteous are 
taken away, and no man layeth it to heart ; but, I hope, 
it may be truly said, this was not the case at this time ; 
for friends, in general, much lamented their great loss, 
in being so soon deprived of so instructive a friend and 
elder, whose care over us was very great ; and who, by 
his loving and exemplary life, and tenderness to people 
of all ranks and professions, engaged the love and re- 
spect of almost all the people in the island. We are fully 
assured, that his labour among us was not in vain, and 
that many have felt the good effects of it ; so that we 
believe some of the last words he spoke in public, may 
justly be applied to him, and that he now enjoys a crown 
©f righteousness. 

♦• • ♦•••)?,• 

End of th; journal. 









Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor 
standelh in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful : 
but his delig-ht is in the law of the Lord, and in his law doth he med- 
itate both day and night. 

PSALM i. 1, 2. 








And there came a voice out of the cloud, saying, this (». e. Christ) i? 
my beloved son, hear ye him. 

LUKE ix. 35. 
If ye love me, keep my commandments. 

JOHN xiv. 16. 

For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that 
whosoever believed in him, might not perish, but have everlasting 

JOHN iii. 16. 



IJV sincerity and unfeigned love^ both to God and many 
were these lines penned. I desire thee to peruse them in 
the same love^ and then^ peradventure^ thou mayest find 
some sweetness in them. Expect not learned phrases^ or 
fiorid expressions ; for many times heavenly matter is 
hid in 7nean sentences^ or wrapped up in plain expres- 
sions. It sometimes pleases God to reveal the mysteries 
of his kingdom f through the grace of his Son our Lord 
Jesus Christ J to babes and sucklings ; and he oftentimes 
ordains praise out of their mouths ; one ofwhich^ reader^ 
I desire thou mayest be. 

My intent in writing these sheets^ is, that they, through 
the help of God'' s grace, and the good spirit of Christ, may 
stir up true love in thee ; first to God and Christ, and 
then to man : so thou wilt be fit to be espoused to him, 
who is altogether lovely, fthat is Christ J, which is the 
desire of him, who is thy friend, more in heart than word, 







Having been concerned for the good and welfare of 
the children of men, in my youthful days, and tasted of 
the hifinite love of God, in, and through his dear Son, the 
holv Lamb Jesus, who laid down his life for the sins of 
the world ; and, in my tender years, reaped great ben- 
efit, through faith in, and obedience unto, him; for, 
truly, I have found, by sufficient experience, that one 
without the other, to wit, faith without works, will not 
answer the end of the great love of Christ Jesus, our 
Lord, in that he offered himself a sacrifice for all man- 
kind ; not for people to live in sin, but to take away the 
sin of the world ; in a word, " Faith without works is 
dead." James ii. 20. For my part, I found it so, and 
so must all true believers in the Son of God. 

Christ first loved us, and paid that debt for us, that, of 
ourselves, we were not able to do. Oh ! his infinite 
love ! it hath oftentimes melted my soul into tenderness. 
Methmks it is abundance of pity, tliat ever the sons of 
men should requite evil for good, or disobedience for 
such gracious obedience ; I would to God, that all be- 
lievers in Christ would live in that fear of God, and that 
love to Christ, that keepeth the heart clean ; because 
nothing unclean can enter the kingdom of heaven. I do 
not mean a slavish fear ; but fear that is wrought by love: 
for them that love the Lord, the great, everlasting God, 
will fear to offend him. 

This is the matter that chiefly beareth stress on my 
mind, at this time : the necessitv of lo\'e to God and 

a02 god's great love to mankind, 

Christ, and one another; " Eye hath not seen, nor ear 
heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man to 
conceive, the things that God hath prepared for them 
that love him." 1 Cor. ii. 9. For my part, I cannot 
pretend to tell thee. Oh, man ! to the full ; but only a 
little to hint at it : it is, " Joy unspeakable, and full of 
glory:" but then we must love him, so as to keep his 
commandments. This is the work that I am very earnest 
in pressing people to, whether youth or aged : it is not 
too soon for the young, neither too late for the aged, to 
begin this work of obedience, through faith, and love to 
God and Christ, if his spirit is reproving or striving in 
them. But it is more honourable and acceptable, for a 
man to give up the strength of his days to serve the 
Lord, and to remember his Creator in the days of his 
youth, before sin is too much rooted and grown in him ; 
for then it will be much more labour, to get tlie root of 
unrighteousness plucked up. 

So that in that ability, which God hath given me, I 
would endeavour to stir up all to serve him, and to be in 
good earnest, and not to put the day of God, e\ en the 
mighty Jehovah, afar off; but to love the Lord unfeign- 
edly, and with true obedience ; since it is that sacrifice, 
that is only acceptable to God ; that is to say, to love 
him in deed and in truth, more than in word, and with 
tongue : for against such a people, the Lord, by his 
servant, complained, in old time ; " They (saith the 
Lord), draw nigh to me with their mouths, and with 
their lips do honour me :" but. Oh ! their great mis- 
ery was, their hearts were far from him ; they did 
not love him with their whole hearts ; that was their 
great fault : this thing is also a great evil in the sight of 
the great God, in this our age ; and is too frequent in 
England, the land of my nativity, as also in other islands 
and places beyond the seas. What lamentation shall be 
taken up, for such as do so mock the Lord, the great 
God of love ? Surely he will render vengeance, as in 
flames of fire, upon all the wicked and ungodly, and 
those that forget him. It is not by saying, but by do- 
ing, that we are justified, through faith in Christ ; not he 


that saith, Lord, Lord, only ; but he that doth his will 
also, shall enter the kingdom. 

Now the will of God, and Christ his son, is, that we 
should love him above all ; and in loving him, we shall 
lovfc ©ne another ; for Christ saw the great need there 
was of loving God above all, and also of loving one an- 
other ; therefore he answered thus to him that asked 
him, which was the greatest commandment, " Thou 
shalt love the Lord thy God, with all thy heart, and with 
all thy soul, and with all thy mind." Mat, xxii. 37. 

*' This (says Christ) is the first and great command- 
ment, and the second is like unto it. Thou shalt love 
thy neighbour as thyself : on these two commandments 
hang all the law and the prophets," verses 38, 39, and 

Now if these two great commandments were obeyed, 
it would answer God's great love to us, in sending his 
Son to bless us. Oh ! the glory of God, how it would 
shine ! it would make the young men as valiants of Is- 
rael, and the old men as captains of thousands ; then 
Christ would reign gloriously indeed, in the hearts of the 
children of men ; here the Lamb and his followers (that 
walk in the light, and in that commandment, that burns 
as a lamp), would get the victory over the devil and his 
followers ; but, on the contrary, this is the great error of 
mankind, they talk of God, and Christ, in words ; but 
deny him in works : nay, some will not stick to say, it is 
impossible to keep the commands of Christ. It is too 
commonly spoken, and also believed, that there is no 
perfection on this side the grave, contrary to the say- 
ing of Christ, " Be ye perfect, even as your Father, 
which is in heaven, is perfect." Mat, v. 48. Yet, say 
they, it is impossible ; which is as much as to say, 
Christ is a hard master, in commanding what cannot be 
done ; consequently, out of their own mouths they will be 
condemned ; for Christ is not a hard master. I testify 
against all such unholy and imperfect believers, in solid 
fear before the Lord ; but according to such people's 
faith and belief, he must needs be hard. Oh ! that peo- 
ple would but so love God, and his dear Son, as to strive 

^4 god's great love to MANKlJJD, 

to do his commands ; for it is impossible they should 
obey, if they do neither believe nor endeavour: but let 
such know, that " Many shall strive, and shall not en- 
ter;" much less enter if they do not strive: but we 
must, of necessity, strive, in obedience to his v/ill, and by 
his assistance, (not in our own natural will) " to enter in 
at the strait gate:" man would enter in with all his 
pleasant things, and in all his bravery and gallantry ; 
but God's will is, that he should be brought low, that he 
might exalt him. Oh ! this self, it is a great enemy to 

My intention is, to awaken people out of the sleep of 
sin, which is death ; and to stir them up to righteousness, 
and love to the Lord, and their neighbour, even with 
their whole heart ; this is what my heart breathes to, and 
supplicates, the Lord of heaven for ; then would the end 
of my labour, in his love, be answered ; for great is the 
love of God, in sending his Son, and, also, in sending 
his servants, and stirring them up, to rouze people out 
of the sleep of security, that they might see the danger 
they are in, and how near they lie to the brink of the pit 
of burning. Oh ! that people would but seriously consid- 
er that which is shewed and told them in the love of the 
Lord. Oh ! that it might be laid to heart. However, 
whether they will hear, or forbear, God will be clear, and 
his servants also will be clear. But if we not only hear, 
but also obey, that peace, which passeth the understand- 
ing of men (that our Lord giveth to his followers) will 
be our portion, and the lot of our inheritance forever : 
but this is on condition of our obedience, and keeping 
the commands of God ; " If ye love me, keep my com- 
mandments," [John xiv. 15.) saith the Lord. So, if 
people live in saying, and not in doing, in professing, 
and confessing, yet still living in pride and high-minded- 
ness, and in sin, it is apparent, they do not love Christ 
Jesus (according to his own words) neither doth he jus- 
tify them ; it is only the doers that he will justify. 
The apostle John says, " If a man says, he loves God; 
and yet hateth his brother, he is a liar." 1 John^ iv. 20. 
and, by plain scripture testimony, such are not of God. 


Moreover, if he says, he loves Christ, yet doth not his 
sayings, he is also a liar, and the trmh is not in him, or, 
Christ is not in him ; who said, " I am the truth ;" and 
thus man becomes reprobated ; for Paul, writing to tiie 
brethren, saith, " Examine yourselves, whether you be 
in the faith, prove 3^our own selves ; know ye not, your 
Own selves, how that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye be 
reprobates ?" 2 Cor. xiii. 5. Which in-dwelling of 
Christ is a great mystery to many; aitiiough Christ with- 
in (which the apostles preached) was the hope of the 
saints' glory. Col. i. 27. And, Oh! how earnest was 
Christ in prayer to his Father, that his followers may be 
one in him, and that they may be iniited together in one. 
John xvii. Such was the love of Christ to his church ; 
now, what remains on the church's part, since Christ 
has done his part, surely it is, that we love him again ; 
for, saith John, " He that loveth not, knoweth not God ; 
for God is love." 1 Jo/in^ iv. 8. They that dwell in en- 
mity, are not the children of God, but the children of sa- 
tan, who always hated the appearance of Christ, the light 
©f the world ; and yet stirreth up those that are led by 
his dark spirit, to war against him, and his seed, in his 
«&hildren; who said, " I am the light of the world." 

But indeed it is as Christ hath said, " Men love dark- 
ness rather than light j" and how strange is it, seeing 
the one is so glorious, and the other so miserable r 
But the reason is, as Christ hath showed, " because 
their deeds are evil." John iii. 19. That is indeed the 
very cause ; for if their deeds were good, they would 
love the light, which is Christ Jesus, the Lord of life 
and glory ; and bring their deeds to him, that he might 
judge them ; who will give righteous judgment to every 
man according to his works. Joh?! v. 29. The righteous 
will have their portion in the resurrection of life, joy, 
and peace, in the Holy Ghost ; but the wicked in the 
resurrection of damnation. Oh ! that I miy-ht be in- 
strumental in the hand of the Lord, to open the eyes of 
some that are spiritually blind, that they might see the 
splendour, the beauty, and the great gloiy of the dear 
Son of God, that mcrst excellent light which God hath 

K r 

600 god's great love to mankind, 

prepared, according to good old Simeon's testimony of 
him. " Thou hast (says he) prepared him a hght to en-* 
lighten the gentiles, and to be the glory of thy people 
Israel." J.uke iii. 32. A glorious light indeed ! Truly, 
methinks every body should be in love w ith him. For 
my part, he is my chiefest joy. I would not part with 
him for all the j)omp and vain glory of the world ; nei- would I have the shining beams, and glorious rays, 
(which comfort me for well doing, and reprove me for, 
and discover, the contrary) clouded from my sight and 
understanding, for the finest gold, or choicest rubies- 
Such is my love to Christ, the bridegroom of souls ; but, 
by the way, it hath cost me man}' a tear, and many groan- 
ings in my spirit, before I came thus to enjoy Christ, who 
is the beloved of all the redeemed. Oh ! may I never give 
him cause to withdraw himself from dwelling in me. Oh! 
the universal love of Christ : it is everlasting to them 
that are open-hearted unto him, and to all that will hear 
his voice, so as to obey it ; for, says he, " I stand at 
the door and knock," (that is the door of the heart of 
man) *' if any man hear my voice, and open the door, 
I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he 
with me." Bev. iii. 20. And John says, " And we have 
known and believed the love that God hath to us: God 
is love, and he that dwelleth in love, dwelleth in God, and 
God in him." 1 John iv. 16. A heavenly habitation, 
and glorious dwelling-place ! Who would but endeav- 
our to dwell in love, and forsake enmity, that they might 
attain unto such eternal happiness, as to have their abode 
with the Lord. 

This fulfiUeth the words of Christ. " For he dwell- 
eth M'ith you, and shall be in you." Jo/m xiv. 17. How 
Was he to be in them ? A comforter for well-doing, 
that they might have the hope of glory, and a reprover 
for sin, self-righteousness, and wrong judgment. In- 
deed it was the great love of God in thus sending his 
beloved Son, a light into this dark world, to shew peo- 
ple their evil deeds, and to condemn sin in the flesh : for 
he is the sinfid world's condemnation, as well as a sav- 
iour and jusTifitT of the righteous and holy believer. 
The Jews of old hated liim, and many of them did in- 


tend to darken his bright and shining light ; but some 
of the Jews believed on him, and, after they came truly 
to believe on his name, spread his gospel of truth and 
glad tidings amongst the children of men, and also suf- 
fered for his name's sake. It is also said, " He came 
unto his own, and his own received hnn not; but as 
many as received him, to them gave he power to be- 
come the sons of God, even to them that believe on his 
name." John i. 11, 12. But what say such to him as 
account themselves spiritual Jews (seeing the apostle 
tells us, " He is not a Jew that is one outwardlv^" 
Rom. ii. 28.) I mean those that call themselves by his 
name ; why many of them trample upon his light and 
appearance, and despise the spirit of his grace, which is 
a swift witness against evil, and lets men see what is 
good, and what is bad, comforts for the one, and brings 
judgment and condemnation for the other. I can truly 
say, I would with my whole heart, that God did dwell 
a comforter in all (or Christ, or the Holy Ghost, or 
Holy Spirit, which are all one) but this can never be, 
while sin remains and has an evil root in mankind. " An 
evil tree cannot bring forth good fruit." By this we 
may know christians from anti-christians, and lovers of 
Christ from them that love him not : if we love him we 
become subjects to him, subject to do his will. Oh ! it 
is a brave station to be subjects of the King of heaven, 
and if we love him unfeignedly, with all our might and 
mind, and our neighbours (or them that are already his 
subjects) as ourselves, and with the sword of the spirit 
valiantly encounter with the devil and satan ; Oh ! then 
shall we be his subjects, and he will receive us into his 
warfare, and through him we shall be victorious, for the 
Lamb and his followers will have the victory. I would 
press people in love into this warfare, having commis- 
sion from my master and Lord (I mean spiritual) by 
shewing them what anxiety of soul, and distress of mind, 
they will procure to themselves, by living in enmity to 
the Lord and his saints. Oh! my soul, 1 charge thee, 
with all those that have any regard to the holy Jesus, 
obey the commands of the Lord, and love his followers. 

308 *od's great love to mankikd, 

or thy neighbour as thyself. Let his universal spirit of 
love to all dwell in thee, Oh ! my soul ! 

I would have all to cast do'.vn that which they glory 
in (that is not right in his sight) at his footstool, and do 
like the poor penitent woman, that lay and wept at his 
feet. Luke vii. 38. She thought all little enough to get 
into hib favour. Christ himself also was meek and low- 
ly ; " Learn of me," said he. Mat. xi. 29. All power 
in heaven and earth was given unto him ; " Take me 
(said he) for an example ;" when he washed his servants 
feet. Oh ! he was meek and lowly indeed, and seeing 
his love was so great to them, and is also to us, let us love 
him again, not with feigned love, but with love that may 
manifest us to be his followers ; and in this love let us 
love one another ; for this intent our Lord issued forth 
his ro} al command, which is this, " A r :w commandment 
give I unto you, that ye love one another as I have loved 
you, that ye also love one another-: by this shall all men 
know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love for one 
another." John xiii. 34, c>b. Christ's love was unfeign- 
ed to his disciples, nay, to all the world in general : for 
what greater love ciui there le, than for a man to lay 
down his life for his friend ; and he not only laid do\jii 
his life for his friends, but for his enemies also. Rom. v. 
10. So that his love was great and unfeigned : we ought 
■with the same love to love him again, since that he loved 
us fnst ; and this cannot be without obedience to his 
commands. Thus undoubtedly we si^ould, with true 
love, love him, and one another: this love is exceedingly 
precious ; it thinks no evil, and we may be sure will not 
do any willingly or kno^vingl}'. If a man seeth his 
neighbour or brother in that which is not right, he pray- 
eth to the Lord to help him, and tenderly admonisheth 
him; yea, if having this love, he woundeth, his wounds 
are faithful, for " Faithful are the wounds of a friend." 
Prov. XXV. 6. He that is thus endued with love, is not 
hindered from reproving his brother, but if there be a 
cause, it rather stirs him up to be faithful therein, with- 
out respect of persons. Oli ! the love that is raised in 
them that love the Lord above all, it is great to the sons 


and daughters of men ; it doth wonderful things ; it is 
valiant for God ; it overcomes its enemies : it is not 
overcome with evil, but it often overcomes evil with 
good : it smiteth sin in the gate (that is, in its first ap- 
pearance) before it be entered into man, so as to subject 
him thereunto ; it gets victory over the devil ; for he 
cannot stand before God's love. I would to God that 
people did but know the virtue of love to Christ, and one 
another in him, it would cause them, for the enjoyment 
thereof, to forsake all manner of enmity one against an- 
other, and all things else, how near or dear soever ; yea, 
though they were as a right hand or a right eye, they 
would be forsaken for its sake, and for the sake of him 
that first loved us : and then we should strive, through 
the ability of his grace (even the grace or spirit which he 
told Paul was sufficient for him) to love him again, and 
our neighbour as ourself ; but this cursed self is loved 
loo much, and our neighbour too little. 

Paul, the apostle of Christ, did not, after his conver- 
sion, hate his neighbour, nor was he in enmity with 
them ; indeed, when he was Saul, he did oppress and in- 
jure his nearest neighbours and chiefest friends ; for that 
blind zeal was part of that body of sin and death that was 
upon him, and from which, by the help of Christ's grace, 
he was delivered, and came to love his enemies, and for 
their good hazarded his life ; and, for his love to Christ, 
laid it down, as many holy martyrs have done since his 
time. Surely they had not much regard for self, then ! 
Though it is a common expression now-a-days, * Every 
one for himself, and God for us all:' but if every one 
were for his neighbour, or his brother, as much as for 
himself, God would be the more for us all. But this 
self-love is, in the sight of the Lord, an abomination, 
and the great, eternal God abhors it : therefore were the 
first and second commandments given forth. 

If all people would obey these two commandments, the 
whole law and the prophets, yea, and the gospel too, 
would be all obeyed. 

But this self is a great enemy unto mankind, and doth 
very much hinder his eternal happiness ; it shutteth the 


ear from hearing the cause of the widow and fatherless, 
or of the needy, and drowns the cry of the oppressed ; to 
which we ought not only to lend an ear, but also to ad- 
minister relief according to their necessity, and our abil- 
ity. But mankind is too apt to despise the base or low 
things of the world, and to join with that which is pleas- 
ant to the eye, and agreeable to the lust of the heart ; (like 
Dives, the rich glutton of old, who loved self better than 
poor Lazarus) but do not consider that which is lasting, 
and would do them good for ever. How shall I express the 
excellent glory and eternal sweetness of this love to the 
Lord and our neighbour ? Oh ! how is my soul grieved, 
and how doth my spirit mourn before the Lord, when I 
see any walk contrary to the commands of Christ, or that 
are in enmity to the truth, and in hatred one to another, 
even from my tender years, ever since God Almighty 
opened my understanding, and made known to me him 
that is true : and my cry hath been many times to him, to 
keep and preserve me in his true love and fear, to the end 
of my days ; in love both to him and the brethren : but 
more especially to those that do his will, (although there 
is universal love in my heart toali). Christ said, " For 
whosoever shall do the will of my Father which is in 
heaven, the same is my brother, and sister, and mother." 
Mat. xii. 50. Therefore, my love is more singly unto 
those. The apostle also thus writes concerning love to 
the brethren : '* We (says he) know that we have passed 
from death unto life." (How d d .hey know it ?) " Be- 
cause we love the brethren ; he h t loveth not his broth- 
er, abideth in death." 1 John iii. 14. Are they tl>en in 
death that are in enmity with the brethren ? Assuredly 
they are, for this enmity is sin ; " And the wages of sin 
is death." JRom, vi. 23. and those that are therein, are 
dead while they live. I wish, and heartily pray to the 
God and Father of spirits, that from the snares of death 
his people may forever be preserved. 

Now I would shew people some of the many snares of 
death and satan. 

1st. Some people are too apt to judge one another, and 
to speak evil of things they know not, except by report 


and supposition, which too often lets in enmity, and is 
not according to the mind of Christ, but is a snare of the 
enemy of man's salvation. Surely if people were sensi- 
ble thereof, they would not so hardly censure one anoth- 
er ; for indeed we ought to be well satisfied before we 
give judgment, and then it ought to be in love, and not in 
eimiity. It is better to suffer, than to censure, or to be 
judged, than to judge. " Judge not, that ye be not 
judged/' Mat. vii. 1. said the Judge of heaven and 
earth. But people are too much possessed with unchar- 
itablenebs and revenge one towards another, and are not 
so ready to forgive one another their trespasses, as the 
Almighty is to forgive them : though to forgive one an- 
other their trespasses be every christian's duty, and with- 
out which we cannot justly expect God to forgive us our 
trespasses, as Christ taught. Mat. vi. 14, 15. 

2d. Persecution for righteousness sake, also is another 
great branch of that corrupt tree, which never did, and 
never will bring forth good fruit, but must be cut down 
by the ax of God's power, which is laid to the root of 
every corrupt tree, in order to cut it down ; and the Lord 
will burn it with unquenchable fire. It is the true 
church's lot to be persecuted, but she never persecutes 
any : for he that is her high priest for ever, commanded 
quite the contrary, viz. Love to enemies, and to do 
good to them that hated them, to pray for them that de- 
spitefuUy used and persecuted them. Mat. v. 44. They 
were also to rejoice, and to be exceeding glad when all 
manner of evil was spoken falsely against them for 
Christ's sake ; because great should be their reward in 
heaven ; and Christ observes, that so they persecuted the 
prophets. Mat. v. 11, 12. 

3d. Many are rebelling against God, and doing de- 
spite to the spirit of grace in their own hearts, and tres- 
passing one against another, not living in love, but in en- 
mity against God and one another. The judgment of 
man is terrible to the rebellious, how much more if men 
rebel against God, our Saviour, will his judgment be just 
and dreadful, as he hath not only power to kill the body, 
but can afterwards cast the soul into hell ? Oh ! that the 

,312- god's great love to mankind, 

sons and daughters of men, would but fear to offend him, 
the King of eternal glory. Israel of old, his own peculiar 
people, did fear and tremble before him ; even all their 
host, his presence was so dreadful. Exod. xix. 18. And 
a noble king made a decree, that men should fear and 
tremble before the living God. Dan. vi. 26. 

Oh ! that all would work out their salvation with fear 
and trembling, according to scripture testimony. P/iiL 
ii. 12. I desire all people might thus love the Lord, 
then should we fear exceedingly to offend him ; also if one 
man did truly love another very well, were the case thy 
own, thou wouldst very unwillin8:ly offend him whom 
thou lovest dearly. So if we love Christ in deed, and in 
truth, then we should fear to offend him, and must of ne- 
cessity love one another also : so shall we fulfil the great 
commands, that the whole law and the prophets hang on^ 

4th. I have also many times been grieved, when I 
have heard cursing and swearing, and the Lord's name 
taken in vain, which many too much abound in (by sea 
and land) and too little consider that God will not hold 
them guiltless. Exod. xx. 7. I am sure this is far from 
obeying him. Oh ! the deep sense of this great sin, it 
hath been, and is of great moment, and is a great concern 
on my mind : vengeance from heaven is, and will be the 
portion of all such, that thus violate the mind and will of 
God. Judgment, judgment is the lot and inheritance of 
all the wicked, who remain and live in wickedness. Al- 
though the Lord is slow to anger, and of great loving 
kindness, and his mercy endureth forever, to them that 
truly repent of evil, and do that which is good : yet he 
has also prepared weeping, wailing, and gnashing of 
teeth, for them that continually live in sin. There is a 
possibility of sinning, until there is no mercy nor grace 
for man: witness the words of God ; " My spirit shall not 
always strive with man, for that he also is flesh." Gen. 
vi. 3. But those that are willing to put the day of God 
afar off, are ready to say, Christ is- our advocate with the 
Father ; he maketh intercession for our sins; (very well) 
but it is conditionally : it is if thou wilt repent and sin 
no more. (Mark that well !) repentance without sinning 


no more, will not do. Jo/m viii. 11. Confession is very- 
good, but forsaking is abundance better : confe.-.sion 
without forsaking will stand in little stead in the day of 

5th. Also being drunk with wine, or with strong 
drink ; drunkenness is a great sin : first against God, 
and, secondly, the abuse of God's mercies, and good 
creatures. And by this frame of drunkenness, men are 
often fitted for any business their master the devil m ly 
call them to : so that this great sin ought to be strictly 
watched against. Surely if men had any good desires in 
their hearts, or any love to God, they would refrain from 
such great wickedness. I admire how people can expect 
mercy from God, or the intercession of Christ, when 
they are piercing his sides, and putting him to Oj)en 
shame : for those that are sinning against him, are pierc- 
ing of him. How can such expect he will interceed for 
them, when they have dealt so shamefully with him, and 
grieved him, and from time to time disobeyed his voice? 
Now suppose a man stood condemned before a judge, 
and that at the judge's right hand there sat one who had 
.power in his hand, and this poor condemned person, 
hopes he will interceed for him; and yet this poor wretch 
has done to him as before mentioned. What grounds 
can he have to hope for intercession, clemency, or len- 
ity, while he believes he can do no otherwise than sin 
against him all his days? For my part, I think his 
faith, hope, and belief, are but vain; without any reason 
or ground. But he that loveth Christ Jesus, the lord of 
life and glory, so as to keep his commandments, the 
Lord will love him, and interceed for him, and make 
himself known unto him ; according to his words whi ;h 
he spake, " He that hath my commandments, and keeps 
them, he it is that loveth me, and he that loveth me, 
shall be loved of my father; and I will love him, and 
manifest myself unto him." John xvi. 21. 

6th. Covetousness, which is idolatry, is also another 
great snare of the enemy, and many are caught therein. 
It is in vain for the covetous to say, he hath a share in 
the love of God; for he hath neither love to the Lord, nor 

5 S 

.514 c;od's love to mankind, 

to his neighbour. A poor naked man mis^lit ask him long 
enough lor relief, or for his coat, before he would give 
him his hand to help, or coat eitlier ; or any manner of 
relief: although Christ expressly eonimandcxl it, " Give 
to him that asketh, and from him that would borrow turn 
not thou away." Mat. v. 42. How can any be so hard 
liearted, as to see his bi other's or his neighbour's poverty, 
and not administer of his ability to the needful's necessi- 
ty ? but says the covetous or miserable man, I have chil- 
dren, or a family to take care of: but too often covctous- 
ness brings a curse, and not a blessing, upon family and 
children also. Perhaps one that is covetous may say, 
that charity begins at home. But let him remember, 
that if it doth begin there, the consequence most com- 
monly is very bad, when it ends there. Every christian 
hath need to have charity (in his breast) in a twofold 
sense, or else there is no proper pretence to christianit}' ; 
in short, covetousness is out of the love either to God or 
man : all those (with abundance more, that I shall for- 
bear to mention) are eminent snares of the devil; and 
satan layeth them according to the propensity of man or 
woman, and suits them with their nature. Oh ! I will 
warrant thee, he m ill colour them finely, and put a pleas- 
ant gloss upon them, to betray thy soul, and keep it in 
bondage forever. 

7th. It is he that tells the murderer, that it is better to 
live a merry life and short, than to take pains and care all 
his lifetime ; and the thief likewise with the robber. 

8th. It is he also who tells the whoremongers and 
drunkards, that so many people are in these practices, 
because it is natural for people to be so overcome : but 
he doth not tell them that by nature all are children of 
wrath, and that without this lustful nature be overcome, 
-there is no salvation. Eph. ii. 3. 

9th. It is he that tells the swearers, they are so used 
to it, that it is impossible for them to leave it off. He 
never bids them repent and forsake, that they might 
find mercy with God and Christ that died for them ; but 
died not that they should live in sin. 

lOdi. It is he that tells the covetous, it is good to be 
saving, and not to spend all his substance in gluttony 


iind pride ; no, he will bid him hate pride, and that he 
should not give much alms, though rich in this world ; 
for the devil will tell him, that it is proud people does 
it, only in ambition, and to be seen of men ; but he 
will not tell him, it is a sin to be covetous : he also tells 
the proud, that they are counted happy, and that pride 
is counted good for the promoting the commonwealth, 
and that it is as good to be out of the world as out of 
the fashion ; he tells them, that pride is neatness, and 
how many pretty excuses he has, to keep people in pride, 
is admirable ; he doth not tell them, that Christ the Lord 
was meek and lowly, and that they should take him for 
an example. He, the Lord, did not come in splendour 
and glory, outwardly, but plain in speech, and also in 
apparel, wearing a coat without a seam, being clothed 
and adorned with the robes of righteousness and love. 
This is my beloved ! may he be thine also, gentle reader. 
Oh ! how lovely is he ! he is the chiefest of tens of thou- 
sands. I entreat you, Oh ! ye children of men, both 
sons and daughters ! do not offend Christ, by disobey- 
ing of him, the bridegroom of the righteous ; but, 1 
beseech you, in his sweet and tender love, if you have 
offended him, by sinning against him, Oh! for the Lord's 
sake, and your own soul's sake, do so no more ; but 
unfeignedly repent; and then, in his due time (when he 
hath tried )ou, and found you faithful) he will embrace 
you with the sweet embraces of his love, which is better 
than wine, and fiw excels the love of women. 

Now if the poor creature did but love the Lord its 
maker, above all, and its fellow creature as itself, the 
enemy of mankind would be overcome, and we made 
more than conquerors, through him that loved us, even 
Christ Jesus, our Lord; and man and woman would see all 
these (abovesaid) evil things to be abominable, and per- 
haps many more which I have not mentioned, insomuch 
that self would be abhorred as in dust and ashes, and 
the Lord would be loved, and glorified, above all, for 
which end he created mankind : but, certain it is, that 
this end cannot be answered, nor the Lord so loved, 

316 god's great love to mankind, he. 

without sin be forsaken, and hated ; for the devil is the^ 
author of sin, and Christ of righteousness. 

" I (says Christ) am tiie way, the truth, and the life." 
John XIV. 6. And again, " 1 am the liglit of the world." 
John viii. 12. Oh ! saith my soul, in abundance of love 
and good will, unto the sons and daughters of men, that 
they would but walk in the way of truth, and the true 
light of the world ; then they would see clearly the snares 
of satan ; which that every one, even male and female, 
(especially those that profess Christianity) might do, and 
escape the same, is the very desire of my soul • even so 
prayeth him, that through the spirit of Jesus Christ, and 
ability of his grace, labours for the salvation of man- 



» OF 


IN THE YEAR 1699. 

Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, noi- 
standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth iu the seat of the scornful ,- 
but his deUght is in the law of the Lord, and in his law doth he med- 
itate day and night. 

PSALM i. 1, 2. 

Lay up for yourselves treasure in heaven. 

MAT. vi. 20. 

1. It is good for man, whose breath is in his nostrils, to 
tliink upon his Maker, as much as in him lieth, both 
night and day ; 

2. Who is the fountain of all men's happiness, and the 
ocean of their bliss ; not only in this world, but in that 
which is to come ; even to all eternity. 

3. How sweet is that meditation, that is on the sover- 
eign Lord of heaven, and on the Prince of everlasting 

4. No earthly thing is to be compared with it ; all the 
glory, all the pomp, and vanity, of this fading, transitory 
w orld, is not comparable with it ; divine and inward con- 
templation upon God, is no less than heaven upon earth 
to the soul. 

5. This mine eye hath seen ; for which I humbly bow 
before the great Lord of all ; whose goodness to man 
cannot fully be set forth, neither by the most excellent 
orator, nor with a ready writer's pen. 

6. God delighteth in those that are intent in looking 
unto him ; and it is man's duty to look to him, over all 
visible things. 


7. How profitable, and greatly advantageous, it is to 
the soul, to be inward with God. Oh ! it is altogether 

8. The unspeakable treasures of life, and of wisdom, 
are to be found in inward meditation, and holy contem- 
plation on God. 

9. When a man, in this sort, is delighting himself 
with his Maker, and advising with him, he can want no 
good thing. In the days of old, God was, now is, and 
ever will be, found by man, in this inward concern of the 

10. A man in this state, will always curb high thoughts 
of self, as being in the presence of the Almighty ; for 
then he is truly sensible of his presence ; who is it that 
will vaunt, or carry himself lofty, when God is present, 
and he considers it. 

11. Indeed the presence of the Almighty is every 
where, but many have lost the sense thereof, for Avant of 
inward thoughts on God, and studious contemplation on 
the King of heaven, whose sovereignty is sweet over the 
works of his hands ; 

12. He is full of grace, and full of truth, full of mercy, 
and full of justice : his law is light, and his commands 
are as burning lamps ; in a Avord, he is full of heavenly 
majesty, and divine power, so that no characters can set 
forth the fulness of God. 

13. Oh! that man were rightly sensible of these diings, 
it would cause him, with an humble heart, to implore the 
majesty of heaven for his favour, and petition him for the 
aid and assistance of his grace, to do his holy and heav- 
enly will. 

14. Man would then see his own M-eakness and pov- 
erty, and how unable he is to do, or work, any good 
thing of himself, without the help of the Holy Spirit : 

15. Which gift God, through Christ, giveth to that 
soul which is inward in its thoughts upon God ; Avhosc 
wisdom and power is past finding out, unless in this frame 
of mind the Lord reveals it. 

16. But worldly thoughts, and vain cogitations, hin- 
der the mind from being with God, the fountain of all 


17. Evil works, or words, also stupify the mind, and 
deaden the most noble part of man, so that slavish fear, 
instead of that fear which is mixed with true love and 
honour, is begotten in the heart. 

18. All things of any evil tendency entertained in the 
soul, are an obstruction to its duty to God. 

19. Who would not lay up treasure in heaven, that 
the heart might also be there ? And what treasure like 
that in heaven, or what place so fit to lay it in as that 

20. If a man did but, with considerate thoughts, weigh 
in his mind tlie shortness and uncertainty of time in this 
life, and the boundless ocean of eterntiy ; with a life 
of bliss and glory, or else of wo and misery, that will 
never end ; 

21. Without his heart be harder than a flinty rock, it 
would lead him into tenderness, serious thoughts on the 
name of God, and into humiliation. 

22. Christ Jesus, the anointed of God, was found 
greatly in humiliation ; even he who said, *' Learn of 
me, and follow me, who am meek, and low in heart." 
God calls for humility of all men. He beholds the proud, 
and scornful afar off. 

23. Every proud and exalted thought God will bring 
to judgment, and likewise such words and actions. 

24. And, indeed, the thing acted, or done, must first 
be conceived, or thought, before it be brought forth ; 
for " out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speak- 
eth," and the man acteth. 

25. Therefore, to have the thoughts of the heart on 
God, and to contemplate on heaven and heavenly things, 
is truly excellent. 

26. And although this incumbent duty of man is so 
averse to him, in his natural state ; yet it is most easy, 
sweet, and pleasant, to the soul, when the mind is bent 
after, and set on heavenly things. 

27. And that which is still more admirable is, that 
God is the alone comfort, joy, helper, leader and con- 
ductor of such a soul. 


28. But, Oh ! the thoughts of man are too much tak- 
en up with earthly and perishing things, being content 
with the shadow or shell of divine contemplation, righ- 
teousness, and true religion : so that too few are earnestly 
seeking the substance thereof. 

29. That the noble creature man, whom God hath 
made but a little lower than the angels, and given him 
power over those creatures that are more ignoble than 
himself, should so degenerate from his Maker, as to fix 
his thoughts on terrestrial things, is admirable to heaven 
born souls, whose God .is the Lord. 

30. Which way can the soul look or turn itself, but 
that it must needs see the glory of the God of heaven, 
unless the god of this world hath blinded the eye of the 

31. Look upwards, and we may behold the brightness 
of liis glory in the firmament, and the workmanship of 
his hands in the sun, moon, and stars. 

32. Or if we look on the earth, or in the sea, we may 
see his great wonders ; and if, in sincerity, we behold 
the heavenly works of his hands, with an eye of faith, 
Oh ! how can it do any less but draw deep considerations 
of the omnipotence of God. 

33. Thus beholding the works of God, and looking 
on his works of old, and the noble acts which he hath 
done in former times, will raise holy desires to be with 
him, and to be in his presence, when time to us in this 
world, shall be no more. 

34. It will also beget a loving fear of the Lord in the 
soul, lest that should offend him. 

35. Such a soul will be inwardly concerned before the 
Lord, and will seek him with unwearied travel of spirit. 

36. After this manner will that soul cry to God, in 
the spirit of prayer and supplication, that is travelling to- 
wards the city, whose builder and maker is God. 

37. Lord, I am poor, do thou make me rich ; I 
am needy. Oh ! strengthen me, even me, Oh ! my 
heavenly father ! for 1 am the least of many : Oh ! my 
Siiviour, have mercy upon me I 


38. Thou seest my weakness, and knowest my wants» 
and how unable I am, of myself, to do thy will; give" 
me grace, or else I die ; save me by the power, and by 
the spirit of thy Son, or else I perish forever. 

39. Lord, I believe ; my faith is in thee, and in the 
power of thine anointed, help mine unbelief, for Jesus' 
sake, I humbly pray thee, Oil ! thou great Creator of 
of the children of men ! 

40. 1 ! great, eternal God, thou knowest my se- 
cret desires, and the private devotion of my heart. 

41. My sighing and tears are after thee, Oh ! thou 
beloved of my soul ! 

42. All the profit and pleasure that is in this world is 
nothing, and less than nothing, in comparison of thee, 
and the enjoyment of thy presence. Oh ! thou Lord of 
life and glory. 

43. Thou great Creator of all things, from whom all 
have their being, send forth the spirit of thy Son into my 
heart, whereby, with acceptance, I may cry, " Abba, 

44. Oh ! Holy Father, let me feel thy power, that I 
may be able to make war in thy righteousness, against 
the enemy of my poor soul. 

45. Great, eternal God, give me wisdom to walk up* 
rightly before thee, and before the children of men : Oh! 
that my soul may seek after it forever! 

46. With which. Oh ! Lord, fill my earthen vessel, 
for Jesus' sake, that I may be gentle, and easy to be en- 
treated to do thy will, so that I may never rebel against 

47. Lord, do not tarry long from me ; for if thou hid- 
est thy face, I am troubled ; or when the curtain is drawn 
between me and my Maker, then my spirit within me 

48. Therefore, Oh! Lord, arise, and the thoughts that 
are at enmity with thee, shall be scattered from my soul : 

49. Then shall my soul be a fit receptacle for thee, 
and a temple thou mayest delight to dwell in, Oh ! living 

T t 


50 And, Holy Father, as thou hast begotten those- 
thoufjhts and desires in my soul, so do for many more of 
the sons and daughters of men. 

51. Such a soul, whose thoughts and meditations are 
on this wise, Almighty God never did and never will, re- 
ject, or cast off. 

52. Heaven and earth may pass away, but the mercy 
and goodness of the Lord God of heaven and earth will 
not pass away from those that are thus inwardly exercis- 
ed before him. 

53. The holy men of God, and the faithful in ages 
past, bore testimony to these truths. 

54. And tliere is that of God, in the souls of the faith- 
ful, that can say amen to the same. 

55. " I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee," saith 
the Almighty, to and concerning those who love him tru- 


56. " Fear not, worm Jacob, for I will be with thee, 
saith the Lord, if thou goest through the fire, it shall not 
kindle upon thee ; and if thou goest through the water, 
it shall not overwhelm thee." 





JBeing part of a letter from Thomas Chalkley to a friend 

in Dublin, 

Let the young man and maiden diligently read the holy 
scriptures ; and whenever they come to a passage that 
affects them, let them not only turn down that leaf, but 
let them be sure that it hath place in their hearts : and 
when they read of a good man or woman, then let them 
earnestly pray, and fervently cry to the Lord, the great 
God, and holy Father of our dear Lord Jesus Christ, and 
God of all the righteous in all ages, that he would please 
to make them like to those his dear children and ser- 
vants. Oh ! that all young people might not forget this 
great command of God, " Honour thy parents, that thy 
days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God 
giveth thee." How many stubborn youths hath the 
Lord cut off in their prime, and in the flower of their 
days ; and on the other hand, how hath the great Al- 
mighty blessed, prospered, preserved, and honoured 
those that have been obedient to their parents, and hon- 
oured their parents and elders ? And let the young men 
and maidens note this, that none truly honour their pa- 
rents and elders, but those who are pious and virtuous ; 
such were Joseph, Samuel, David, and Solomon ; as also 
King Josiah, who began to reign at eight years old. 
God Almighty gives many a good sense of his grace at 
that age, and thereabouts; he ordaineth praise maoy 


times out of the mouths of babes and sucklings. Let 
the youth endeavour to follow those good and great men ; 
and for their instruction, I shall give a touch of the above 
five worthies. 

First, in particular, beginning with Joseph. His father 
sent him to his brethren ; he went willingly, though his 
brethren hated him ; and when it was in his power to 
hurt them, he rendered tliem good for their evil ; a good 
example for both } oung and old. And when tempted to 
sin by his mistress in Eg}'pt, he said, " How can I da 
this great wickedness, and sin against God ?" who high- 
ly favoured him for his piety, virtue, and chastity. 

Secondly , Samuel, for M^hom his mother prayed ear- 
nestly to the Lord ; and when he had given him to her, 
she gave him to God again : a good pattern for all 
mothers. When he was but a little lad, the Almighty- 
called him, and he thought it had been Eli ; up he gets, 
and said, " Thou calledst me ?" " No (said the old man) 
I did not call thee ; lie down again." He did not grum- 
ble, as many of our youth do : the Lord called again ; 
he willingly runs to Eli ; he did not love his bed so much 
as obedience, and said, " Thou didst call me." Eli ob- 
serving that God had spoke to the child, said to him, 
when he calleth again, say, " Speak, Lord, for thy servant 
heareth." Let old ones mind this, and encourage their 
youth to answer the call of God betimes : so God calls 
again, and he answers : " Speak, Lord, for thy servant 
heareth." The Lord, by his grace, calls to little ones, 
many times in the midst of their play, and sometimcB 
in their beds. Oh ! that our youth may do and say as 
little Samuel ; that they may grow as he did, and be in 
favour both with God and man. 

Thirdly, David, his father's youngest son, kept his 
sheep, and in that innocent employ the Lord was with 
him, to admiration. His father sent him to his brethen;. 
but Eliab, his eldest brother, frowned upon him, and 
reviled him. He only made this soft reply ; " Is there 
not a cause ?" He overcame the great Philistine, in the 
name of the God of Israel ; and God highly exalted him 
for his uprightness, sincerity, and piety, which was very 


great ; for notwithstanding Saul would have killed him ; 
yet when David had him in his power, he spared him, 
insomuch that Saul wept, and said, " If a man find his 
enemy, will he let him go ?" And there was loving 
greeting between them: so he overcame the evil of 
Saul's heart, by the good that was in his ; according to 
those holy expressions of the apostle Paul, " Be not 
overcome with evil, but overcome evil with good." Rom, 
xii. 21. Words worthy to be writ in letters of gold, 
and more worthy to be observed and practised. 

Fourthly, Solomon, who asked of God wisdom, be- 
ing in his own eyes but as a little child, said unto the 
Lord, " Give unto thy servant an understanding heart:" 
which request God granted him, and gave him also 
riches and honour. Oh ! see the benefit of pleasing 
God, young men and young women. 

Fifthly, Josiah, a young prince and king. How zeal- 
ous was he for God's service and worship! What a 
wonderful reformation he made in the land, and how 
was he lamented at his death, as generally all good zeal- 
eus men and women are, either old or young. 

Having touched a little of the young men, let me just 
a little remember the yoimg women also : as for exam- 
ple> Ruth and Abigail, two discreet young women ; the 
first very loving, kind, and true to Naomi, her mother- 
in-law : a good pattern for all daughters-in-law ; " En- 
treat me not," said she, " to leave thee ; for where thou 
goest, I will go ; and where thou lodgest, I will lodge ; 
and where thou diest, there will I be buried ; thy peo- 
ple shall be my people, and thy God my God." 
The Lord abundantly rewarded her for this godly reso- 
lution. Boaz had a sense of her virtue and piety, and 
said, " All the city of my people do know, that thou art 
a virtuous woman." Which doubtless was a strong 
motive for him to love her ; and that love commonly 
lasts till death : whereas when money is a motive, it of- 
ten happens that ri(iany evils attend. 

Also wise Abigail, her ingenious speech to David, and 
contrivance to hinder him from shedding blood ; which 
he was cpming to do, (thinking he had cause) but pre- 


vented by her wisdom : which, to be sure, was a great 
motive to him to love her, after Nabal's death, and to 
take her to wife. She was no proud woman ; " For, 
(said she) let thy handmaid serve to wash the feet of the 
servants of my Lord." Much might be said, but I de- 
sign brevity. 

As there are many good examples in holy scripture, 
whereby young ptople might be stirred up to virtue ; so 
also there are examples of the judgments of God on 
disobedient, impious, vain and ungodly men and women, 
even }oui g and old. Oh ! let our youth consider, I be- 
seech them, wicked, disobedient Absalom, and poor Di- 
nah : also the prince and the Moabitish damsel, whom 
zealous Phineas slew ; for God was angry, and is angry 
with the wicked every day. 

The before mentioned good men and women were in 
the time of the law ; and let me add to them, the holy 
pattern and good example of our great Lord and blessed 
master, who '' Loved righteousness, and hated wicked- 
ness, therefore he was highly exalted, and anointed with 
the oil of gladness above his fellows : he had the heathen 
given him for his inheritance, and the utmost parts of the 
earth for his possession : and, what is more, all power in 
heaven and earth." 

Oh ! dear young men and maidens ! he is our great 
pattern, whom we are (and ought) to take for our exam- 
ple ; walking in all humility and reverence : " He (saith 
Christ) that will be my disciple (that is, his scholar) must 
take up his cross, deny himself, and follow me." Oh 1 
blessed pattern ! Oh ! glorious example ! let us follow 
him whilst we have breath in this world ; it was alwa}'s 
well for them that followed him. What think ye. Oh ! 
young men and maidens ! had it not been well for that 
rich young man, that he had left all, and followed dear 
Jesus: be ye your own judges; look on your pattern 
(i. e. Christ Jesus) when he was but twelve years old ; 
see what he was doing ; forget not that saying which his 
mother laid up in her heart, " Wist ye not that I must 
be about my Father's business?" Oh! dear youths! it 
is good business, I can say so through some good expe-^, 


rience ; let me tell you for your edification, I have served 
my master, holy Jesus, and followed him several years 
according to the best of my understanding, and I have 
always found him a good master ; his service is sweet, 
and his work is delightful. I have a great deal more to 
say for my Lord and master, but my design is brevity : 
*' His yoke is easy, and his burthen is light." He hath 
said it, and I have experienced it. Wherefore I am the 
more free to invite you to follow him, and be his schol- 
ars. An eminent servant and scholar of his said, " Be 
ye followers of me, even as I also arfi of Christ." The 
apostle Paul exhorts Timothy, a young scholar, and his 
son, in the faith, to be a good example to others ; as also 
his son Titus. We are also told of four young women, 
who were prophetesses, and divers others ; a more par- 
ticular account of whose exemplary lives and actions are 
recorded in the holy scripture for our learning ; unto 
which, with the grace of God in the heart, I recommend 
all young men and women, and conclude these small 
tokens of my very dear love in Christ, our holy Lord 
and master, desiring the above may be as so many pat- 
terns for them to follow. 









Seek ye tlie Lord while he may be found, and call ye upon him while 
he is near. 

ISAIAH Iv. 6u 

U U 


HAVING from my childhood been a lover of the Dutch^ 
and that love being increased by travelling in Holland 
and Germany^ it came weightily on my mind to invite 
and persuade this people^ (with others into whose hands 
this may come^ and especially the youth J " 7o love, serve 
and fear the Lord, the Almighty^ the great Jehovah, ami 
that they first seek the kingdom of God, and his righteous- 
ness.'" as Christ exhorts or co?nmands. Mat. vi. Zo. 
Those ponderous and extraordinary expressions, with the 
large promise thereto annexed, are well worth the due 
notice, and weighty consideration of all, both youth and 
aged; but seem to be very apt to the state and conditio?! 
of those that are Just entering into the business a?id affairs 
of the world. Oh I that the youth had but faith in the 
blessed Lord Jesus, and owned his pure doctrifie, now in 
their tender years ; and in the prime of their days, " That 
they would remember their Creator in the days of their 
youth, before the evil days come.'''' Eccl. xii. 1. Oh ! 
that in their blossoming and blooming spring time, they 
might be like to lovely branches, and groiving trees^ of 
righteousness, bearing much fruit, much good fruit of piety 
and virtue: " In which fsaith our holy Lord Jesus 
Christ J is your heavenly Father glorified.'''' This is the 
real and hearty desire of my souL for the youth of this and 
all generations, male and female , yea, both young and old, 
in all nations throughout the world : the universal love of 
God fiows and overfiows in my soul, like a living stream, 
at this time, as also at many others, to all my fellow mor- 
tals. Oh ! the great love of God in Christ Jesus, our 
great, holy, and good Father, Lord, and Master, is won- 
derful to mortals ! whose divine love is abundantly , and 
also universally, shed abroad to all nations, through hiK 

332 Preface to the READEKt 

eternal spirit arid grace in the hearts of the sons and 
daughters oj'men^ in order to draWy lead^ and guide men 
and "womenfrom earth to heaven. 

Thus being desirous f according to my measure J to pro- 
mote truth and righteousness in the earth ; also being sen- 
sible of the love mercy and goodness of God, in my very 
young and tender years ; I am -willing, for the sake of well 
inclined young men and women, to send forth into the world 
this loving invitation : and am desirous, for the love I bear 
to the people of the Dutch nation, tfiat this might be trans- 
lated into the Dutch language ; hoping it may be beneficial 
to some well inclined souls, in order to stir them up to seeky 
serve, and love Almighty God. Amen, 

So wisheth, and heartily prayeth, a friend to, and lover 
fffall mankind, 








It is a thing truly excellent for mortals to love, serve, 
and fear him that made them, and gave unto all life and 
being : and to begin this work betimes, is very advan- 
tageous to the never dying soul. It is also an indispen- 
sable duty, which is incumbent upon every one, male and 
female ; and whoever is found in neglect thereof, will 
certainly have cause dearly to repent it ; and unless they 
do repent before they go hence, and see man no more, will 
be miserable to all eternity. Which solid consideration, 
hath often been weighty on my mind, and I could not be 
clear (as 1 thought) in the sight of God, without laying it 
before men and women. 

Now, that we may so do, consider, truth commands 
us, reason persuades us, and example is very powerful 
and inviting. Oh ! that the children of men would be 
tvise to salvation, and embrace the love of God in his 
dear and well beloved Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, who 
himself said, " I am the way, the truth, and the life." 
Oh ! surely here is a threefold cord, (i. e. truth, reason, 
and example), which is not easily broken : God Al- 
mighty grant (for Christ's sake) that by it some poor 
souls might be drawn to him, even now in their tender 
years : to day, to day, if any will hear the voice of the 
Lord, Oh ! let them not harden their hearts , for that is 
provoking to him that made us. How know we whether 
he, who made the heavens, will be pleased to give us an-' 


Other hour ? How know we, but that after this day wc 
may never open our eyes, till we open them in eternity ? 
Oh ! eternity, eternity, that boundless ocean ! who can 
fathom those words, for ever and ever? What will this 
world, and all its glories and vanities signify, or avail to 
poor souls, when rolling from side to side on a dying 

It will therefore be well for both old and young to 
note this : 

1st. The old, because it is not likely they should have 
many days, according to the course of nature, and a 
common proverb, i. e. The young (may live, and they) 
may die, but the old must die. 

2d. The young, because they know not but that they 
may die to-morrow. 

In the great and notable day of the Most High, Oh ! 
then, then, heavenly things will be found serious and solid 
truths, and not toys and trifles, nor indifferent things ; 
when he shall come as in flames of fire, to render ven- 
geance (which is only his) upon all the workers of in- 
iquity, and shall come to judge the secrets of men's hearts 
by that great man and just judc^e, the Lord Jesus Christ.. 

Wherefore, let me prevail with some poor souls, now 
in time, to lay the truth to heart, and to be found in the 
work of God in their day : that so for their pains here, 
they may receive their penny hereafter ; and that enliven- 
ing, that quickening answer of well doing, may be their 
portion, and the lot (the glorious lot) of their inheritance : 
*' Come, ye blessed ; well done, good and faithful ser- 
vant : enter thou into the joy of thy Lord." Oh ! pow- 
erful voice, and heart ravishing sentence ! enough to 
make one alive, though dead ; and exceedingly jo} ful, 
though sorrowful even to death. Oh ! this divine fa- 
vour and grace, wherewith the Most High will favour 
those that love him, and faithfully serve him, in this his 
great and notable day, will far exceed the favour of 
kings and prhices : for those that get the latter, can only 
be happy (or so accounted) in this world, which is but 
momentary ; and those who are living and sensible wit- 
nesses of the former, are certainly happy, even in this 


world, (although men may not see it) and likewise ever- 
lastingly happy in that world which is to come. To be 
sensible of God's grace in the heart, and to follow the 
hoiv teaching of it, is preferable to all things here be- 
low, it will make one more wise and more comely, than 
all outward learning, beauty, or parts whatever. God 
Ahnighty grant, I beseech him, that all our young men, 
our rich men, our wise men, may only glory in him, ac- 
cording to the language of the spirit in the holy scrip- 
tures, " Let not the young or strong man glory in his 
j'outh or strength, nor the rich man in his riches, nor the 
wise man in his wisdom ; but he who glories, let him 
glv)ry in the Lord ;" or in this, " That he knows the 
Lord." Let the wits of the age consider this well ; let 
the boaster and disputer rightly note this, and he will have 
cause to bow before heaven's Majesty : what becomes 
of the young man's and young woman's strength, and 
lovely beauty, when their heads are laid in the cold 
grave ? What will become of, or of what service will the 
riches of the rich man be to him, when he shall receive 
his summons to his long home ? May he not then say, 
Oh ! that I had been as industrious to get heaven, and 
peace with my Maker, as I have been to get this world. 
Let all worldly minded men and women remember the 
wonderful expostulation of Christ Jesus with the rich 
young man. This is not to hinder any in their outward 
concerns : for the heart of a man may be in heaven, 
though his hands may be in his employment. 

And as to the wise man : pray what will become of his 
great wit, his acquired parts, his nice and far fetched ar- 
guments and criticisms, when pale faced death shall look 
him in the face, and strike him with his sharp aiTows ? 
Then he will find, that it had been much better for him, 
that he had lived well, although he had not talked so 
much, or so well : to talk well, is good ; but to live well 
is much better. To talk finely, and live badly, is of 
little worth. Oh! that the great Master workman of all, 
may drive home this nail, in the heart of him whose eye 
shall look thereon, by his mighty hammer, the hammer 
of his word, his heart breaking, heart melting, and heart 


piercing word ; according to the doctrine of the Holy- 
Spirit in the holy scriptures, " Is not my word as a fire f 
Is not my word as a hammer ? Is not my word as a 
sword ?" i. e. to burn, to break, to cut down all m uiner 
of sin : not to destroy man, but sin in man. Hear far- 
ther the language of the Holy Spirit : *' Say not in thine 
heart, who shall ascend up into heaven, to fetch it down 
from above ? Or who shall go down into *hc deep, or 
beyond the seas, to fetch it from thence ? But what saith 
it? The word is nigh thee, in thy heart, and in thy 
mouth, that thou mayest do it." This was, and is, and 
ever will be, the doctrine of the gospel : from which peo- 
ple may perceive, that Christ Jesus is near to them ; near 
to save, near to deliver, near to redeem. The great Je- 
hovah, the blessed Jesus, the holy divine spirit, is not 
only a God afar off; but also a God near at hand, and a 
present and sure help in the needful time. Oh ! blessed 
be his name for ever and ever. 

Now I appeal to the consciences of all men, whether 
they have not, or do not sensibly witness, something (of 
a contrary nature to sin and unrighteousness) to reprove 
them, and convince them of the evil of their ways, and 
doings, perhaps sometimes in the midst of their vanity, in 
the song, in the dance, or in the game; or sometimes after 
a debauch, or for their pride, either in mind or in appar- 
el, for over- reaching, or covetousness : all which (with 
all manner of evils) are of the devil. And the King of 
heaven is lifting up his holy and righteous spirit as a 
standard against it, and against him who is the author of 
it. Oh ! let this his convincing grace take place in thy 
heart, Oh ! mortal man ! for know of a truth, it is the 
grace of God to thy soul ; for infallible proof of which 
(besides the experience of the faithful) take these two 
texts of Holy Scripture, (the doctrine of which will stand 
forever, notwithstanding all the opposition of man) i. e. 
*' I will pray to the Father, says Christ, and he will send 
you another comforter, even the spirit of truth, that he 
may abide with you forever ; and when he is come, he 
shall convince the world of sin." Again, " The grace of 
God which brings salvation, hath appeared unto all men, 


teaching us, that, denymg ungodly and worldly lusts, 
we should live soberly, righteously and godly, in this 
present world." Why should the Almighty show to 
lam the evil of their ways ? Why does not he let them 
run on in their vanities, without control ? (Oh ! ye chil- 
dren of men ! ) it is his mere grace, and his mere mercy 
to the precious, dear-bought, and never-dying souls of 
poor mortal mankind ; for he would have none to perish ; 
if any perish, their destruction is of themselves, but their 
help is of the Lord. Oh ! that people would be entreat- 
ed and persuaded, through loving invitation, to follow 
the Lord fully and do his work faithfully. 

Now let me return a little to, and let my pen drop 
somewhat concerning the three-fold cord above-mention- 
ed. I again humbly beg of the Lord, the great God, 
and Father of spirits, and of our dear Lord Jesus, that 
this may be instrumental, in his hand, to draw some poor 
seeking, travelling soul from earth towards heaven ; the 
which, if it doth, let the praises alone be given to God, 
through his well beloved Son. 

First, then: As to truth, I would hope few in this 
generation, who profess Christianity, need to say, what 
is truth ? God Almighty, Christ Jesus, the Holy Spirit, 
is that infinite, divine truth, which will endure forever ; 
and he hath said, " Thou shalt love the Lord thy God 
with all thy heart, with all thy mind and strength." 
And indeed he is an object that is thereof richly worthy ; 
and this is his law which is to endure forever ; and he 
who doth and teacheth it, is to be called great in the 
kingdom of God ; and that it might not be forgotten, 
he wrote it in stony tables : which law, Jacob's seed 
broke and transgressed. Wherefore, thus saith the 
Lord, who spoke it by the prophet, " I will put my law 
in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts ;" Oh! 
there it is written in large characters, very plain and leg- 
ible, and easy to be read of mankind. And whereas 
Moses, the man of God, was an instrument to promote 
the holy law outwardly, written on tables of stone, among 
the children of Israel ; so Christ Jesus, in this gospel- 
day, is promoting and proclaiming the power of this 



law inwardly engraven in men's hearts by God's finger, 
throughout the whole world ; this great law of love (in 
whieh all the law and the prophets are contained) Christ 
not only lived in it, and declared it to jiiortals ; but he 
also died in it, and for it, and for us also, and sealed his 
holy, glorious testimony, and doctrine, with his most 
precious blood ; this is he, of whom the voice from the 
most Excellent Glory, said, *' This is my beloved Son, 
in whom I am well pleased, hear ye him." This is he, of 
^^ hom the foinur la\\ giver said, " The Lord your God 
shall raise up a jirophet from amongst your brethren, him 
shall you hear in all things" This is he who said, " I 
am the way, the truth, and the life." This is he who said, 
''He dwelleth with you, and shall be in you:" and again, 
" I stand at the door and knock, if any man will hear my 
A'oice, and open the door, I will come in unto him." Oh! 
methinks his love is wonderful ; he not only commands 
obedience, but invites to it. Oh ! who can be so hard- 
hearted and so cruel to him, and themselves also, as to 
slight and refuse such heavenly and divine offers of infi- 
nite love, grace, and mercy ? " The spirit and the bride 
say, come ; and all that are athirst, may come, and drink 
freely ; and buy heavenly milk, and rich wine, without 
money, or any natural or outward price." 

Secondly, Touching reason : it is very reasonable, 
that we should serve and love God Almighty, in the 
space of time that we have here in this world, and work 
the works of piety and virtue ; for, and because, there is 
solid peace therein : here none can make afraid, but the 
soul is calm and quiet, as being anchored in a safe har- 
bour. Here no law can take hold of us. If aiiy should 
imagine, that there are no future rewards or punishments, 
which no mortal can do without blushing, or self-con- 
demnation, as I conceive : yet a life of holiness is a much 
better life, even for the body, for its health, and most 
sweet repose, and pleasure that is solid, and not flashy; 
and its outward tranquility in every respect: I appeal to 
the reasoning \\ its of the age, whether the above be not a 
great and undeniable truth : besides, all true men and 
women, in practising as above, have a living hope and 


faith, through and in Christ, of a glorious rest to eterni- 
ty, which is very reasonable to believe, since undeniably 
Christ wrought such wonderful works and mighty mir- 
acles, which before were never wrought by man on 
earth : so that those must needs be self-condemned too, 
that believe not in him, his works and grace. There is 
no writ nor wit in the whole world, that did, can, or 
ever will be able to make void, or lay waste the great, 
mighty, and miraculous works of truth, which were done 
by the blessed Jesus. Moses was a mighty man of God, 
and highly favoured, and greatly beloved, of him, and did 
many mighty works ; yet Christ exceeded him, as also 
did his dispensation. Moses went through the sea : 
Christ went upon the sea. Moses prayed for bread from 
heaven, and it was given in abundance; Christ with a fevr 
small fishes, and seven loaves, fed many thousands (which 
was unreasonable to expect, but from a divine hand.) 
Moses prayed for water for the people : Christ made 
wine, and admirable wine too, even of water. Moses 
preached the law and judgment to Israel only; but Christ 
Jesus preached grace, mercy, peace, and truth, not only 
to Israel, but also to all the world, through divine faith 
in God, in and through repentance, and the work of the 
spirit. Oh ! is not here reason and truth pleading with, 
and persuading poor creatures to love, serve and follow, 
(•everence and fear, their Creator. 

Whether the above matter be pleasant nev/s to our 
sprightly youths, I will not determine ; but I am positive 
that they will find it truth one day. 

It is likely some such doctrine as this might better 
please the sparks of the age, and the jolly young men and 
maidens up and down in the world, viz. " Rejoice, Oh ! 
young man, and young woman, and let thy heart cheer 
in the days of thy youth ; follow the lust of thy heart, 
and the sight of thine eyes : but let them remember, 
that for all these things God will bring them to judg- 
ment:" they must surely come to judgment: they will 
have it inwardly and secretly in their hearts, here in this 
world, (notwithstanding they may endeavour to hide it 
from men ; but they cannot hide it from Heaven, from 


the all seeing, heart piercing' eye of the Holy One : " He 
who inhabits eternit}', whose dwelling is in the light ; 
and whose eye goes through the earth, beholding the 
good and the evil:") likewise they will have condemna- 
tion without end, in the world that is to come. Oh ! let 
the youth and aged seriously consider of it. 

And farther, let them call to mind, the great and heavy 
judgments that have fallen upon wicked and ungodly 
men, many of which were foretold by the messengers of 
heaven, and came to pass according to their sayings, viz. 
the flood of waters, which destroyed the old world (which 
the very Indians in America have a notable idea of, hand- 
ed down to them by the tradition of their fathers to this 
day). As also the destruction of the land, and inhabit- 
ants of Sodom and Gomorrah ; and the thousands of 
thousands that have been destroyed in battles and fights ; 
which will still be, and continue to the world's end, un- 
less people come into the love of God, which will teach 
them to love one another; and into the faith and doc- 
trine of the Prince of Peace, which is, " To do unto all 
men, as we would have them do unto us," and to " do 
good for evil ;" which to be sure is not to destroy. 
Likewise the destruction of Jerusalem, and scattering of 
the Jews, the seed of faithful Abraham ; and divers dis- 
mal and terrible earthquakes, which have happened in 
these latter ages of the world; some of the dreadful ruins 
of which mine eyes have seen in my travels. Surely 
there is much reason to walk in reverence, and holy 
fear, before the great Lord of all : he who made the 
heavens and the earth, the seas and the fountains of wa- 
ter, and hath given life and breath to ail that move there- 
in, can take it from them at his pleasure, in the twinkling; 
of an eye. 

Oh ! happy is that empire, kingdom, state, or prov- 
ince ; emperor, king, or governor ; family, or particular 
person, whose inhabitants live and dwell in the holy fear 
of God, and in the self-denying life of Jesus : no greater 
happiness or felicity, than to be one of these. Oh! let 
my soul dwell here, and l:)e in unity and fellowship with 
nil such forever. 


Now, as to the third and last part of the abovesaid 
threefold argument, viz. example ; which, as the prov- 
erb says, is above precept. Good example is very taking 
with many, and oft happens to be very affecting to the 
younger sort more particularly : for they look out much 
at others, and take great notice of the words and conduct 
of their elders and superiors. Good Jacob was a good 
example to his great family : he was a pious affectionate 
father, a loving husband, a faithful servant, and an obedi- 
ent son : the history of his life and travels in holy scrip, 
ture is affecting. Oh ! how he sought God betimes ! 
how humble, how lowly, doth he behave himself in his 
pilgrimage ! his father and mother called him, and bid 
him go ; he does it, without any replies to the contrary ; 
not like some of the youth of this age. And on his way, 
being benighted, he lays himself down, his pillow was hard, 
but his bed large, and the heavens were his curtains ; his 
sleep was sweet, and his dreams precious. (Oh ! the 
very thoughts of it affect me at this time). In which 
sleep he sees angels ; and when he awakes, he says, 
" Surely this is none other than the house of God, and 
the gate of heaven." Now he makes the condition of 
his covenant with his Maker, which (as to outward 
things) was as small as well could be, viz. " Bread to 
eat, and raiment to put on, and the presence of his Maker, 
with his blessing." This was now when he was about 
to set up for himself in the world, his mind was not high, 
neither sought he after great things ; notwithstanding 
which, the Almighty gave him in abundance. So on- 
ward he went, and came to Laban, and became his ser- 
vant. I could wish that all young people, that are ser- 
vants, would follow his steps in faithfulness : then might 
they be a blessing to their masters, as he was to his. I 
ever observed in my travels (having travelled much in 
divers nations, and made many observations) that Al- 
mighty God hath greatly blessed obedient, industrious 
children and servants ; which observation, 1 hope, will be 
of good use to the world, if well considered. And on the 
other hand, I have taken notice of the contrary, and have 
perfectly imdcrstood, that God's hand hath been mani* 


festly against those that have been disobedient, and ill- 
natured, and idle ; which may be an useful caution to all. 
Now the Lord blessed the good service, and faithful in- 
dustry, of this his servant with great increase ; as also 
V ith many children, for whom he was concerned as a 
tender father, even to the very last ; and (like a pious and 
godly father) prayed to the Lord for their preservation ; 
and was zealously concerned to cleanse his family from 
superstition and idolatry ; and calls them to go up to 
Bethel, or the house of God. Oh ! that all heads of 
families would be concerned for their posterity, and seek 
God, and the things of his kingdom, for their children 
and servants, more than the things of this world ; there 
being too much care for the one, and too little for the 
other, generally speaking: so that there is need of this 
caution. Now this 2:ood man was not onlv concerned ' 
for his family in his life, but even at his death also : for 
he, waiting for the salvation of God, and being sensible 
of it, very livingly and sensibly blessed his seed, and was 
opened in faith to speak exactly to each of their states 
and conditions. I refer to the history of it in holy scrip- 
ture, the which I believe will be affecting to pious minds. 
Oh ! what a race he left behind 1 all his twelve sons were 
patriarchs, and great fathers of many people, who were 
highly favoured of God, and had been to this day, had 
they walked in the steps of their fathers, Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob ; from whom came many valiant and noble 
men, of and for God ; as Moses, Joshua, Samuel, David, 
Solomon, Josiah, Elijah, and Elisha ; also the holy bless- 
ed Star and Sun of righteousness. Holy Jesus, whom the 
degenerate offspring of good old Israel slew, and hanged 
on a tree : also the holy apostles, \vere great examples of 
virtue : also the blessed martyrs, and many modern good 
men, might be brought in for inviting examples, to stir 
up the minds of men and women, to serve, love, and 
follow the Lord, and to believe in him, and in his dear 
Son, and in the appearance of his grace vrorking in 
the soul, in order to the convincing and converting of 
them . 


To be particular in all the above instances, would 
swell this far beyond what is intended ; and considering 
the many and k;rge volumes that are in the world, though 
a large door opened before me, yet I am now willing to 
conclude, and recommend the work, with the reader, to 
the grace of God, in and through his dear Son Christ Je- 
sus, our great example : to whom with the Father, 
through the divine spirit, be giory forever. 


fFritien at Frederickstadty in Hoist ein. 












Erecly ye have received, freely give. 
I have coveted no man's silver or gold. 
I have preached the gospel of God freely. 

MAT. X. K. 
ACTS XX. 33. 

2 COR. xi. 7. 

y V 



IT being a known principle of the people called qiiak en ^ 
that the gospel of Jesus Christ ought to be preached free- 
ly by his jniftisters ; yet, notwithsta?idmg, divers people, of 
divers persuasions^ either for want of charity^ or other prej- 
udice, or wrong information, or all three, do say, or be- 
lieve, that the quakers'' ministers or teachers are paid for 
their preachmg ; I do positively declare to the xvorld, that 
it is an utter falsehood and scandal upon the said people : 
for we cannot in good consciejice make a trade of our holy 
calling, neither is the word of God to be bought or sold for 
outward gain; witness the apostle'' s answer to Simon Ma- 
gus, Acts viii. 18. 20. And if ive cannot pay our own, 
pray how can we pay others, and be clear of gtiilt, or 
have the answer of a good conscience, we believing it 
to be evil ? And every body that kfioxvs the holy scrip- 
ture, knows that what is ?iot of faith is sin ; and yet our 
adversaries would have us commit this sin; and if we will 
not do it willingly, they will force it from us by the power 
of the magistrates, although the holy scripture and reason 
are clearly against them, as is plainly manifested in the 
ensuing little tract. 

And as for my part, I have travelled many thousands 
of miles, and preached the gospel among the said people 
many years, as thousands of them can witness, and never 
received any consideration therefor, neither directly nor 
indirectly ; neither do I reckon they are beholden to me 
for so doing, for a necessity is laid upon me, and wo is 
me if I preach not the gospel ; neither do I boast, for I 
have done but my duty, and in that sense am but an un- 
profitable servant y according as Christ taught, for all the 


pj'ojit is of Christ. And if occasion were, there ore jnany 
other tninisters among the said people, could bear the like 

Oh! but (say the people J your teachers are generally 

JVhy shoidd any begrudge us tliat ivhicJi rve have, since 
the Almighty blesseth our industry in our honest trades and 
callings, which other teacher's, through the like industry 
and blessing, might obtain, if their dependence for a main- 
tenance were more upon God, than the people. 

Yet notwithstanding those teachers receive so much 
vioney of the people, and the quaker preachers none at all 
(except they are poor and necessitous J. they are full of 
complaints: whereas there is no complaining in all our 

We should stai~ve (cry they J if we had not a laxu to 

Chrisfs minister's of old, wJien he sent them forth, had 
no law, and yet they lacked nothing ; is CJirist or tlie men 
changed now-a-days ? The men doubtless ; for now they 
cry, more, more, more money. IjCt every true cliristian 
judge in this matter. 




I SHALL first take notice of his preface, to one called a quaker, 
dn which he saj-s, " That he thinks there is sufficient matter of 
conviction in the texts and arguments improved." 

Answer. But every sincere soul, when they come to see 
the texts themselves, will have cause to think to the contrary ; 
for had they been fairly produced, they would have saved the 
labour of a further reply, they being far from countenancing 
any forced maintenance to Christ's ministers. And as ior his 
arguments improved, they smell so strong of persecution, that 
I would chai'itably hope no sober christian or magistrate, who 
inclines to moderation (which ought to appear in all) will take 
any further notice of them, than to pity his ignorance. 

Yet notwithstanding his mighty arguments and great im- 
provements, he gives them this blow, " He has but little hopes 
of his being convinced, (to whom he writes) because of the 
efficacy of error and delusion, &;c." 

He would have more reason to have written so, if he had first 
proved error and delusion upon him. And truly, he would 
have been greatly deluded, if he had believed that great un- 
truth, that forcing a maintenance for a gospel minister was 
warrantable from the holy scriptures ; if he be sober, and in 
his wits, one would believe that he cannot (when he seriously 
considers of it) but be convinced that he is mistaken. 

And as for his pravers, the scripture says, " We know that 
God heareth not sinners :" and that he is a sinner, is plain, in 
wresting and perverting the scripture, as he has done, and as 
I shall show through the help of Christ, mv Lord and Saviour. 





FOR '• 


Now, let us observe what he says to the matter in 

1st. As to the laws of New-England, he says, " The 
laws of this province require that the inhabitants of each 
town shall take due care to be constantly provided with 
a gospel minister : and that each minister shall be suf- 
ficiently supported and maintained by the inhabitants of 
the town. 

" That all rateable estates, and inhabitants in the town 
shall be assessed, and pay proportionable to such main- 

" And that such as refuse to pay accordingly, shall have 
their proportion taken from them by distress.'' 

Answer. I shall not here dispute the injustice of this 
law so largely as I might (only I must add, they have 
no such example from Christ nor the apostles, with this 
proviso, that it is made amongst a society of men for 
themselves, and those of their own communion) but if 
this is intended to force those of other professions, and 
who cannot for conscience sake join with them, be- 
lieving them to be anti- christian ministers, (as to be 
sure all such are as go about to maintain such doctrine 
as this priest Metcalfe doth, that it is warrantable from 
scripture to force maintenance for ministers) pray would 
he be willing the papists, or church of England, should 
take away from him by force ? surely, no. Then I say 


that is an unjust law, and far from the nature of that 
royal law, which says " do to ail men, as you would that 
they should do unto you ;" Christ says, " This is the 
law, and the prophets." And doubtless the gospel falls 
not short of it (though this New-England minister doth) 
though I hope it is not the mind of all in profession with 
him. Now the law being unjust, it is no crime to reject 
it : yet for conscience sake, and the Lord's sake, we 
submit to it in passive obedience ; and it is well known 
to all that know any thing of the quakers, that their prin- 
ciple is against resisting the outward power. 

Next to the question, " Whether it be warrantable 
from scripture, and the doctrine and practice of Christ 
and his apostles, to put such laws in execution, to take 
from men, although the minister preaches not to them, 
for they cannot believe they are sent of God ?" 

This is his great question, as he states it in his first 
page, which he pretends to answer from scripture, l:>ut 
falls far short of it ; and he goes on thus : " 1st. It is' 
warrantable from scripture, &c. that the inhabitants of 
each town shall take due care, in order to their being sup- 
plied with a gospel minister." 

Answer. This is as foreign from his question, as 
Rome is from Boston. What is that to the purpose ? 
Let the impartial judge ; if he cannot prove a forced 
maintenance from scripture, he doth nothing to his pur- 
pose, nor according to his grand question in his title 
page, &,c. 

Then he goes to his second assertion, and says, 

2d. ''It is warrantable from scripture, that gospel 
ministers be honourably supported and maintained : 
such maintenance is a debt due from the people to the 
ministers in strict justice, and not as a mere act of char- 
ity : for it is the hire of their labour, and the wages of 
their work." 

Answer. Hereby he owns himself, and all that arc 
in his practice, to be hirelings, thf)Ugh he will not allow 
others to call him or them so; imd Cjuotes these texts of 
s\:ripture to prove it, jL///y', X. 7. 2 Cor. x'u 8-. 1 Cot: 


IX. 7. 14. Gal. vi. 6. 1 Tim. v. 17, 18. and adds 
as falsely, and says, 

" The argument which the apostle uses for the Gen- 
tiles ministering to the Jews, reaches this case." Hom, 
Kv. 27. 

Answer. Surely the man forgets himself, for the a- 
postle only spoke of a free collection for the poor saints 
at Jerusalem, as in the two foregoing verses plainly 
appears. " But now 1 go to Jerusalem to minister unto 
the saints." Verse 25. *' For it hath pleased them of 
Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution 
for the poor saints at Jerusalem." Verse 26. When 
will our greedy priests take so much care of the poor ? 

As to the texts of scripture above quoted, I shall take 
the pains to set them down at large, that the reader may 
see ho\v they ansA\ er his grand question : for what pur- 
pose he concealed them (in his) in figures, is best known 
to himself. Truly if he had set them down at large, it 
needs must have been plainly manifested, to every body 
that should read them^ that he was in the wrong : for 
they assert no such thing as he would have them to prove, 
viZi a forced maintenance for gospel ministers. The first 
is, '* And in the same house remain, eating and drink- 
ing such things as they give (What could be more against 
him ?) for the labourer is worthy of his hire : go not 
from house to house, and into what city ye enter, and 
they receive you, eat such things as are set before you." 
Where is legal force here ? 

Let this man have a care lest he be one of those that 
are blinded : for he must needs be blind, if he cannot 
see that this holy text makes not for his purpose, but 
directly against him : here is not a word of legal force. 
It is far from it, that they were only to eat what was set 
before them, if they received them who were true min- 
isters, sent of Christ ; which yet will be hard work for 
persecuting priests to prove themselves, be they of what 
religion they may. Well, what shall we do for this legal 
force ? Why, truly, we cannot find it in the gospel of 
the New Testament. Christ came to fulfil the law and 
change tJie priesthood, and put an end to carnal ordi- 

z z 


nances. But it may be Joseph Metcalfe is an Old Tes- 
tament mail, (as a certain Nt\v-Enp;land convert said, 
on an occasion well known to some of them) : if he be, 
and \\ ill follo^v the letter of the knv, he must t^o to knock- 
ing down oxen, and killing sheep, Mlnch work 1 believe 
thev of his cloth are genciall) too high for. 

The next is, " I robbed other churches, taking wages 
of them to do you service." 2 Cor. xi. 8. 

Surel}-, can any bod} be so bold as, from this text, to 
say that the apostle made a common j^ractice of preach- 
ing for wages, as our m.odern priests do now-a-days ? 
I h(.pe no christian will imagine from tho-.e words of the 
apostle, that he was a tl.ief, or sacrilegious person, but 
only consider it as a freedom of speech, which he used 
to those whom he loved, as in verse 11, is plainly ex- 
pressed. It is a fimiliar way of expression among our- 
selves, where we know we may be free, when any thing 
is given U8 from- our friend, ()h ! 1 shall rob thee too 
mucli : to put any other construction upon the apostle's 
words, \\'ould be to mikt tiie apostle a sacrilegious per- 
son, and a robber, which is absurd. But pra} let him 
speak fairly a little for himself, and he will u ipe off these 
money loving priests very handsomely. " I have," says 
he, " preached to you the gospel of God freely." Verse 
7. Oh! that cutting word " freeh ," ^\hat shiJl we do 
with it ? Though it was so near our legal minister, yet 
he thought fit not to meddle with it. And in the ninth 
verse (just vmder, as the seventh just above, by which 
the poor man is hedged in ; how he will get out, I know 
not), the apostle says, " And when 1 was present with 
you, and wanted, I was chargeable to no man." And 
tells them in the same verse, " that he kept himself from 
being burthensome to them, and that he resolved to keep 
himself so." We dare all those that preach for hire, and 
have money for divining, to come to such a resolution. 
However, if they will not come to this good resolution, 
let them forbear abusing and persecuting those that (by 
the grace of our Lord Jesus Cl.ris;.) have. 

The next is, " Who goeth a warfare at his own char- 
ges ? Who planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of the 


fruit tliereof ? Who feedeth a flock, and eateth not of 
the milk thereof? Even so hadi the Lord orddined, that 
those who preach the gospel, should live of the gospel." 
1 Cor. ix. 7. 14. 

Joseph hath left out what he thought made against it, 
from the 8th verse to the 13th, and 15th, where holy Paul 
sa} s (thf)ugh he had power to eat and drink, verse 4. 
at frt e cost, yet he doth not say any where, that he had 
power to take it by force, and we think it ought to be 
preached from an inward necessity, and not for an out- 
ward maintenance) " I have used none of these things, 
neither have I written those things, that it should be so 
done unto me." 1 wish Josej^h Metcalfe, and others in 
hij? station, could say so honestly. 

Now I may proceed to say something to each partic- 
ular above, as it lieth in the holy text. 

And, 1st. " Who goeth a warfire at his own charge?" 
There are some, though very few, I could heartily wish 
that there were more that would follow his practice that 
wrote it, who himself was one that did sometimes do it, 
as there, when he wrought at his lawful calling, and 
helped those that were with him : and blessed be the 
God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, there are 
some \vho do go on in this holy warfare of preaching 
the gospel in this age of the world at their own charge, 
who have nothing to boast of neither ; for a necessity is 
laid upon them, and wo is unto them if they preach not 
the gospel. Though if any be poor, and want help, 
we have nothing against it, but are for helping of those 
who can give a good account of their calling, and we 
are so free to do it, that we need no forcing to it, nor 
any law for it. 

2d. " Who planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of the 
fruit thereof?" 

Well, he that hath planted a vineyard, let him eat 
■the fruit of it and welcome ; but let him leave other 
folks' vineyards alone, lest he be counted a robber in 
the worst sense ; for if the holy apostle robbed, it was 
by consent ; but these preachers now-a-days rob without 
consent, even vine3'ards which they never planted, but 


would destroy if they could : Oh ! high, base, and antr- 
christian practice, with a witness. 

3d. " Who feedeth a flock, and eateth not of the milk 
thereof?" But who feedeth a flock, and milks the flocks, 
of others? 

Answer. Antichrist and persecutors, that cannot be 
content with the milk that their own flocks give, but will 
needs be milking and fleecing too, those poor sheep 
which cannot in conscience join with them believing that 
their way is not the door into the true sheepfold, but that 
ihey are climbing up some other way like thieves and 
robbers. And because the poor sheep of the true shep- 
herd Jesus Christ, bleat forth those things, those inwardly 
ravening wolves, who have got only the sheep's clothe 
ing outwardly, being known to be such by their fruits 
of" persecution, will needs put the poor sheep in their 
pounds, Avhen and where they have power, or else take it 
by force, that is to say legal, forsooth. 

4th, ^' Even so hath the Lord ordained that they that 
preach the gospel, shall live of the gospel." 

Yes, he hath ordained that they should live, but not 
that they should force a living. A blessed ordination, 
and with holy reverence be it repeated; for and because 
every true minister of Jesus knows the sweet benefit of 
it in a two-fold sense, 1st, He hath a holy living for his 
soul ; he is richly fed at his great Master's table, with the 
finest of the wheat, as with the holy honey, or the sweet- 
ness of the word of eternal life, which is strength to him 
in weakness, riches to him in poverty, and joy and peace 
to him in persecution, which the world, and all the per- 
secutors therein, can never take away from him; blessed 
\)c God in Christ forever, 

?d, As to his bodily living, if he be a true man, and 
not a lover of filthy lucre, or gain, he will have cause to 
say, as his great Master's servants did of old, that he lack- 
ed nothing, especially if his call is from God and Christ, 
and not from man or money. Oh ! this mone}^ that is 
a loud call indeed to our men-made ministers: if at any 
time there chance to be two calls, I always observed that 


tlie highest bidder carried the priest. But where shall 
we find that the Lord hath ordained that a minister shall 
have fifty or an hundred pounds per annum (in all the 
holy records) for preaching the gospel ? No, our great 
High- Priest said to his, " Freely ye have received, freely 
give." But if it had been his mind, he could as well, 
and with as great and as good authority as any of these 
men, have said, if they will not give it you freely, take 
it by force. But those forcers know not of what spirit 
they are ; if they do, they must needs be the greater hyp- 
ocrites, and so their condemnation the greater. 

*' Let him that is taught in the word, communicate un- 
to him that teacheth, in all good things." Gal. vi. 6. 

Yes, let those whom these men teach, communicate 
' to them; for communicate and legal force are words of 
different signification. I hope by this time this preach- 
er's eyes will be opened to see his error, in pleading for 
legal, forced maintenance, especially from Christ's and 
the apostles' practice and doctrine, as recorded in the ho- 
ly scripture. 

The next text which he quotes is, " Let the elders 
who rule well, be counted worthy of double honour, 
especially they M^ho labour in the word and doctrine; 
for the scripture saith, thou shalt not muzzle the ox that 
treadeth out the corn, and the labourer is worthy of his 
reward." 1 Tim. v. 17, 18. 

Very well, what is this to his legal force ? Here is 
nothing of it ; those that rule well, will not force any 
body, nor set the magistrates upon their backs, because 
they cannot conform to their ways ; those must be anti- 
christian teachers for certain, being opposite to Christ : 
for he indeed was persecuted, but never persecuted any, 
nor forced any, though it was in his power; for which 
reason we cannot give those men that double honour 
which they desire ; and for those who say they labour in 
the word and doctrine of our meek Lord, to set the mag- 
istrates upon us, is wicked ruling, instead of ruling 

And as for the poor ox that treads out the corn, I am 
far from having him muzzled ; but when he bites, and 


with his horns pushes the sheej), and tramples the e^row- 
ing- ,ejrecn corn to dirt, I think then he ought to be muz- 
zled and hoppled too. 

In his second page he says, *' 3d. It is the duty of 
every inhabitant in a town to pay proportionably towards 
ministers' maintenance." 

Answer. No, if thev are not all of one persuasion 
(and if they were all of one persuasion, he hath no such 
precedent from Christ nor the apostles to force, neither 
legal nor illegal) and are not free in the choice of such 
minister : he runs too fast there, without he is popishly 
inclined, to persecute every body into his persuasion, 
which has been too much the practice of some of the 
New- England migistraies and ministers. I may not 
here forget, though I forgive, the salutation of a certain 
person, when I first entered the streets of their metrop- 
olis of New-England. "Oh! (says he) what a pity it was 
that they did not hang all the quakers when they hanged 
the other four." 'iemarkable was the answer that one 
of his neighbours made him. " I wonder you are not 
ashamed to say so : for you know that the judgments of 
God have been on our country ever since." I mention 
this as a caution to the New- England ministers, that 
they would teach their people more manners to their 
neighbours, and to strangers; and to let them know, 
that sometimes the above-named people cannot be quiet 
in their solemn meetings, for the worship of Almighty 
God, in their chief town of Boston ; which, as I under- 
stand, is very much owing to lies and reproaches which 
the people have from their priests and pulpits. All 
which is a shame to moderate christians : some of whom, 
of all persuasions, I hope there are in the gountry and 
territories of New- England. 

" For, first, (says he) none were exempted of old 
from paying tithes for the maintenance of the ministry." 

By his leave, he is mistaken, for those that did not 
join with them in circumcision were exempted. 

" 2d. Every hearer ought to pay proportionably 
towards the maintc nance of the preacher. Gal. vi. 6. 
And every inhabitant ought to be a hearer, [what, against 


his conscience ?] for it is a sin to forsake the assembling 
themselves together. Heb. x. 25. And one sin can nev- 
er excuse another." 

Answer. If 1 should ask him, he being a presbyterian, 
whether it be a sin to forsake the assemblies of the 
quakers, papists, church of England, or baptists, and 
come to theirs, I presume he would say no : then to 
what a non-plus he has broug-st himself and brethren, 
especially in Old-England, for forsaking the church, 
and setting up meetings of their own : truly he has 
made them all sinners in so doing. I do not know how 
his brethren in New-E!,ngland will resent i^; but I dare 
say bis bre:thren in Old- England will give him no thanks 
for this unlucky turn. How he will excuse himself in 
the sin of ignorance, I know not. Would not this have 
been a topping Vv'riter for the papists, when they burned 
the protestants for not coming to church ? 

3d. In the second page he says, " The apostle directs 
in acts of charity, that every one contribute in proportion 
as God had prospered him. 1 Coi'. xiv. 2. And that 
there should be equality, every one bearing their equal 
proportion of such a burthen. 2 Cor. viii. 13, 14." He 
goes en, " much more ought there to be a proportion or 
equality observed in the maintenance of the ministry, 
which is a matter of communicative justice ; so it was 
under the law, and so it should be under the gospel." 

Answer. Notwithstanding these priests will bring those 
texts of holy scripture, that tend to promote charity to 
the poor, and many iiistances out of ancient authors 
for stirring up charity to the poor; yet they will not, 
when it comes to their ease, alloAv it to be as charity, 
but a debt ; as saith our author in his first page : and 
J. Mather, in a little book set forth to promote the 
maintenance of their ministers, in which I observe he 
tells them, " If they will stand to the old law of the 
Jews, they must have but a tenth of the tenth ;" which 
I suppose will not satisfy those men that have hire for 
preaching, and money for divining ; and therefore I 
think it their best way, to let the Jews old law alone, 
and take to the new law and covenant of our great Lord 

•36<5 fORCINO A maintenanCk 

And further, if they will bring instances of charitj'' 
to the poor, out of scripture, and other authors, let 
them be just, and always when they would make the 
application of it to the ministry, to put honestly the 
word poor before ministry : viz. poor priest, poor min- 
ister : otherwise let them let fall their argument for char- 
ity for the poor (which no good christian will go about 
to dispute against) and see what their arguments for 
justice in the case will do for them. They say it is a 
just debt, a matter of communicative justice ; but when 
people do not see cause to commune with them, but 
quite the contrary, and buy none of their ware or mer- 
chandize, pray what justice is there in this? Why truly 
none, but a great deal of injustice. 

4th. He says, " if any man fail of doing his just pro- 
portion, he thereby exposes either the minister to lose 
so much of his just due, (but he falls short of proving it 
a just due) or the other inhabitants to pay more than 
their just proportion, and so he is guilty of manifest 
wrong and injustice." 

No, where the people are not consenting (and if they 
were consenting, the New Testament is silent to any 
such way of maintaining gospel ministers) to this propor- 
tion, but see an evil in it : and there is no force under 
the glorious gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ, as I have 
abundantly and clearly (to those who are not blinded) 
proved above, even from the very texts of scripture 
which he brings and wrests to prove the contrary, of 
which let the impartial judge. 

Thus he and they building their structure of mainte- 
nance upon a bad foundation, viz. legal force, it will 
fall to the ground, if the magistrates do not help : for 
which he calls very loud : and well he may, considering 
he and others of his mind are ready to faint and fall 
without it. But by what hath been said, I would char- 
itably hope that all moderate christian magistrates will 
take care that the preachers eat only the grapes of their 
«wn vine, and the milk of their own flock, and keep so 
far just as to let other folks' grapes and milk alone. 
But if the priests and magistrates will join together in 


persecution, then will the poor sufferer appeal from them 
to our great High Priest, and just Judge of heaven and 
earth, and through his grace patiently suffer what he 
shall please to permit to come upon us. 

5th. In his third page he says, " The public minis- 
try of the gospel in any town is a public privilege, and 
every inhabitant is considered therein, and partakes in 
the privilege : for the preaching of the gospel is the 
great engine of salvation, and means of faith. Rom. i. 
16. X. 17." 

If he means that there is no other preaching the gos- 
pel but from his sect, we openly declare to the worlds 
that we diff<.'r from him in our judgment, and we believe 
upon good groijnds too. And what gospel, or glad ti- 
dings (which the word imports) can that be to people to 
preach to them, " that a certain number of them are 
eternally ordained to damnation :" and, for ou^^'ht these 
knowing men know, they may themselves be some of 
them ; for they cannot tell who these damned ones are. 
I think it would be abundantly better if those pry^ 
ing ministers would let the secret will of him that made 
them alone ; for that belongs to God, and not to man. 
*' The revealed truths belong to us, and our children." 
And to tell people they can never be free from the act 
of sin while in this world, is really miserable news, and 
dreadful tidings indeed ; since sin is the cause of God's 
wrath and damnation, and since we cannot in conscience 
join with such anti-gospel ministers, they ought not in 
conscience to take our money or goods from us. 

Again he says, " Every one is invited to take of the 
water of life freely. Rev. xxvi. 17." 

But, by their leave, theirs is the water of death, if we 
must always sin even in our best duties, then he knows 
that " The wages of sin is death ;" and may not any 
good christians be truly thankful when they are delivered 
from such a sinful ministry ? And what a knock he 
gives himself in saying, " We take of it freely," and his 
pages are written on purpose to make people believe they 
ought to pay for it, and that they may force it from them 
too. So we may plainly see that their waters, which 

A a a 

5o2 roRCiNc; a maintenance 

proceed from them in such bitter streams, are the wa- 
ters of death ; because we cannot have them freely, ac- 
cording to the doctrine of the Holy Ghost in the holy 
scripture, which he himself hath broui^ht. 

Again, whereas he says, " Where there is no vision, 
or preaching the gospel, the people perish. Prov, xxix. 

This is contrary to what they say, when they teach 
that vision and revelation is ceased. 

He goes on, " Being without God, without Christ* 
without the covenant, they are in a hopeless perishing 

If he would infer from these words, that where there 
is no public vocal teaching the people perish, the Al- 
mighty has been kinder than his minister ; for he has 
graciously promised, that he would teach his people 
himself: " The children of the Lord are taught of the 
Lord, &c. And thine eyes shall behold thy teachers, 
who cannot be removed into a corner." Isa. xxx. 2(X 
which cannot be meant of outward preachers, for they 
are often removed into corners : but God, Christ, and 
the Holy Spirit cannot. And Christ promised to send 
the spirit of truth, which should lead and guide into all 
truth (not into sin.) Now, to say that such who have not 
outward vocal preaching perish, is absurd ; and he must 
want charity, and then all his harangues in his pulpit are 
but like sounding brass. 

But now, says he, " Where the kingdom of God is 
preached, every man is at liberty, and hath an opportu- 
nity to be pressing into it," (and I add, without paying 
for it) Luke xvi. 16. " But where the kingdom of 
satan is preached (which is sin for term of life) the peo- 
ple have liberty to fly from it." Further he says, " If 
any refuse the counsel of God against themselves, it is 
their own fault." 

Answer. If any do so, it is their own fault indeed ; 
but to refuse the evil counsel of a sinful minister, is a 
virtue, and no fault at all. 

Again, " They have a price put in their own hand, 
although being fools, they have no heart to improve 


We arc willing to be counted fools by such wiselings; 
but let him know, that wisdom himself said, " He that 
will be wise, must first become a fool." 

He proceeds, and says, " It was a privilege to them 
that were invited to the marriage of the King's Son, 
though they made light of the invitation, and would not 
come." Mat. xxii. 

Answer. Those that rightly come to the marriage of 
the King's Son, the Lamb of God, that takes away the 
sins of the world, must put off the garment spotted with 
the flesh, lest it be said to them, " Friend, how camest 
thou in hither, not having on the wedding garment ?" 
Let every true christian fear, lest he bring on himself 
thiit awful sentence, " Depart from me all ye that work 
iniquity, I know you not;" notwithstanding they had eat 
and drank in his presence, and in his name they had 
cast out devils, and done many wondrous works', and he 
had taught in their streets ; yet nevertheless, because 
they were found in the acts of sin, they must depart from 

Now, says he, *' Every inhabitant, partaking in the 
public privilege of a gospel ministry, reason and justice 
requires, that every one should bear a part of the exter- 
nal charge, in order to the maintenance of it." 

Answer, iiut every person not partaking of what he 
calls so, and believinjr that, as these erroneous priests 
preach it to be a bondage, and not a privilege ; to force 
such to pay too, is altogether unreasonable, and great 
injustice ; let all sensible christians judge. 

4th. He says, " It is warrantable from scripture, that 
such inhabitants as refuse to pay any thing toward the 
support of the ministry, should have their just propor- 
tion taken from them by legal distress." 

Answer. We want him, or any of his brethren, to 
show us that warrant from holy scripture; for he hath 
not done it yet: and where shall we find that it is war- 
rantable from scripture, and the doctrine and practice of 
Christ and his apostles *? for what he has produced from 
holy scripture, has fairly proved to the contrary ; and as 
for his legality, that great word, it is only what others 


of his spirit have pleaded in former ages. Did not 
Nebuchadnezzar persecute the servants of God by a law? 
Could not they say they suffered legal!}? Did not the Jews 
sa} concerning our Lord, " We have a law, and by that 
law he ought to die ?" Did not the people of iMussachit- 
setts make a laAv, and by it hang the poor innocent Cjua- 
kers ? Did not all those say, that they suffered legally? 
And do not some of the New-England minister^ justify it 
in their pulpits to this day? though others there are (I 
believe) really sorry for it. 

" Oh, but (say our modern teachers, who have money 
for it) we hope you will not compare us christians to Jews 
and heathens," 

Why not, if found in their practices ? For when once 
people go to persecute others for their conscientious dis- 
sent, it is most certain they go from the spirit of Christ, 
as may fairly be proved from Christ's own expressions ; 
and doubtless all persecutors are antichrists, notwithstand- 
ing their fine gilding of it over, with the words, legal 
distress, and prosecution. 

In his fourth page he begins thus, " For it is a just and 
legal debt, as has already been proved." (To those that 
agree to it, and contract it, he should have added.) 

Answer. But unjust and illegal to those who cannot, 
for conscience sake, consent to it, and therefore it is a 
mistake in him to say, " It has already been proved ;" 
for he hath not, nor can he prove it (to force any by a 
coercive power) to be consonant to the holy scripture. 

In page the 4th he says, " God has given his ministers 
a just right to some proportion of every man's estate, in 
the place were they minister." 

What, Jews, heathens, and all ? What, every man, 
whatsoever ? Where proves he that ? For my part, if I 
were a minister for money, I should think that what I got 
from other people against their wills, Avould never pros- 
per, but would be a curse to, and upon me, and tend to 
the consumprion of the rest of my estate, rather than 
augmenting of it : and I have heard some moderate min- 
isters, who have money for their preaching, say the same. 


He goes on further, and says " And that part of each 
man's estate, which God gives ministers a right to by 
his just and equal law." 

Answer. By his just and equal gospel he forces none ; 
but leaves every one to be fully persuaded in their own 

And he must needs say, " That the gospel power ex- 
ceeds the power of any law whatsoever." 

And the gospel is free, not forced, as he in vain would 
endeavour to prove from holy scripture. That must be 
an unjust law that forces people to buy whether they will 
or no, and therefore none of God's law or way ; for all 
his laws and ways are equal. 

And he also says in page the 4th, " They have as 
much power to challenge it as any other debt or wages." 

Not without people agree with them, and hire them. 
( \nd though they do agree with them, I do not grant that 
they have any colour, from the New 'J'estament, to make 
any such law, even among themselves ; it being incon- 
sistent with the nature of the glorious gospel of Christ.) 
Upon which a passage comes into my mind, between an 
Indian and a New England minister, well known to some 
of their teachers in New- England, who (for preaching) 
took from a dissenter from the presbyterian way, one of 
his cows : The Indian asked him why he did so ? The 
priest answered, if I hire you to make a fence for me, 
would you not expect your wages ? Yes (says the In- 
dian) but he no hire you, and when me do man's work, 
then man pay me ; Ijut when you do God's work, then 
God pay you. 

The poor Indian was in the right, for truly God's pay 
is better than all the silver and gold in the world. 

Oh! but, say they, how must we live? 

If they had faith in God and Christ, they need not fear 
a living in this world. 

But, say they, " The people are so hard-hearted, that 
if there were not a law for it, the ministers might starve." 

Then their doctrine must starve the people's souls, or 
else surely they would not let their bodies starve : that 
must needs be a lifeless, dull, dead ministry, that will not 


open people's hearts, so as to keep the preachers from 
starving; but I think there is no fear of their starving, 
for they generally live like lords among the people. But 
let them remember withal, that they are not to lord it 
over the heritage of God. 

" It is (says he) agreeable to the doctrine of Christ and 
his apostle, that such as refuse to pay their just debts, 
should be distrained for the same, by virtue of the civil 
svv^ord amongst the christians." Rom. xiii. 14. 

Ansvi^er. He should prove the debt to be just, and then 
this text would have been to his purpose : for those that 
«ontract delfts, ought to pay them. 

In page 5th, he talks of the law and light of nature, and 
reason, and says, " It is the law of God written in the 
heart." Rom. ii. 15. He adds, " All the laws of God do 
sweetly harmonize both one with another, and the doc- 
trine of Christ and his apostles ; there is no manner of 
jar between any of these." 

Answer. But there is a wonderful jar between the cor- 
rupt nature or law of man, and the divine nature or law 
of God; he should have distinguished between the cor- 
rupt nature, reason and law, and the divine; for except 
he rightly divide between the precious and the vile, he 
cannot be as the mouth of God to the people. Now the 
corrupt and covetous nature in those that seek their gain 
from their quarter, and preach for hire, and divine for 
money, says, " That those that cannot pay them" (though 
for conscience sake) " they must be forced to it, whether 
they will or no." 

But the divine nature of Christ and his apostles says, 
" Freely ye have received, freely give." Mat. x. 8. If 
their gospel is not free, they have not received it from 
Christ. Also, if they have not received it freely, they 
may call it their own gospel, but it is not Christ's. And 
though Christ's ministers had power to eat and drink, 
and to forbear working, yet, says the divine nature in the 
apostle, *' I have used none of those things ; neither do I 
write, that it should be so done unto me." 1 Cor. ix. 15. 
And that it is not covetousness, that divers quakers so 
called, cannot pay the covetous priests, is manifest; for 


they take much more, and sometimes double and treble, 
as I could easily bring many instances and living witnesses 
to prove what I assert, from Virginia, Maryland, and 
abundantly in New- England (without going over to Great 
Britain) in which many thousands of pounds have those 
legal ministers taken by force, within these fifty years, 
from such as for conscience sake, could not put it into 
their own mouths ; and then war has been proclaimed 
against those poor sheep* Well, let the righteous judge, 
not the self-righteous ( I do not mean them) but those 
who are clothed upon with the righteousness of the Lord 
Jesus Christ, as he wrought it outwardly for them, and 
also as he works it by his holy spirit, in their hearts. 

Next to his 3dly, Touching government and magis- 
trates, which the people called quakers ever owned and 
honoured in their way, though they could not cringe, 
scrape and bow, after the common mode of the sinful 
times, nor give titles to them in flattery : but we reckon 
that those magistrates that are a terror to hypocrites and 
evil doers, ought to have a hearty inward respect and hon- 
our, shown to them generously in action and courteous 
expression, and not in a parcel of idle compliments. Such 
magistrates as the above, were never a terror unto us, 
but we have blessed God on their behalf in our solemn 
assemblies publicly, and often in the secret of our souls 
privately ; and many times prayed for our persecutors 
also. I wish this priest be not too much inclining to such. 
May his eyes be opened ! 

He goes on, and endeavours to animate and stir up 
the magistrates to persecution, by insinuating that those 
who, for conscience sake, cannot give any thing to the 
priest, are evil, unjust, and wicked persons : who, not- 
withstanding, take them in a general way, and their con- 
versations, are as just as the brightest of their church 
members, as divers of themselves are forced to acknow 

If for this testimony to our innocence, any should im- 
agine we boast, it is he, and such as he, that are the 
occasion of this confident boasting, and we have ouf 
great apostle, even Paul, for our example. 


Now I hope the magistrates will take care not to per- 
secute the just, but to turn the edge of their swords 
against the evil doers ; and then, doubtless, they will 
not bear their swords in vain : and let the edge of it be 
as sharp and as keen as it will, we fear not: for against 
true men there is no law (which is upon a just basis, or 
foundation) that will harm them. 

I tenderly and lovingly, as a minister of Jesus Christ, 
and true lover of good government, exhort and warn all 
magistrates to be careful to keep within their own prov- 
ince : for conscience is none of theirs. It is the pecu- 
liar province of Jesus Christ. The great territory of the 
King of kings, and Judge of the quick and dead. And 
he will render unto every man a recompense. 

Now if conscience were only a cloak for covetousness, 
it ought to be stript off, but it is plain that cannot be our 
case; for we lose much more by our denial (and some- 
times a great deal more, than as much more) by our not 
pa} ing freely, as is above said. But we may (I hope) 
presume that the magistrates know their duty vvithout 
being taught it from the pulpit : I would have no free 
spirited magistrate to let priests ride them : for if they 
do, it is to be doubted they will ride them to death : for 
persecuting men of their cloth, seem^ to have but little 
mercy. I once heard a priest say to a couple of justices 
(a church of England preacher for money, but as himself 
said to some of his neighbours, a presbyterian in his 
heart) do your office, which was upon my poor self, who 
had been preaching against sin and evil, according to the 
best of my understanding. Why what is the matter ? "He 
has been preaching (says the priest) in a place not licens- 
ed, and has broken the law." " Well (says another jus- 
tice, beside the aforesaid two) then you have broken the 
law first, for you preached there before him;" and thought 
k was our meeting by appointment, yet \vc quietly hea'-d 
him read his sermon, and I dare say, he never had qui- 
Gter hearers in all his days than we were. 

And indeed reading is the general practice of some 
modern teachers, far from the practice of Christ, the a])Os- 
tles, and primitive christians, when christumity shone in 


its primitive beauty and glory, and when christians de- 
pended more upon the gift of the Holy Ghost (or Spir- 
it) and less upon natural parts and human inventions, 
which is worthy of the solid consideration of all true 

I have also observed that those magistrates who have 
jouied with persecuting priests, in persecuting men of 
sober lives and conversations, for their religious dissent 
and persuasion, that they have not prospered; and many 
sober people, not of our society, have taken notice of 
the same. This is oifered to the serious consideration 
of men of high degree (in reverence and great humil- 

And though Joseph Metcalfe flatters the magistrates, 
telling them, they bear the visible image and character 
of gods, in order to flatter them into a persecuting spir- 
it, yet I hope, and believe, that he will not find many 
magistrates nor ministers of his mind : for if all the 
magistrates and ministers in New-England were as much 
for persecuting as he seems to be by his writing, what 
might all those expect, who differed from the presby- 
terian way in New-England if they had pov/er? But 
blessed be God, I certainly know that there are divers 
moderate people, who are against persecution, even 
amongst the presbyterians in New-England. 

In his seventh page, he says, " lu case of people's 
defect in this matter (of paying for preaching) legal com- 
pulsion is the only remedy, (What, no other remedy ?) 
and must be used, otherwise religion, which is a peo- 
ple's life, will soon fall to the ground." 

Answer. Where will his doctrine land ? What, can 
not Christ uphold his church without the magistrates ? 
The religion of Christ, the apostles, and primitive chris- 
tians, stood, and stands yet, without being supported 
by the civil magistrates. Wliat, has he got som.e new 
religion, which cannot stand without the outward povv - 
er "? But it seems some of the New- England ministc rs 
reckon that they must fall, if the magistrates do not u]^r 
hold them. " They (i. e. the magistrates) are, (says J>j- 
.s-eph Metcalfe) the keepers of bodi tables." 

B b b 


Answer. But I thouejht that God had been the keeper 
of his pi ople, and Christ the shc])herd of his slicep, and 
the Holy Ghost the comforter of them; I thought this 
Infinite Being had been the great preserver of men in 

In his eighth page^ he brings divers texts of scripture 
to prove the power of the magistrates, which we never 
denied, especially vvhen they exercise their power and au- 
thority to the terror of evil doers, and the praise of them 
that do well. And at the latter end of the said page he 
sa} s, " From the whole, I conclude, with submission 
to better judgments, that it is warrantable from scripture, 
and agreeable to the doctrine and practice of Christ and 
his apostles, for the laws aforesaid to be put in execu- 

Answer. But, alas ! this is all beside his assertion. 
His business was to prove a legal forced maintenance for 
gospel ministers, or else he doth nothing. What! hath 
he been travelling through all his pages, and brought 
forth nothing but this windy doctrine at last ? He speaks 
of submission to better judgments, and I would have 
him, if he dare to do it, submit to the judgment of 
Christ and his apostles, who I think have fairly decided 
the question in favour of the poor abused quakers, that 
it is not according, but contrary to the language of the 
Holy Ghost, in the holy scripture, that gospel ministers 
maintenance should be forced by a coercive power. 
From what has been said, let all ingenuous christian 
readers judge. 

In the ninth page, " Nevertheless (says he) if any ar- 
guments can be produced from scripture, or right rea- 
son, of greater strength and weight to prove the nega- 
tive, than there may be to maintain the affirmative ; I 
hope I shall readily subscribe thereto." 

Answer. A person would from those expressions al- 
most hope for a recantation from him, especially if he 
seriously considers the doctrine of Christ and his apos- 
tles, as here noted at large. 

" But (saith he) till I receive further light, conscience 
commands me to conform to that measure I have." 


Answer. He had best to have a care of the command- 
ing power of an evil conscience. 

He goes on, " And while I do conscientiously conform 
to that measure of light within me, walking in obedience 
to all its commands and directions." 

Answer. But suppose that light in him should be dark- 
ness : then, as Christ said, " How great is that dark- 
ness ?" as for certain it is, when he goes about to prove 
that for truth, which is contrary to Christ's doctrine. 

As to his saying " Then the quakers must let fall the 
grand article of their religion." 

Answer. Let him seriously read over the first chapter 
of John, as also many other places of the holy scripture 
on that subject of the light, and if he is not one of those 
who are blinded, perhaps he may be undeceived, and 
his gross mistake rectified. I hope he is careful of 
preaching such doctrine in his pulpit. 

A certain church member of the presbyterian way, in 
New-Engand, told me, that their minister told them in 
his pulpit, " That we denied the Bible, or Holy Scrip- 
tures." And made the poor woman really believe it to 
be true, than which, nothing could be more false. But 
the honest woman thought she would try me. " Was 
you (says she) brought up among quakers ? were your 
father and mother quakers ? Yes, said I, they were so 
called. " And (says she) would they suffer you to read 
in the Bible when you were a little boy ?" Yes, and 
correct me too, because I was not so willing to do it as 
they would have me to be. 

Thus have the poor quakers been abused in divers 
pulpits in New- England and other places, for which rea- 
son, I would advise all professed christian ministers in 
New-England, and elsewhere, wherever this may meet 
with them who have so abused us that for the time to 
come they do not tell the people in their pulpits, that the 
quakers deny Christ, the Scriptures, the power of the 
magistrates, and many other things, which would make 
a volume of themselves, if they were all penned. For 
them to cry out in their pulpits, *' Have a care of the 


delusions of the quakers," and at the same time to delude 
the people to believe lies of them is really horrid. 

" Oh ! but (say they) the quakers are more orthodox 
now than they were ;" when, in truth, it is the calum- 
nies that have been cast on us are now made more man- 
ifest to be falsehoods. And then ought not they to bc» 
glad at the news of our reformation ? 





Now I shall consider his postscript, in writing of which 
he has dipt his pen deep in the gall of bitterness in some 
parts of it, which I shall touch a little upon, as I shall 
come to them. 

But to begin, " Notwithstanding (saith he) all that I 
have said in the preceding discourse concerning mainte- 
nance : yet as to my own particular, if a temporal main- 
tenance had been my chief aim, I should have discovered 
great folly in accepting a call from so small and poor a 

Answer. From his words, one may conclude it was 
his aim, though not his chief aim ; and then, as to the 
shepherd's call, ought it not to be from the great Shep- 
herd Jesus Christ? and if they will answer this call, he 
stiys, "Go forth." Where do we find any example for 
a minister of the gospel, to stay and preach to only one 
particular congregation ? Pray let them produce it if they 

But now suppose a place should present to Joseph Met- 
calfe, where the people were richer, and more of them ; 
would he not leave his poor flock, to go to the rich ? 
Pray let him have a care, as he says, that his own heart 
do not deceive him : we but too plainly perceive, by the 
practice of those money ministers, that the loudest call, 
is the most money. Query, upon this great word call, 
whether the sheep use to call the shepherd, or the shep- 
herd the sheep ? Do not they strangely invert the order 
of nature here, in their pretended call from the people ? 
Christ the true shepherd said, " My sheep hear my voice." 
So that he and his servants, or ministers, call the sheep, 
and not the sheep them ; and those holy shepherds called 


their sheep freely, though these must have money for 
their calling, and the sheep call them too : neither will 
that satisfy some of those shepherds, but they will needs 
have money from some poor sheep that never called them; 
and if they cannot give it them freely, they will have it 
by force. A young shepherd said to one at Salem, in 
New- England, " That though Paul had power, and did 
Dot use it, yet he would use his power." But that bless- 
ed apostle never pretended to any forcible power, except 
the force and power of love. 

He, the said Joseph Metcalfe, complains of his small 
income for preaching, and of his poverty ; though it is 
probable he has more than all ihe twelve apostles, and 
seventy disciples, when they were sent forth by their 
great Lord and master ; and to be sure he has more 
money for preaching, than they all had. But he has con- 
fessed his call is not divine, therefore not from Christ ; 
for he says, " If he had a divine call, he could forego 
every thing in the world." And so he is but a legal 
literal preacher, and minister : a minister that forces 
himself to offer, and would also force those who receive 
not his offering, to pay him, though against their con- 

And as for his family's starving,! never heard or read 
of any christian minister's family starving, especially in a 
christian country ; nor I believe he nor any body else. 
Certainly there is need to cry out to those men, " O, yc 
of little faith ! who clothes the lilies, and feeds the spar- 
rows, shall he not take care of you"? O, ye of little faith !" 
I fear they forget the doctrine of him, whom they some- 
times call the Lord. 

As to what he writes in the second page of his post- 
script, if he duly minds v/hat I have written in answer 
to his, I think he cannot imagine that the flaming ven- 
geance there poured out by him upon us, can any way 
touch us ; but let him and them which are concerned in 
the work (for I understand he had the help of a cunning 
man in this work) have a care, that it fall not on them- 
selves : and truly the poor quakers may be very thankful 
that the flaming sword is not in their hands : for if it 


were, experience, yea, woful experience, has taught us^ 
that we might expect but little mercy from some of them. 
And pray why cannot they be more patient, since they 
hold that God hath ordained whatever conies to pass ? 
For they see it come to pass that we cannot join with them, 
cannot they let the ordinance of God alone ? I remem- 
ber an expression of Cotton Mather, in one of his scur- 
rilous pieces, " That the best way to deal with the qua- 
kers, was to let them alone." Then, according to Cotton 
Mather, this man, and he that helped him, have taken the 
worst way to deal with us : and truly they lose ground 
generally when they meddle with us. 

As for his foolish pity and bitter lamentation over us, 
we desire that they would lament over themselves and 
their children, as our Saviour did over the Jews when 
they persecuted him ; and truly those who justify their 
forefathers in hanging the quakers, and their other ways, 
of so bitterly persecuting them as they did, had not only 
need to lament, but to repent too. And even now, they 
prove themselves to be the persecutors (and not we) by 
forcing a maintenance from us. The presbyterians in 
Old- England, alias Great-Britain, are one with us in 
this doctrine, that forcing a maintenance for ministers 
from them that do not hear them, is altogether wrong 
and unjust : and how comes it to pass, that the same 
people are otherwise minded in New-England? Let 
tiiem resolve this question. 

I shall consider these texts of scripture which he has 
thrown at us (and gently return them unto him again.) 

At the end of his postscript he says, " The judgments 
of God are a great deep." (Yes too deep for his legal 
literal buckets to fetch them up,) Jiom. xi. 7. " The 
election hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded." 

I hope he will give the Almighty leave to elect whom 
he pleaseth. Were the election in the power of this priest, 
let the reader judge whether we might expect any of it. 

He cites, 2 Cor. iv. 3. " If our gospel be hid, it is hid 
to those that are lost." 

Answer. Now why did this priest hide the fourth and 
next verse, was it not for fear the light of the quakers' 



doctrine should shine upon tlie peop'i*:- ? Whicli is thus 
(the fourth verse opening and exj)laining the third,) " In 
whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of 
them who believe not ; lest the light of the glorious gos- 
pel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto 
them." Or as in the 6th verse, " For God who com- 
manded light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in 
our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory 
of God, in the face of Jesus Christ." He thought good 
lo hide this gospel, but I think good to make it mani- 
fest ; which puts me in mind of a proverb, " Who is so 
blind as those that will not see ?" 

He goes on, 2 Thess. ii. 10, 11, 12. "They received 
not the love of the truth, that they might be saved ; and 
for this cause, God shall send them strong delusion, that 
the) should believe a lie ; that they all might be damned, 
who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrigh- 
teousness." And Jiide 8, 10, 11, 12, 13. "These filthy 
dreamers despise dominion, and speak evil of dignities, 
but speak evil of these things which they know not ; wf> 
unto them^ clouds they are without water, raging waves 
foaming out their own shame ; wandering stars, to whom 
IS reserved the blackness of darkness forever." 

To all which I answer, 1st. We have received the 
truth in the lo\'C of it, the Holy Spirit beareth witness 
with our spirits, that we are the children of God : which 
holy witness, is stronger for us, than the witness of ten 
thousand priests can be against us. 

2d. " So the cause being taken away, the effect of 
delusion ceaseth." 

And 3d. Pray let them be careful of deluding them- 
selves and the people, by keeping them in ignorance and 
darkness : telling them, tliey cannot be cleansed from 
sin, while here in this world. For all those that believe 
tills, do believe a lie with a witness, and are strangely 
and strongly deluded. This is a miserable gospel, con- 
trary to the doctrine of the holy apostles, who are posi- 
tively opposite to that evil tenet. " If (says the apostle) 
we walk in the light, as he is in the light, then the blood 
«f Jesus Christ, his Son, Fleiui-seth ws i'r©m all siii." And 


Christ came to destroy the works of the devil, and to 
save the people from their sin. And pray beware of 
taking pleasure in pleading for unrighteousness. 

4th. As to these filthy dreamers, pray be careful what 
you dream in your pulpits to the people ; for some of 
you will not allow of the immediate operation of the Holy 
Ghost ; wherefore beware of filthy dreams, and old wives' 

5th. We despise not those who are dignified in the 
truth, and rule well in the church (not with rigour and 
persecution), and we account them worthy of doul^le 
honour ; but persecutors are not so much as worthy of 
single honour, and we should be but hypocrites to give 
it them. 

6th. And what celestial rain, or holy divine water, is 
there in those cloudy dark preachers, who preach dam- 
nation to the greatest part of the world ? Let them look 
to it, and repent in time. 

7th. " Raging waves, foaming out their own shame." 

Answer. If persecution is not the fruit of rage and 
shame, I do not know what is. Pray courteous reader 

8th. " Wandering stars, to whom is reserved the black- 
ness of darkness forever." 

Now because many cast this text in our teeth, I shall 
write a little to it, thus ; this must be intended to those 
who wander from the holy spirit, gift, and grace of God 
in themselves, by and from which every true minister of 
Christ ought to exercise his gift, and not to speak when, 
where, and what he pleases ; Oh, happy world ! if all 
professing to be christian ministers did not wander from 
this gift into the inventions and traditions of men. Ard 
further, this cannot be taken in an outward sense, because 
Christ himself, and his apostles travelled much, and said, 
*' Take us for examples ; follow us, as we have followed 
Christ." And all that know any thing of letters, know 
that the word apostle signifies a messenger, which neces- 
sarily implies a traveller ; and divers of these blessed 
ones had no certain dwelling place. Our dear Lord him- 
self had not whereon to lay his head, as himself pays ; 

o c c 


and those who conscientiously travel to turn people from 
darkness to light, and from the power of ^atan to the 
power of God, and are instrumental to turn many to righ- 
teousness, notwithstanding all men can do to blacken 
them, yet the holy text says, Dan. viii. 2, 3. "They shall 
shine as the brightness of the iirmament, and as the stars, 
for ever and ever." Amen. 







if ye lote me, keep my commandments. 

JOHN xlv. 15. 
Ye are my friends, if ye do wliutsoever I command you. 

JOHN XV 14. 


CHRIST being the great author of the christian relig.^ 
ion. I have thought to make some observations on his 
sermon, which he preached on the mounts might be accept' 
able to some of his followers ; especially such who desire^ 
to fulfil his holy will, and not to rest satisfied in a form 
and shew only of his religion. 

And also considering that it is the greatest collection of 
his words left us in the J\'ew Testament by the evangelists^ 
in any one place ^ I was in hopes some observations thereon 
might tend to promote the reading of it in the holy scrip- 

But the greatest end I had in this undertaking was., that 
the professors of the name of holy Jesus might live and 
"walk in his truth., and in the doctrine which he has there 
laid doivn for his followers to practise ; and that in so do- 
ing: they inight have peace to their souls here^ arid rest m 
the kingdom of glory forever . 

It is by some accounted and looked upon in youth to be 
a commendable ayid worthy practice to write down sermons^ 
and to copy and read them over : and^ I believe, it will be 
generally acknowledged, that there was never any sermon 
preached in the world, that can be compared with this of 
Christ., which he preached in the mount., and is recorded by 
the evangelist Matthew, in his 5th, &th andlth chapters ; 
which if our young and rising generation would often read, 
and sometimes write it down f if time would admit J but be 
sure to practise it ; this would be truly noble in them ; and 
which if they find they xvant inward strength to perform, 
then that they would seek it in secret at the hand of the 
Almighty Jehovah, in whom is everlasting strength ; and 
it is recorded in holy scripture, " That he gives liberally, 
and upbraideth not.'''' He will not upbraid thee, because 
thou art but a child, or tender in years : Oh, therefore, 
seek him betimes ! for it is written, " They who seek hnn 
early shall find kim.'''' 


The christian relii^ion being run into many rlivisinns and 
sub -divisions, this holy sermon, if christians would walk 
according to it. might and would help to heal their differ- 
ences., and to soften them in their sentiments one to another. 
And it is to be believed and hoped, that all parties will con- 
fess fhat the docrine in this sermon ts good, and ought to 
be promoted amongst all who profess the worthy name of 
the Lord Jesus ; and whoever walks contrary to this rule 
must needs be in the wrong 

The general end of preachers is, or should be, to have 
their doctrine taken notice of, and put in practice ; and this 
being counselfrom the " IFonderfuL Counsellor, the Migh- 
ty God (and Saviour J the Everlasting Father, and Prince 
of Peace,'''' we shoidd take more than ordinary notice of it. 

Considering also, that he not only spake his doctrine hut 
lived 'in it ; and not only lived in, but died in it, arid for ify 
and us also. Wherefore we are deeply engaged to hear 
him with an obedient heart and ear. '' This (says the 
voice from the most Excellent Glory J is my beloved Son^ 
hear ye him.'''' .4nd Moses, the man of God, says, " That 
he that w'lll not hear him. shall be destroyed from a?nongst 
the people :'''' viz. '''' From an inheritance with the saints, in 
the kingdom of God, and his Christ.'''' 

J have carefully transcribed the sermon, verbatim, and 
made some observations on it afterwards, I thnk on every 
verse a htde, as I found openness to it on my mmd; and 't 
is recommended to the ser ous perusal and cons:dera^ on of 
all hose who tenderly and unfe gnedly love our Lord Jesus 
Christ m sincerity. 








" And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a moun- 
tain : and when he was set, his disciples came unto him, 
and he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying," 
gic. Mat. V. 1, 2. 

Our Lord seeing the multitudes, for the advancing 
his Father's glory, his own kingdom, and the good of 
souls, went up into the mountain, and sat in the power 
of the Father ; and when so sat down, his disciples came 
unto him : which shews the necessity of coming to 
Christ, to hear his word, and that christians ought to 
assemble themselves before him, that he may speak to 
them either immediately ; or if he ])leases to enlarge the 
heart of any of his ministers to declare his word; and 
as his disciples then personally came unto him, so now 
we ought to come to him in spirit; and then, when but 
two or three are so come to him, he is as really present 
spiritually, as he was personally in the mount. And as 
this meeting in the mount was powerful and glorious, 
so will all those be, in measure, where Jesus is really 
present in spirit. " And he ppened his mouth, and 
taught them." Thus when true believers meet before 
Christ, he teaches them, and opens the mysteries of the 
kirigdom of God, and speaks truly to the state of the 
people, even now spiritually, as he did then vocally ; 
and his word is with power and great glory. OIi \ m ly 
all his servants and ministers, who are sensible of his di- 
vine call, minister according to their several gifts and ca- 


pacltics, in his power, and by his Iioly and divine autbop- 
ity. lliis must reform the world, and ehange the hearts 
of poor mortals, and forward the work of refr)rmation, 
which (with godly sorrow it may be truly said) s^oes but 
too slowly on in this world. Christ being thus set in the 
power of his Father, opened his mouth and let fail a 
shower of blessings on those hearts who were prepared to 
receive them. For his great love and tender compassion 
are generally manifested to poor souls when they, with 
love and zeal to him, and for the honour of his great 
name, meet and assemble before him. He begins and 

" Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the king- 
dom of heaven." Verse 3. 

It is a safe and blessed state, to be truly and spiritu- 
ally poor, and to be rightly sensible of it before the 
Most Fligh. For then we are nothing, and have nothing, 
but from the Lord : and without him ni.:m sees himself 
undone : his soul must starve, he must go naked, if the 
Almighty do not feed him, and clothe him. And when 
they sec themselves poor and wretched, miserable, blind^ 
and naked, without Christ, notwithstanding all the fine 
things they may enjoy in this world, which is of a fading 
nature ; Oh ! then how the soul cries, how it begs for 
mercy and grace. A dry form of words will not satisfy it 
then ; but it begs with tears. Lord, help me, or I perish ! 
Save me, or I am undone forever! Here the soul humbly 
approaches the throne of grace by pra} er; and if an answer 
is not quickly received (for such a soul is apt to think 
the time long) it waits ])utiently with that servant of God^, 
who said, '' Though he sla\ me, yet will I trust in him :*' 
for I know there is no help for me but from thee, Oh ? 
Biy God, and my Saviour ! saith the truly poor soul. 
The food which must keep life in me, is th}' word : and 
the raiment which I want, is thy righteousness, as tliou 
wrouglitest it for me, and workest it in nie also. Tiie 
Lord looks with a compassionate eye on such souls, and 
doth not use to turn them away empty : but as they abide 
m the patience, waiting for his appearance in hope, he 
ifcsuri^s them of the kiiigdom ; and a great turn aixl 

Christ's sermon on the mount. 385 

change is witnessed; for the blessing of Christ makes 
them rich, which adds no sorrow with it ; for the great- 
est sorrow was, and is, for want of it ; now their treas- 
ure and heart is in heaven, and heavenly things are their 
chiefest delight; now they are clotb.ed with Christ's 
righteousness, he hath put it upon them, and they shew 
it in the sight of men, a thorough change being wrought 
both within and without also ; " The holy scripture bear- 
ing witness with their spirits, that they are the children 
of God; (and Christ says) theirs is the kingdom of heav- 

" Blessed are they that mourn : for they shall be com- 
forted." Verse 4. 

The mourning here spoken of, is that of a godly sort, 
which may sometimes appear outwardly : 1st. For the 
soul may mourn for its own sins and iniquities : 2d. For 
want of a Saviour: and, 3d. For the iniquities of others. 
" For (first) all have sinned, and come short of the glory 
of God;" and since we have all sinned, we have all need 
to mourn before the Lord, and bow ourselves before the 
Most High ; and when he sees that we are humbled be- 
fore him, he then will comfort us. Christ will send the 
comforter, the spirit of truth in his name, who will 
come unto us ; and when he is come, we may plainly 
know and understand it is he, by what he doth, accord- 
ing to Christ's own rule, which is infallible and certain; 
says he, " When he is come, he will reprove (or con- 
vince) the world of sin, righteousness, and judgement : 
of sin, because they believe not on me ; of righteous- 
ness, because I go to my Father, and ye see me no 
more : and of judgement, because the prince of this 
world is judged." Thus, according to Christ, that 
which shews us our sins, which convinces us of the n, 
is the spirit of truth, the comforter ; that after we have 
mourned for our sins, which he convinces us of, then 
he comforts us with inward comfort and consolation. 
2d. This comforter also convinceth us of our formal 
righteousness, when it is only formal, without the povv- 
er of Christ : and then the soul mourns after the life 
and power of godliness, which indeed is great gain, 

D dd 


with true contentment ; an 1 hutli the promise of the 
things of this life, and that ;ilso which is to come. And 
no hen- we are comforted !\v the spirit in the promise, 
in whivh we liavc faith to believe in Christ, and that he 
will veril)^ do as he halh promised. 3d. It also convinc- 
eth us of JLidi2;tikicnt, when we judge with a wrong 
judgement; and when we mourn for our mistake, he 
makes us sensible of this righteous judgement, which 
judges the prince of this world, who is judged by Christ; 
and then instead of mourning, we arc ready to sing with 
the saijits of old, " Salvation, and glory, and honour, 
and power, unto the Lord our God, for true and righ- 
teous are his judgements, for he hath judged the great 
whore wiiieh did corrupt the earth with her fornications, 
and hath revenged the blood of his servants at her 

2d. The soul being truly in love with Christ, and he 
being absent from the soul in some sense ; or if he seem 
to stay a great while from it, although to try and prove 
the soul ; this makes us mourn greatly, like the spouse 
in the Canticles, who sets forth the beauty, and excel- 
lent pans, and comeliness, of her beloved, and all her 
sorrow is, he had withdrawn himself; and well may a 
soul be soriowful, when Christ spiritually withdraws 
himself. " The children of ihe bride chamber mourn in 
the bridegroorji's absence, but rcj^ ice in his presence," 
says Christ, who is the very perfection of beauty and 
holiness. But the soul abiding in his love, and seeking 
of him, and waiting for him, in his own due time he 
will certaiiily come to that soul ; for he is the truth who 
said, " Blessed are they that mourn for they shall be 

3d. Again, pious souls cannot but mourn for the sins 
and abominations of the times, which is a great exercise 
to them, and affects them with sorrow and mourning ; 
but tlicy are comforted with blessed promises, which 
the Holy Ghost, at times and seasons, immediately ap- 
plies to their souls, as lecorded in the holy scripture; 
and let it be remembered, that all our good times and 
seasons are in the hands of the Lord. It is recorded in 


the holy scripture, that God would have his people spo- 
ken comfortably to ; Isa. xl. 1. And that he would 
" give them beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourn- 
ing, and the garment of praise for the spirit of heavi- 
ness; that they might be called trees of righteousness 
the planting of the Lord, that he might be glorified." 
Isa. Ixi. 3. 

" Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the 
earth." Verse 5. 

Be not high-minded, saith one of his servants ; and 
another saith, God resisteth ihe proud, but giveth grace 
to the humble. Again, " The meek will he teach his 
way, and the meek will he guide in judgement ;" as the 
holy scripture witnesseth. So that well said our Holy 
Saviour, that the meek should be blessed: grace is given 
to them, and God is their teacher, and their guide in 
judgement ; a most blessed gift, teacher, and guide ; 
a great blessing indeed, to receive grace from Almighty 
God, to be taught his ways by him, and to have the 
Holy One to be our guide in judgem^ent. And he who 
has all power in heaven, and in earth, committed into 
his hand, says as above, that the meek " shall iniierit 
the earth :^' they have the rightest and truest enjoyment 
of all the things of this life ; whereas the proud and 
scornful are a burthen to themselves and others, and 
hardly any thing pleases them, or any thing good enough 
for them; when, on the other hand, the meek and con- 
tented mind hath (according to a good general maxim) 
a continual feast. 

^' Blessed are they who do hunger and thirst after 
righteousnes ; for they shall be filled." Verse 6. 

Let it be remembered, that as our mortal bodies can- 
not enjoy health long, without a natural appetite to meat 
and drink, so our souls cannot live unto holiness with- 
out a spiritual hunger, and an inward thirst after the 
righteousness which Christ puts upon his saints : not 
by imputation only, but actually also. Such souls he 
will fill, as holy Mary witnessed, and bore her testimo- 
ny to the truth thereof, viz. " He hath filled the hungry 
with good things, and the rich he hath sent empty away," 


When we are emptied of sin and self, then there is room 
for the Almighty to pour into us of his spirit. It u-e 
would fill any thing, it must first be empty ; so must 
we be empty, if we hunger and thirst after righteous- 
ness : truly, then shall we pray to our heavenly Futher 
for divine food, and it will be our meat and drink to do 
his will; and we shall delight to feed upon his word ; 
as Christ says, " Man shall not live by bread alone, but 
by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.'* 
This is the holy food for the soul, which nourishes and 
keeps it alive unto God : and without which it is dead, 
notwithstanding it may have the form and fashion of a 
living body. And as this hunger and thirst, or desire, 
must be spiritual, so must the food be also ; " It being 
the spirit that quickens," and gives life to the soul; 
wherefore let a spiritual hunger and thirst be in the soul 
after God, and his righteousness. A rigliteous soul 
being greatly athirst after the living Lord, cries out, 
*' As the hart panteth after the water brooks, so doth my 
soul after the living God." And this holy thirst was 
greatly satisfied, so that his heart was many times sweet- 
ly opened to praise the Lord. It is true we have an ad- 
versary, that would be filling us with many things, flesh- 
ly, worldly, and satanical : but we are to shut our hearts 
against him, and to keep out all those things, and to 
stand open to Christ, and empty before him. And if we 
find this our adversary too hard for us, we are to fly, and 
cry to the Lord for succour and help, who is a God not 
only afar oflf, but also near at hand, and a present help 
in the needful time, as many of his servants and children 
have experienced and witnessed him to be. Wherefore, 
to be hungry and thirsty after Christ and his righteous- 
ness, entitles us to his gracious promise, who says they 
shall be filled. 

" Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mer- 
cy." Verse 7. 

It is highly necessary for mortaJs to shew mercy, in ill 
their words and actions one to another : and also to the 
creatures which God hath made for the use of man. It is 
usually said, that a merciful man is merciful to his beast, 

Christ's sermon on the mount. S89 

which generally is true , and if men are merciful to their 
beasts, how much more ought they to be merciful one 
to another. Where mercy is to be extended, ii ought not 
to be done sparingly, since thereby (according to Christ's 
blessed doctrine) we are to obtain mercy. That servant 
who shewed no mercy to his fellow, had no me»cy 
showed unto him from his lord. It is also recorded, in 
the name of the Lord, " He hath shewn unto thee, O, 
man! what is good, that thou should do justly, love mer- 
cy, and walk humbly with thy God." By which it ap- 
pears that we are not just in the sight of God, if we are 
cruel and unmerciful one to another. And we ought not 
only to be merciful, but to love it. Which, if we are 
truly humble, we shall certainly do. Mercy will lessen, 
and not magnify weakness, failings, or small and trivial 
things one in another : and sometimes, as the case may 
require, some larger things : and yet there is room for 
seasonable reproof and correction : but mercy must be 
mixed with justice, else the correction may end in tyr- 
anny. We ought to be gentle to all men, which is a 
true token of true gentility : so to be truly merciful, is 
to be blessed, and to obtain mercy. 

" Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see 
God." Verse 8. 

By which we may understand, that we arc to take 
care of our hearts ; and to keep a strict watch over them ; 
and not admit unclean or unchaste th( ughts, or sinful 
desires, to have an entrance therein. And if at una- 
wares they should at any time enter, we must not enter- 
tain nor love them, but turn them out; for we, in this, 
should be like our Heavenly Father, of purer eyes than 
to behold iniquity with any allowance or approbation : 
otherwise it will hinder us from seeing God, and from 
the sweet enjoyment of his most precious presence, and 
beholding the only begotten of the Father, and the ful- 
ness of his grace and truth, which we cannot see if our 
hearts are impure : an instance of which we have in the 
scribes and pharisees, though they were outwardly righ- 
teous and clean, yet widiin were very impure, so that 
tliey couid not see God, though he was in Christ recon- 


ciling the world to himself: notwithstanding: their nice 
discerning eyes, yet they could not see him, for the impu- 
rity of their hearts ; which was so great, that they mur- 
dered the Just One, their hearts being full of deceit and 
hyprocrisy. " Make clean the inside, that the outside 
may be clean also," says Christ: from whence it appears, 
that a true christian must be clean, both within and with- 
out also. The true beginning of tlie work of purity and 
sanctity, must be first within ; and being innocent and 
pure in heart, we shall then see the glory of the Father, 
the lovely beauty of the Son, and the power of the Holy 
Ghost, or Spirit. 

" Blessed are the peace-makers, for they shall be called 
the children of God." Verse 9. 

This peace-making is excellent work, and a blessed 
calling ; what pity it is, ,that there is not such workmen 
in the world, who would set themselves heartily to it, 
which if they did, in a right spirit, God would certainly 
prosper the work in their hands, and plentifully reward 
them with his own peace, which passeth the common 
imderstanding of the natural man. If our ingenious men, 
our men and women of skill, and good natural parts, 
would take a little pains, nay, when the case requires it, a 
great deal, tlic Almighty v/ould riclily reward them. 
This work is not too mean even for princes and no!)Ies ; 
no, not even the greatest monarchs on earth, without it 
be too mean for them to be called the children of God. 
And if the children of God are peace- makers, what, and 
whose children are they, who break the peace of nations, 
communities and families ? wherefore, we should seek 
peace with all men, and ensue it, or sue for it, by our 
continual seeking of it, being a precious jewel, when 
found ; and though this office may seem a little unthank- 
ful in the beginning, or at first, yet in the end it brings 
forth the peaceable fruits of righteousness, as many so la- 
bouring have witnessed. And Christ, to encourage the 
work, says, " They shall be called the children of God ;" 
which are words of the King of kings ; and if the princes 
of this world would promote this work among themselves, 
it would save a vast expense of treasure, and of blood ; 

Christ's sermon on the mount. 391 

and as these peace-makers are to be called the children 
of God, they who are trul}' concerned herein, are not only 
so called, but are so indeed, and in truth. 

" Blessed are they who are persecuted for righteous- 
ness sake ; for theirs is the kingdom of heaven." Verse 

Persecution may be considered in relation to calumny 
and reproach, and in imprisonments, confinements, or 
the like, or taking away life or goods on a religious ac- 
count, for conscientious scruples, &:c. What sad work 
hath there been on this account in the world, not among 
Turks and Jews only, but among professors of Christ and 
Christianity, which is indeed a great reproach to that holy 
name. Persecution for righteousness sake, is not fit for 
Turks or Jews, much less for the professors of our meek 
Lord ; his dispensation and gospel being absolutely the 
reverse of it, which is a shameful sin to all men, in all 
nations : but however, the persecuted have this comfort 
in the midst of all their sufferings, they are blessed of 
Christ their Lord ; who himself fuffered for them, and 
are promised by him the kingdom of heaven. By which 
doctrine, it may be safely concluded, that the members 
of his true church never persecuted any, though they 
have been often persecuted by many, as the large and 
voluminous books and tracts (of persecuting for religion) 
now extant, do plainly make apj)ear ; by which the eyes 
of many are open to see the ugliness of it ; and a spirit 
of moderation begins to grow and spring a little in the 
earth, in divers parts thereof. 

It were to be desired, that all christians' moderation 
might more and more increase, and might appear unto 
all men ; because God is at hand, who will justify the 
innocent (whom he knows better than any man, because 
he sees their hearts) and he will condemn none but the 
guilty. How shall the Jews be converted, or the Turks 
be convinced to, and of the verity of the christian religion, 
while its professors are tearing and rending one another 
to pieces : had it not been for the immoderation and per- 
secution among professors of Christ in Christendom, so 
called, it is probable Christianity would have made a far 


greater progress in the four quarters of the world lon^g^ 
before this time, than it hath now done. Persecution 
hath been proposed by the immoderate, to allay heals and 
divisions, and cure breaches ; but the ancient history of 
persecution, and the modern practice of it, fully convince 
us, that it hath always tended to make the hot, hotter, the 
divisions greater, and the breach wider, and so the con- 
tention to grow endless ; which nothing will end, but a 
calm and quiet temper of mind, the mind being cooled by 
the gentle influences of the Holy Spirit of Christ, the im- 
maculate Lamb ; who came not to destroy, nor devour, 
but to seek and to save that which was lost, and gone 
astray, that he might bring them home to his fold of rest, 
in his Father's kirgdom. 

" Blessed are ye when men shall revile you and perse- 
cute you, and say all manner of evil against you falsely 
for my sake." Verse 11. 

"Rejoice and be exceeding glad: for great is your 
reward in heaven ; for so persecuted they the prophets, 
who were before you." Verse, 12. 

There is a persecution as before hinted, by calumny, 
and reproach, or reviling, by evil speaking, and falsities, 
which, for the most part, it is better patiently and quiet- 
ly to suffer for Christ's sake ; and if we are abused, to 
appeal to him, for many times words beget words, till at 
last it comes to prejudice, and breaks the unity and peace 
of brethren and families ; so that in a general way one 
had better suffer the calumnies and reproaches of evil 
men, with a tender concern for God's glory, resting iii 
the blessing of Christ, and that thou wilt most surely feel 
if thou canst appeal to him on this wise, " Lord, thou 
knowest 1 suffer this wrong for thy sake." In suck 
sufferings there is an inward joy, a spiritual rejoicing ; 
and the heart of the persecuted is abundantly more glad, 
through the blessing and goodness of Christ, than the 
persecutor, whose conscience accuseth him in secret. 
And as to personal persecution, it is no more than the 
prophets, and our Lord did suffer before us : and with 
that consideration Christ comforts his suffering seed : 
'^ Those who suffer with him and his seed, these have 


ihe promise of reigning with him ;" and himself hath 
promised them a reward, no less than the kingdom of 

*' Ye are the salt of the earth : but if the salt hath lost 
its savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth 
good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden 
under foot by men." Verse 13. 

Here Christ sheweth that his followers must season the 
earth, by living a savoury life, and by walking accord- 
ing to his doctrine, whose doctrine is wonderfully set 
forth in this excellent sermon ; and if we live up to 
those holy rules, we shall then be serviceable in our gen- 
eration, and our lives will teach the people as well as 
our words, and sometimes better too, !)y how much ex- 
ample is better than precept ; and indeed christians 
ought to be careful in both ; in life to live holy, and in 
words to be sparing, observing to " Let your words be 
few and savoury, and seasoned with grace, that they may 
administer grace to the hearers." Thus should we sea- 
son the world, and salt it with the salt of the covenant ; 
but if we lose this savour of grace, and take a liberty 
which Christ and his truth do not allow of, of speaking 
at random things which are not convenient nor edifving, 
but altogether unsavoury ; then, according to our mas- 
ter, which is in heaven, we are good for nothing, but to 
be cast out (i. e. out of the church), and then we shall be 
trampled upon by men, as in truth we deserve : not that 
our bodies are to be killed or destroyed ; for the door of 
the church is always open to receive ti'ue penitents. But 
for this end and good purpose we are chastened of the 
Lord, that the soul may be saved in the day of the Lord. 
And those who know godly sorrow for their sins, and 
turning from the evil of their ways, by amendment of 
life, those Christ forgives, and adviseth his church to do 
the same, saying, " If he repent forgive him ;" which re- 
pentance is best manifested by a new life, and holy 
and blameless conversation ; for words, without works, 
are good for nothing, but to be trodden under foot of 

E e e 


" Yc are the lig-ht of the world : a city set on a hilt 
cannot be hid." Verse 14. 

True and faithiu) christians are indeed as stars in 
God's firmament, which are of excellent use to people in 
the night season, and more especially when they are not 
clouded, and in a ptirlicular manner to those who travel 
on the seas, for when they have not seen the sun for a 
season, then they are good guides to the senfaring man ; 
and likewise in the wilderness on the land ; and this 
world is like a wilderness, and like the troubled sea, to 
some poor souls ; and then good men, and good women, 
are serviceable, to reprove and instruct in rigiueousness : 
" Such (says Daniel the prophet) shall shine as the 
brightness of the firmament, and as the stars, for ever 
and ever." And these are like a city set upon a hill, 
which cannot be hid. 

*' Neither do men light a candle, and set it under a 
bushel ; but on a candlestick, and it giveth light to all 
that are in the house." Verse 15. 

Mortal men, when divinely enlightened by the grace 
and spirit of Christ, ought to exert themselves to their 
master's glory, and excite others, and stir them up to their 
duty ; and to endeavour, as much as in them lies, to pro- 
mote the kingdom and interest of our dear Lord ; for 
men are God's candles, as the scripture saith, " The 
spirit of man is the candle of the Lord ;" and this candle 
is often lighted by Christ, who " Lightcth every man 
that cometh into the world." John i. 9. and is the true 
light of the great Father of lights. The great and good 
end of Christ's lighting man's spirit, and illuminating 
him with divine light, is, that he may shine out to others, 
in a good conversation, and a holy life, \\hich is both ser- 
viceable to others, and himself also ; and*answers the end 
of him who enlightened him by the fire of his word, or 
with a coal from his holy altar ; being thus lighted and 
walking in it (as the nations of them that are saved, shall 
walk in the light of the Lamb.) Here all the house, or 
society, i& truly lighted by such lights ; and those who 
have received greater gifts, or degrees of divine light from 
'Christ, than some others, and may have a larger share of 


natural or acquired parts, ought not to " Hide it (as our 
Lord phrases it) under a bushel, but put it (in its proper 
place, or) on a candlestick ;" and as ihe candle is of lit- 
tle use when it is put out, therefore we ought to be very 
cartful to keep to vvatchfuli ess and prayer, that it be 
kept lighted in time of darkness ; for " The candle of 
the wicked is often put out." 

" Let 30ur light so shine before men, that they may 
see your good works, and glorify your Father which is 
in heaven." Verse 16. 

Since there is a bright and shining nature and quality 
m the holy lives of Christ's servants, and in the conversa- 
tion of his faithful followers, therefore it should and 
ought to be manifest, and to appear before mt^n ; our 
lamp should be burning, and our light shining ; and we 
should take care to keep holy oil in our vessels, that 
therewith our lamps may be supplied, otherwise folly in- 
stead of wisdom will appear in our conversations, M'hich 
will be a hindrance (when our great bridegroom cometh) 
to our entrance into life, or God's kingdom, and greatly 
hindereth our Master's glory, which by all means we are 
to endeavour the furtherance of : and men generally take 
more notice of our evil works, and, when an evil eve is 
open, will sooner see them, than our good ones ; so that 
we had need to be very careful, and keep a holy watch in 
our conversations, that our light may so shine, as that our 
Father who is in heaven may be glorified, in our bring- 
ing forth much good fruit. 

" Think not that I am come to destroy the law or 
prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil." 
Verse 17. 

" For verily I say unto you, till heaven and earth 
pass, one jot, or one tittle shall in no wise pass from ihe 
law, till all be fulfilled." Verse 18. 

The excellency of the dispensation of the glorious 
gospel of Jesus Christ is really wonderful ! having no 
manner of tendency toward destioying the law of God 
given by Moses ; for Christ's doctrine comes up 
through it, fulfils it, and goes beyond it, in perfection, 
and in the beauty of holiness, and in the life and power of 
pure religion. 


" The law, (saith the apostle) is a schoolmaster, to 
bring us to Christ;" and no man can come truly to 
Christ, nor be in him, or be a new creature, without 
coming through the law, and keeping the command- 
ments ; but these commandments are to be distinguish- 
ed from the superstitious traditions, and ceremonious 
customs of the Jews. The scribes and pharisees (who 
though they sat in Moses' seat) did not do as Moses did; 
but crucified him whom Moses prophesied of, saying, 
" The Lord your God shall raise up a prophet from 
•among your brethren, like unto me, unto him shall ye 
hearken." Christ and his disciples teach the law, though 
not the traditions of the Jews ; who were very careful of 
their small tithes, of their own interest, though but of, or 
in small things, neglecting the weighty matters of the 
law, which is in no wise to be passed by, but to be ful- 
filled while heaven and earth endure. 

Now the law and commandments which our I^ord 
spoke of, are generally understood to be those ten com- 
mandments recorded in the 20th chapter of Exodus, with 
other absolute conmiands written by Moses (distinguish, 
ed from the Jews traditions) and such as were general to 
mankind : for Christ is the general Saviour, both of the 
Jews, and also of the gentiles, who believe in, and obey 
him : and that those commandments may the more be 
minded, and taken notice of, and imprinted in people's 
thoughts, they are here, in part, transcribed out of the 
20th chapter of Exodus. 

" I. Thou shalt have no other Gods before me. 

II. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, 
or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or in 
the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth : 
thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them. 

III. Thou shalt not take the jiame of the Lord thy 
God in vain : for the Lord will not hold him guiltless 
that takcth his name in vain. 

IV. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. 

V. Honour thy father and thy mother : that thy days 
may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God 
giveth thee. 

Christ's sermon on the mount. 39r 

VI. Thou shalt not kill. 

VII. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 

VIII. Thou shalt not steal. 

IX. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy 

X. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, nor 
his wife, nor his man-servtmt, nor his maid- servant, nor 
his ox, nor his ass; nor any thing that is thy neighbour's." 

All which our holy Lord Jesus Christ fulfilled in his 
own person, and taught it to the people, as this his most 
holy sermon will witness abundantly : and all who pro- 
fess his great name, must, and ought to teach the same. 

" Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least 
commandments, and teach men so, he shall be called the 
kast in the kingdom of heaven ; but whosoever shall do 
and teach them, the same shall be called great in the 
kingdom of heaven." Verse 19. 

Here we are strictl}^ enjoined, as we value our reputa- 
tion in heaven, both to do, and to teach, the command- 
ments, and law of Moses ; though not the ordinances, 
commandments, or traditions, of the scribes. Now the 
scribes and pharisecs taught divers good things in words, 
as we understand by Christ, " But (says he) be ye not 
like unto them ; for they say, and do not:" example 
being often of more force and power than precept : they 
might have said as some of our modern scribes do, to the 
people, " You must not do as we do ; but do as we say :" 
but, according to Christ, this will not serve their turn ; 
for he shuts the gates of heaven against all them (and all 
such) though his own hearers, as in the next verse. 

" For I say unto you, except your righteousness shall 
exceed that of the scribes and pharisees, ye shall in no 
case enter the kingdom of heaven." Verse 20. 

Those scribes and pharisees had a righteousness, but 
it was one of their own making, an outside one only ; 
whereas, within they were full of deceit and hypocrisy ; 
they cried up righteousness in words, and yet cried out 
against him who taught it in the greatest purity, and 
sought his destruction ; they were notable examples to 
all persecutors for religion. Our Lord, and his servants, 


(lid not, nor do not, speak against outward holiness, so as 
tlie inside be the same ; for a Hving man hath both inside 
and out ; so has Hving righteousness an inward and out- 
ward purity, which is manifest by its fruit ; and those 
fruits are fruits of the sjnrit, which are, " Love, meek- 
ness, temperance, patience, experience, hope, and cha- 
rity or brotherly love;" of which those people shewed 
very little to Christ ; he was very sensible of their envy 
and malice, which were very contrary fruits to holiness ; 
and therefore he tells them that hear him, that their 
*' Righteousness must exceed that of the scribes and 
pharisees, or they in no case shall enter the kingdom of 

" Ye ha-s e heard that it was said by them of old time. 
Thou shalt not kill ; and whosoever shall kill, shall be in 
danger of the j udgement : ' ' Verse 21. 

" But I say unto you, that whosoever is angry with his 
brother without a cause, shall be in danger of the judge- 
ment ; and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, 
shall be in danger of the council ; but whosoever shall 
say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire." Verse 

Here we may learn that the law j^rovided ' nothing 
against anger, only in this case, against shedding of 
blood ; and many times if anger is too much kindled, it 
sets the soul on fire of hell, if it be not timely quenched. 
People, as it grows hotter, call one another out of their 
names, and take the name of the Lord in vain, break the 
third commandment, swearing by him, and cursuig of 
men : we may plainly see by Christ's doctrine, that the 
first degree of anger (without cause) is dangerous ; but 
the second is very dangerous. Soft words from a sedate 
mind will wonderfully help in this case : it is not easily 
conceived what a mighty advantage satan hath upon one 
that is angry without a caus& : and we are often apt to 
think "\ve have cause when we have none at all ; and then 
we make work for repentance, without which we are in 
danger of hell fire. Wherefore every true christian ought 
to watch against the evil of anger ; and yet there may be 
anger (where there is real cause) without sin. 

Christ's sermon on thk mount. 39^ 

** Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there 
rememberest that thy brother hath ought agaiubt thee." 
Verse 23. 

" Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way, 
first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and of- 
fcr thy gift." Verse 24. 

The cliristian religion admits of no malice nor guile ; 
the worship of it is in spirit and truth, and love, without 
hypocrisy, without deceit or hatred : if ^ve come to the 
altar, this will hinder our acceptance. Though we may 
indeed have a gift, we are to seek reconciliation, and not 
say, let him come to me, I will not go to him ; but 
Christ tells us we must go to him ; and if thou go to 
the offended, in a meek and christian spirit, and seek 
reconciliation, if thy brother will not be reconciled, if the 
fault be in him, thou hast done thy duty, and thy gift will 
be received, and Christ will manifest himself to thee by 
his grace and spirit. But }'ct art thou to seek for peace, 
he having ordained it, and laid it as a duty incumbent 
on thee. 

" Agree with thine adversary quickly, whilst thou art 
in the way with him : lest at any time the adversary de- 
liver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the 
©fficer, and thou be cast into prison." Verse 25. 

'* Verily I say unto tliee, thou shalt by no means come 
©ut thence, till thou paid the uttermost farthing." 
Verse 26. 

It is plain from hence, that Jesus is for a quick and 
speedy end to differences; says he "Agree with hi ni 
(juickly ;" for it is of dangerous consequence to let dis- 
agreements lay long, it eats like a canker, and it destroys 
the very nature of religion. Personal differences are a 
great hurt to families, to churches, and to nations, and 
countries, especially when espoused by parties ; then 
what rending, tearing, and devouring work it makes : 
wherefore take Christ's council, and agree quickly ; and 
if the difference be on the account of debt, as is often 
likely, if the debt be just, it is better to offer up one's 
self and all that he has in the world, thaii to stand out with 
one's adversary, till it come to the utmost extremity ; and 


for christians to go to law one with anotlicr, is conti'ary 
to the apostle's advice ; and oftentimes the gainer of the 
cause, loses by going to law ; so that it is good to agree 
quickly ; it being profitable so to do, both spiritually and 

" Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, 
Thou shalt not commit adultery :" Verse 27. 

'' But I say unto you, whosoever looketh on a woman 
to lust after her, hath committed adultery with her already 
in his heart." Verse 28. 

The law was against adultery; but the gospel is against 
lust ; and where there is no lust, there can be no adul- 
tery ; for then the occasion of adultery is taken away ; 
and the cause being taken away, the effect of course ceas- 
eth. Behold the chaste and pure doctrine of Christ, and 
his holy dispensation, greatly^ excelling the law^, or Mo- 
saic dispensation ! Our blessed Saviour doth not admit 
of an unchaste or lustful looking upon women ; much 
less of immodest salutations, touches, embraces, or dis- 
courses, which all tend to beget lust in the hearts of men; 
and lust conceived, brings forth sin ; and sin when fin- 
ished, brings forth death to the soi^. 

" And if thine right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and 
cast it from thee ; for it is profitable for thee that one of 
thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body" 
should be cast into hell." Verse 29. 

" And if thy right hand ofliendthee, cut it off, and cast 
it from thee ; for it is profitable for thee that one of thy 
members should perish, and not that tliy whole body 
should be cast into hell." Verse 30. 

Christ compares the sinful lusts and inclinations, which 
are the cause of men's destruction, and their being cast 
into hell, to a right eye, or a right hand (two of the most 
useful and serviceable members of the body), not that he 
intended that we should cut off our natural members, 
but that we should cut off these sinful lusts, and cast them 
from us, though they were as a right eye, or hand. Now, 
observe, it is very much against nature, and very pain- 
ful to pull out an eye, or cut off a hand ; so sin, of many 
kinds, is very agreeable to nature, or the natural man. 


tmd it is very hard for him to part with it ; he pleads the 
use of it, and when Christ, the ph3'sician of the soul, 
comes to put his incision knife to it (which is his word) 
poor man is too apt to fly from it, and to shrink from 
under its holy stroke : the holy baptist, John, under- 
standing our Lord's doctrine, and being sensible of the 
powerful working of Christ's word and spirit, says, 
" Now is the ax laid to the root of the trees, therefore 
every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit, is hewn 
down and cast into the fire ;" which fire is nothing less 
than hell, which, without repentance, and amendment of 
life, will be our portion. 

"It hath been said, whosoever shall put away his 
wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement." Verse 

" But I say unto you, that whosoever shall put away 
his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her 
to commit adultery : and whosoever shall marry her 
that is divorced, committeth adultery." Verse 32. 

The great husband of souls here plainly sheweth that 
husbands should be tender to then- wives ; and his apos- 
tle says, " Be not bitter against them." Men and their 
wives ought to live together in love, and be good ex- 
amples to their children and servants ; and not part one 
from another, except for the cause of fornication ; and 
that should be proved ; for some men are only jealous 
of their wives, and some without a cause; and where 
there is cause, as a man may think, it ought to be clearly 
proved before they part from one another : a man ought 
to be tender of his wife, as of his own body ; "for they 
two are one flesh." Men and their wives are often too 
apt to magnify one another's faults, and to put the worst 
construction upon each other's words and actions, when 
they differ, which widens breaches, instead of healing 
them : whereas love and true charity, and putting tlie 
best, and not the worst construction on things, would 
chase away wrath, strife, and hatred; and though Mo- 
ses gave the Jews that permission of divorcement, for 
the hardness of their hearts; yet christians ought to live 
so, that there should be no need of it amongst them. 



And IF cliristians do part upon the account of fornica- 
tion (for thty are not permitied to part on any other ac- 
count by Christ, as above) they are to marry no more, 
while each other live ; for if they do, they are pronounc- 
ed by Christ, to be adulterers and adulteresses. 

" Again ye have heard, that it hath been said by them 
cf old time, thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt 
perform unto the Lord thine oaths." Verse 33. 

'* But I say unto you, swear not at all, neither by hea- 
ven, for it is God's throne :" Verse 34. 

" Nor by the earth, for it is his footstool : neither by Je- 
rusalem, for it is the city of the great king." Verse S5. 

" Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou 
canst not make one hair white or black." Verse 36» 

"But let your comniunicntion be yea, yea ; nay, nay ; 
for whatsoever is more than these, cometh of evil." 
Verse 37. 

It was allowed to the Jews to vow to the Lord, and 
swear by his name, provided they perform their vows 
and oaths. But here our Lord prohibits and disallows, 
or abolishes all swearing, with an " I say unto you, swear 
not at all." Though our swearing christians will have 
it, that he here prohibits only vain swearing, or common 
swearing, which cannot be, because the oaths he here 
speaks of were solemn, and to the Lord. And the apos- 
tle James tells us, " We must not swear by any oath." 
Neither did the primitive christians swear at all ; and 
christians ought to be so just in their conversations, as 
that their solemn words or promises would give them 
credit without any need of oaths. If occasion or need be, 
thou hast liberty to add yea to thy yea, and nay to thy 
nay, or soiemn words equivalent to it ; and if more be 
evil, it must also be evil to require more, and that it is 
evil if it be more (as all vows and oaths are) we have 
Christ for our author, a good foundation to build upon. 

" Ye have heard that it hath been said, an eye for an 
eye, and a tooth for a tooth." Verse 38. 

" But I say unto you, that ye resist not evil : but who- 
soever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him 
the other abo." Verse 39. 

Christ's sermon on the mount. 40i 

" And if any man will sue thee at the law, and take 
away thy coat, let him have , thy. cloak also." Verse 40. 

There was room and libeilyj by the law of Moses for 
a man to revenge hinis^if, it. he had an injury done to 
him ; but Christ teacheth patient suffering ; we are not 
to give any offence, but we are to take them quietly for 
his sake, in which Jesus was an excellent example to us, 
whose sufferings were not for himself, but for us ; he 
turned his cheek to the smiter, and his face to those that 
plucked off the hair : but to a nun of courage and choler, 
this indeed is no small cross ; but he must deny himself, 
and take up Christ's cross daily, and follow him, if he 
will be his disciple : and as for the law, it is better never 
to meddle with it, in a general way ; and if thy coat by 
law is taken away, thou hadst better give him thy cloak, 
than stand out anothi^r trial with him : and it is much if 
thou art not a gainer by so doing. But the gain is not 
urged as the best motive : but obedience to Christ, our 
great Lord, and good master ; who said, " If ye love me, 
keep my commandments." 

" And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go 
with him twain." Verse 41. 

It can hardly be supposed that any would take the 
pains to force or violently compel a man to go a mile 
with him, unless upon some extraordinary occasion : but 
many times through over persuasion, or much invitation, 
one may be in that sense compelled to do that which one 
is not inclined to, and in such case, we are to be liberal 
in answerinsj the love and good will of our friend, so 
compelling us : for love begets love, and cannot easily 
be withstood, as in the parable of the wedding, or mar- 
riage supper ; they were to be compelled to come to it ; 
we are not to understand by outward constraint, or cru- 
elty, but by the force and power of love ; divine love has 
a great power, and is of a compelling nature, according 
to this distinction, atid consideration ; and then we should 
be unkind, and ungrateful, if we did not answer with 
suitable returns. 

" Gi\'e to him that asketh thee, and from him that 
would borrow of thee, turn not thou away." Verse 42. 


We are here to suppose the asker to be in real want 
and necessity, and the borrower also to stand in need, 
and the asked to be in a capacity, and of abiUty to sup- 
ply and assist the asker, and borrower ; and then in such 
Ciise we are by no means to refuse to give to him thi^ 
asketh, nor to turn away from him who would borrow 
of us, and if we are not in a capacity to supply, then 
to use mild and friendly expressions ; for christians 
should be courteous and kind to all, and particularly to 
the distressed. And if we think the askers or borrow- 
ers are not worthy or deserving for their own sakes, we 
should, if need be, give and lend for Christ's sake, and 
in obedience to him, though it cross our own inclina- 

" Ye have heard that it hath been said, thou shalt love 
thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy." Verse 43. 

" But I say unto you, love your enemies, bless them 
that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray 
for them who despitefully use you, and persecute you." 
Verse 44. 

" That ye may be the children of your Father who is 
in heaven, for he nnaketh his sun to rise upon the evil, 
and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just, and on 
the unjust." Verse 45. 

The Hebrews had liberty to hate their enemies, but 
we have not understood that ever any people, by any 
dispensation, had any liberty to hate their neighbours or 
friends: so that those who arc in that state, are far be- 
yond the line of truth. But, says our holy Lawgiver, 
*' I say unto you, love your enemies." If we love our 
enemies, we can in no wise destroy them, although it 
were in our power. Again, " Bless them that curse 
you." But, alas ! how apt are men (and even those, 
who would think it hard to be told they are disobedient 
to Christ), to render railing for railing, and cursing for 
cursing, instead of blessing. (Do good to them who 
hate you.) If we are sensible of any body who hates 
us, and have real demonstration of it (for sometimes we 
imagine it, when it is not so), yet are we to do them all 
the good turns we can. (And pray for them who 4e,- 


spitefully use you, and persecute you.) Thus we are 
not to n nder evil lor evil, but to overcome the evil with 
that which is good. Sweet was our Lord's example to 
us in this, when he said, " Father, forgive them, for 
they know not what they do." If spiteful persecutors 
did really know what they do, when they persecute the 
just, their damnation must needs be very great ; but if 
we do good for evil, as Christ hath taught, then are we 
the children of our heavenly Father, " Who maketh his 
sun to rise on the evil, and on the good, and sendeth 
rain on the just, and on the unjust." 

" For if ye love them who love you, what reward 
have ye? do not even the publicans the same?" Verse 46. 

" And if ye salute your brethren only, what do vou 
more than others? do not even the publicans so ?" Verse 

Our virtue is much more shining in loving those who 
do not love us, than in loving those who do ; and it is 
natural for us to love them who love us, and we should 
be ungrateful if we did not ; but the reward is greater, 
if we love them who do not love us, which must be 
manifested in deeds, as well as words : for saying and 
doing sometimes are two things, which made the apos- 
tle say, " Our love must not be with word, and with 
tongue only, but in deed and in truth." Also publicans 
(men by the Jews ranked v/ith sinners, when they said, 
he eateth with publicans and sinners), they do so. i. e. 
love those who love them. 

And as to friendly and hearty salutations, that may 
be necessary or needful, we should not only manifest 
them to our brethren, but as occasion requires to all, it 
being a shining virtue in christians to be kind to stran- 
gers, and to shew forth a generous and loving temper 
and deportment to such as may not be of us ; though 
not by a flattering, modish, or complimental way, yet 
hearty and respectful, according to the plainness of 
Christ, and the simplicity of his gospel, without respect 
of persons, respect being generally, or too generally, 
shown to high, more than to them of low degree. As 
we are not to refuse our friendly salutations to the great, 


or the rich, so we are not to neglect the poor, lor the 
pubUcans do so. 

" Be ye there lore perfect, even as your Father which 
is in heaven is perLct." Verse 48. 

Clirist would have us to be perfect in the practice of 
his doctrine, and to live up to it in perfect obedience, 
according to the best of our judi^ements and understand- 
ings, and not to do his work by halves, but honestly 
and perfectly, according to the measure of grace receiv- 
ed, some have received twice, some thrice so much as 
some others, as the parable of talents plainly showeth : 
So that what discoveries or manifestations of grace, light, 
or truth, we have received, we ought to walk up to 
them perfectly ; " Even as your Father which is in 
heaven is perfect." As the Aimlghty is perfect in his 
love, justice, mercy, grace, and truth, unto poor mor- 
tals, in Christ Jesus, his only begotten, and in all his 
works ; so ought we to be perfect in our known duty : 
as it is written, " Ye shall be holy, for I the Lord your 
God am holy." So must we be according to our de- 
gree of grace received. 

It is supposed that no body will imagine that any mor- 
tal can come up in degree with the Almighty, but ac- 
cording to our measure, gift, and degree of grace re- 
ceived, we are to be holy and perfect, as God, our heav- 
enly Father, and Christ, our dear Lord, are so in ful- 

*' Take heed that yc do not your alms before men, to 
be seen of them, otherwise ye have no reward of your 
Father which is in heaven." Chap. vi. verse 1. 

'' Therefore when thou dost thine alms, do not sound 
a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do, in the syna- 
gogues and in the streets, that they may have glory of 
men : verily I say unto you, they have their reward." 
Verse 2. 

" But when thou dost alms, let not thy left hand know 
what thy right hand doth :" Verse 3. 

" That thine alms may be in secret, and thy Father 
which seeth in secret, himself shall reward thee openly." 
Verse 4. 


The christian reliction, in its purity, according to the 
doctrine of the founder of it, is a compassionate religion, 
and full of pity, as well as piety. It is a holy composi- 
tion of charity, and goodness. I'he apostle thus de- 
scribes it ; " The pure religion, and that which is unde- 
filed before God and the Father, is this, to visit the 
fatherless, and widows, in their afiiiction ; and to keep 
himself unspotted from the world." This is pure relig- 
ion, and this is the christian religion : happy are those 
who walk up to it, and live according to the precepts of 
him who dictated them ; then the wido'.vs and the father- 
less would not be neglected : the poor would be very 
generously taken care of, and our garments kept clean, 
and all done as secretly as may be. For when we pro- 
claim our alms-deeds, and charity, we lose our reward 
from our heavenly Father. Also when alms is given it 
ought to be done in the spirit of love and meekness, and 
so received ; else the receiver loses a second benefit, and 
the giver his heavenly reward. To give to the poor is to 
lend to him that made us, and we shall have good and 
greater measure returned us again. If we hope to have 
the gates of Christ's kingdom opened to us at last, our 
hearts must also be opened to the poor and needy, when 
in distress : remembering the words of Christ, where he 
says to some who were waiting for, and wanting an en- 
trance into the kingdom, saying, " Lord, Lord, open 
unto us ;" he tells them, " 1 was hungry, and ye gave 
me no meat ; I was naked and ye clothed me not. 
I was sick, and in prison, and yc visited me not." 
They answered, " Lord, when saw we thee hungry, 
naked, sick, or in prison, and did not feed thee, clothe 
thee, and visit thee ?" He answers, " In as much as 
ye did it not to one of these which believe in my name, 
ye did it not to me." He sympathiseth with his poorest 
and meanest members, whatever others do, and takes 
that done to them, as done to himself, whether it be good 
or bad. We should be good to all, but especially to 
Christ's members, or the household of the faithful keep- 
ers of his commandments : and alms-deeds have the ap- 
probation of goodness from tlic universal testimony of 


all men, In a general way. Our alms being thus distrib- 
uied aeeording to our abilit\ , and the neeessilies ol the 
object, without ostentation, and in secret, our niunifi- 
cent Father, who sees in secret, will openly reward us. 

How many rich men are there in the world, who have 
miide great and costly entertainments for their rich 
friends, neighbours, and relations (and if their substance 
be so great, that it is not felt by them, they had the 
more need to remember the poor); when they never so 
much as spare the tithe of it to them, though the poor 
liave ten times the need of it, and though Christ says, 
" When thou makest a feast, invite not thy rich friends, 
for they will invite thee agiiin ; but call the poor, the 
lame, and the blind," &c. 

" And vvhen thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the 
hvpocrites are, for they love to pray standii.g in the syn- 
agogues, and in the corners of the streets, that they 
may be seen of men ; verily I say unto you, they have 
their reward." Verse 5. 

" But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet;, 
and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father 
which is in secret, and thy Father which seeth in secret 
shall reward thee openly." Verse 6. 

" But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions, as the 
heathen do : for they think they shall be heard for their 
much speaking." Verse 7. 

" Be not ye therefore like unto them ; for your Fa- 
ther knoweth what things ye have need of before you 
ask him." Verse 8. 

Prayer is absolutely necessary for the being and well- 
being of an inward reformed christian ; an outside for- 
mal christian may use the form, though unreformed ; 
but it availeth little without reformation. And private 
prayer, according to Christ's rule, is effectual and re- 
wardable, agreeable to his doctrine. He also speaks 
against hypocrisy, and loving to be seen of men, witli 
a command not to be like unto them. " But thou, when 
thou prayest, enter into thy closet." When we feel, 
and are sensible of a divine call, this must of course be 
the right and best time (for Christ has not set us a dis- 

<:HRIST's sermon on the MOUNt. 4019 

tinct hour), then we are to enter into the closet of an 
humble heart or mind, or some secret place in private. 
This is Christ's order for particular persons in a general 
way ; but is not intended to prevent such who are rightly 
concerned to pray in the public assemblies, or gathering 
of the church; for we have Christ for our example, who 
prayed openly and publicly with his disciples. 

" But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions, as the 
heathens do ; for they think to be heard for their much 
speaking." Formal repetitions of prayer, repeated day 
by day, when they are not according (but contrary) to tiic 
states of tliose to whom they are read or repeated, must 
needs be vain, and people may vainly make use of the 
Lord's own form in that case (though it is the best in the 
world), and to think to be heard for their much speak- 
ing, is to run into the error of the heathen. " Be not 
ye (says Christ) therefore like unto them ; for your Fa- 
ther knoweth what things ye have need of, before ye ask 
him." Prayer is a gift from God, and from Christ, and 
as we wait on God in Christ's name and power, he will 
give us that gift, when he sees we stand in need of it, 
or it will be for our edification. For he has promised to 
pour out the spirit of prayer, and of supplication, upon 
his people. And our great apostle said, *' If he prayed, 
he would pray with the spirit." In another place he 
says, " We know not what we should pray for, as we 
ought ; but the spirit itself maketh intercession for us, 
with groanings that cannot be uttered." Likewise the 
same apostle says, *' The spirit also helpeth our infir- 
mities." Those had not found out the way of reading 
prayers unto the people in common, neither of making 
of them ; though it will be acknowledged that it had as 
much of the mind of Christ, as any of our modern 
prayer makers or sayers ; and since there is no form like 
that of Christ's, it is here set down, that people might 
take diligent care to learn it, and to teach it to their 
children. But if they learn it rightly, they must also 
learn to live in it: that is, live according to it ; other- 
wise they will mock, instead of serving him, who made 


both it and them for his own honour, and the glory of 
his name. 

" Alter this manner therefore pray ye : Our Father 
who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name." Verse 9. 

*' Thy kingdom eome : thy will be done in eardi, as 
it is in heaven." Verse 10. 

" Give us this day our daily bread." Verse 11. 

" And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debt- 
ors." Verse 12. 

" And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us 
from evil ; for thine is the kiiigdom, and the power, and 
the glory, forever. Amen." Verse 13. 

" For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heav- 
enly Father will also forgive you." Verse 14. 

" But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither 
Avill your Father forgive your trespasses." Verse 15. 

A short form, and but few words, but of excellent 
composition. And truly happy are those, who live so 
in their conversation, that they may, when they use 
them, do it without falsehood, or deceit ; enjoying the 
answer of peace in the practice of them, and the sense 
of grace influencing the soul. 

1st. " Our Father who art in heaven." The great 
Creator is indeed our Universal Father, hath made us 
all, and all nations, of one blood ; but there is another, 
a nearer relation than this, to be a child of God by re- 
generation ; for otherwise, if we live in an unregenerate 
state, in our natural sms and lusts, all which are of 
satan, then Christ says, " Ye are of your father the 
devil ; and the lusts of your father ye will do;'' a strong 
reason ; but in another place, " Whosoever shall do the 
will of my Father who is in heaven, the same is my 
brother, and sister, and mother." It is into this rela- 
tion that the soul ought to come, that can truly and re- 
ligiously say, " Our Father," he. 

2d. " Hallowed be thy name." Do we sanctify the 
holy name of the God of the whole earth ? Do we re- 
ligiously observe to fear and serve him ? Do we pro- 
fune his awful name, by taking it in vain, and living 


in sin and vanity ? Which, instead of hallowing and 
sanctifying his name, is to dishonour and reproach it on 
our part, though he will hallow and honour his own 
name in justice and judgemei.t, on profane and ungodly 
livers, at the last day, when he shall come to judge the 
quick and the dead by Jesus Christ ; God will not be 
mocked ; such as every one sows, such shall they reap, 
Tvhether sin unto death, or righteousness unto life. 

3d. "Thy kingdom come." His kingdom is a king- 
dom of righteou sness. Happy souls! who seek the right- 
eousness of it betimes, and continue in it to the end. 
If this kingdom come, satan's (which is a kingdom of 
sin and unrighteousness) must needs fall. 

Oh ! that the rising generation might be strong to 
overcome the wicked one, and to be instruments to 
pull down his kingdom, and promote the kingdom of 
God, and his Christ ; and if we do not believe that sa- 
tan's poMx^r and kingdom may and ought to be destroyed 
in us, how can we pray without hypocrisy for the com- 
ing of God's holy kingdom ? Believing we must live 
and die in sin, is a great support to satan's kingdom, 
and a great hindrance of the coming of the kingdom of 
the dear Son of God. 

4th. " Thy will be done in earth as it is in heaven." 
Most certainly the will of God is punctually and per- 
fectly done in heaven : hardly any who makes use of this 
blessed form but believes it; but this is the misery of 
many souls, to believe it not possible for them to do 
God's will here on earth, as it is done in heaven. So 
that such pray in unbelief, or without a true faith ; as 
the apostle says, " What is not of faith is sin." Is it 
not also a kind of charging Christ with commanding 
that which cannot be done ? It is worthy our sedate 
consideration. He hath sown grace, and ought in jus- 
tice to reap it .from all mortals. The great sower, Christ, 
sows in all sorts of men or grounds : the grace of God 
appears to all men; and teaches them to deny ungodli- 
ness and worldly lusts, to live soberly, and righteously, 
and godly, in the present world. But antichrist teaches, 
that it cannot be done here on earth as in heaven. 


5th. " Give us this day our daily bread." We not 
being capable, without his blesshig, of procuring our 
bodies or souls bread, either natural or supernatural ; 
and because our souls cannot live without the last, no 
more than our bodies without the first, therefore we 
ought to pray to our heavenly and most holy Father for 
both, without doubting : and this should be done daily, 
either in words, holy sighing, or spiritual groans, the 
Almighty knowing the language of the soul in the one, 
as well the other. 

6th. " Forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.'* 
Or, as one of the evangelists hath it, " Our trespasses, 
as we forgive them who trespass against us :" which is 
to the same end and purpose. For if a debtor is indebt- 
ed to us, and happens, through some accident or other, 
to be insolvent, and hath not wherewith to pay, we are 
to forgive him, else how can we expect God to forgive 
us. For we are all his debtors, and have nothing (that 
we can call our own, in a religious way) to pay that great 
debt, which we owe to him, our mighty creditor ; who 
might lawfully cast us into an eternal jail. But, Oh ! 
his infinite mercy and love is very great to us, poor mor- 
tals : and he would have us to imitate him, and forgive 
one another, as we expect he should forgive us. And 
since oiFences and trespasses Avill come, we must for- 
give, and the more freely, when the person offending 
sues, by humble petition, to the offended for it. Then 
if we forgive not, neither will our heavenly Father for- 
give us our trespasses. 

7th. " And lead us not into temptation, but deliver 
us from all evil ; for thine is the kingdom, the power, 
and the glory, for ever. Amen." 

That is to lead us into truth and righteousness, which 
is the same with leading us out of sin, and out of temp- 
tation : for we pray to be led out of it, by praying not 
to be led into it : seeing we are not to understand that 
the Almighty will tempt any man to evil. " If (says the 
apostlej any man is tempted, let him not say that he is 
tempted of God, for God tempteth no man, but he is 
tempted when he is drawn away of his own lust." 


Though he doth sometimes permit and suffer us to be 
tempted, and when we fall into divers temptations, and 
eseape them, we have cause to be joyful, and thankful 
that we are delivered out of them, and to give the glory 
to God, who is the great preserver of men : whose " is 
the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ;^ver. 

*' Moreover, when ye fast, be not as the hypocrites, 
of a sad countenance, for they disfigure their faces, that 
they may appear unto men to fast ; verily, I say unto you, 
they have their rewaid." Verse 16. 

" But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine head, and 
wash thy face." Verse 17. 

" That thou appear not unto men to fast, but imto thy 
Father which is in secret, and thy Father which seeth 
in secret shall reward thee openly." Verse 18. 

Christ would have all our works of piety, virtue, and 
charity, all our religious duties, done in the divine love, 
and filial fear of God, and not for vain glory, or osten- 
tation : and truly, without we expect our reward from 
men, there is no need of an outward, hypocritical show, 
in such extraordinary duties, as that is of fasting, when 
truly called to it, and truly performed ; which the Jews 
were much in the practice of : but being formal hypo- 
crites (many of them) in it, our Lord reprehends them, 
and warns his own hearers to shun the like deceit ; and 
tells them, if they fast secretly, their heavenly Father 
will reward them openly : yet we must not be open sin- 
ners, nor private ones neither : for open or public sin 
is damniiig, if not repented of, and forsaken, as well as 
private deceit. 

" Lay not up for yourslves treasure upon earth, where 
moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break 
through and steal." Verse 19. 

" But lay up for yourselves treasure in heaven, where 
neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do 
not break through nor steal." Verse 20. 

" For where your treasure is, there will your heart 
be also." Verse 21. 


Earthly treasures are very apt to take up tlie mind, 
and to draw it from licavcn, and because Christ would 
have his childrm to be in heaven with him, in tender 
love he adviseih them not to lay up for themselves riches 
or treasure on earth. If it be said we lay it up for our 
children, it may be said also, it is the same snare for 
them, as to the parents, and sometimes a greater ; and 
when it is gotten, it is liable to many casualties, and 
creates a great deal of care and trouble ; wherefore 
Christ tenderly adviseth to seek after, and lay up an- 
other treasure, of another nature, in another, a safer 
and better place, which will not be liable to the like 
casualties of the former treasure and place, and urgetli 
us to it, w ith this great reason ; " For where your treas- 
ure is, there will your hearts be also." Oh ! may every 
true christian's treasure and heart be there forever. 

*' The light of the body is the eye, if therefore thine 
eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light." 
Verse 22. 

" But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be 
full of darkness : if therefore the light which is in thee 
be darkness, how great is that darkness." Verse 23. 

It is not good to look on men nor things with an evil 
eye ; but singly to look on one's self and others, in the 
fear of God, having a single and singular eye to his 
glory ; and then being enlightened by his divine light, 
we shall discern between good and evil ; whereas if there 
be any double dealings, or looking or thinking ; or if 
ungodly self be in the bottom, and not the glory of 
God ; then our light is turned into darkness, and that 
darkness will be very great ; as it is said in the holy 
scriptures, a double minded man is unstable in all his 
ways : so that our Saviour's doctrine is good ; to have 
a single eye, and to avoid all double dealing. 

" No man can serve two masters ; for he will either 
hate the one and love the other ; or else he will hold to 
the one, and despise the other : ye cannot serve God and 
mammon." Verse 24. 

We cannot give our hearts to God, and to this world, 
and the things of it also, so as to set our affections pji 


both, as saith the apostle, " If any man love the world, 
the love of the Father is not in him." And again, " The 
love of money is the root of all evil ;' i. e. the inordinate 
love of it, seeking after it, and serving of, and for it, 
more than for our Maker and Saviour. Then let us des- 
pise the world and the things of it, in comparison of our 
God, and our Saviour. We do not understaiid by those 
words of Christ, that he intended to debar us from seek- 
ing a comfortal:)le accommodation for ourselves and fam- 
ilies, in this world ; but that we should not set our hearts 
and affections upon it j for we cannot equally affect both 
heaven and earth. 

*' Therefore I say unto you, take no thought for your 
life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink ; nor yet 
for your body, what ye shall put on : is not the life 
more than meat, and the body than raiment ?" Verse 25. 

" Behold the fowls of the air: for they sow not, nei- 
ther do they reap, nor gather into barns ; yet your heav- 
enly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than 
they ?" 

Christ would have us without anxious thoughts about 
Gur livings in this world, i. e. about our eating, drink- 
ing, and cloathhig, and tells us, " That the life is more 
than meat, and the body than raiment;" by which he 
shows us, that he which gave the life, will, by his prov- 
idence, supi)ort it ; and as he hath formed the body, he 
Avill form that M^hich must feed it ; and that we might 
the more depend upon God's providence, he brings us 
to learn, or teaches us by the fowls of the air, who nei- 
ther sow nor reap, nor gather into barns, and yet their 
great Creator feedeth them ; and asks, if we are not muck 
better than they ? So that we being more noble crea- 
tures, need not doubt of the care and providence of 
God, and his blessing on the labour of our hands ; though 
our hearts are not concerned unnecessarily about it, but 
we have freely given them to God, and his Christ, our 

" Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit 
to his stature," Verse 27. 


The farmers or planters cannot by their thoiightful- 
ness cause their corn, fruits, or cattle, to multiply or 
grow ; nor the tradesman his custom, goods, or business 
(without a proper application, which our Saviour is not 
against only he would have us without an incumbered 
and over-caring mind.) The merchant likewise, by all 
his thoughtfulness, cannot bring home his ship from far, 
nor carry her safe to her desired port. All things on this 
wise are in the hands of Almighty God, and it is our 
duty to trust in him, and to depend upon his divine prov- 
idence, for meat, drink, and cloathing, for happiness 
here, and hereafter, forever. 

" And why take ye thought for raiment ? consider the 
lilies of the field how they grow ; they toil not, neither 
do they spin." Verse 28. 

" And yet I say unto you, that even Solomon, in all 
his glory, was not arrayed like one of these." Verse 29. 

" Wherefore if God so clothes the grass of the field, 
which to day is, and to-morrow is cast into the oven, 
shall he not much more clothe you. Oh! ye of little faith." 
Verse 30. 

" Therefore take no thought, saying, what shall we 
eat, or what shall we drink, or wherewithal shall \vq be 
clothed?" Verse 51. 

" (For after all these things the gentiles seek) for your 
heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need of all these 
things." Verse 32. 

Many people now, as well as tlien, are very fond of 
their clothing, and love to be gay and fashionable therein, 
and some are not a little proud of their clothes, and are 
not a little thoughtful how they may deck themselves to 
be admired : when our plain Lord, who wore a vesture 
without a seam, sends us to the lily to consider her beau- 
ty and glory, and innocent tiioughtlessness, declaring, 
that Solomon, in all his grandeur and splendour, was not 
arrayed like one of these : for this is a natural sweetness 
and gaiety the lily is clad with ; but Solomon's (as is 
also most men's and women's) is generally but artificial : 
well, if God so clothe the grass of the earth, will he not 

Christ's sermon on the mount. 417 

clothe us ; if we believe not, we must have but very 
little true faith. So that it would be much better for us 
to consult how we shall do to please God, and honour 
him, and his Holy Son, and divine name, than to consult 
what we shall eat or drink, or how, or wherewith we shall 
be clothed, which things the gentiles sought after, more 
than after God. But we, knowing that our heavenly Fa- 
ther seeth that we have need of all these things, should 
chiefly leave it to him, and first seek his kingdom and 

" But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his right- 
eousness, and all these things shall be added unto you." 
Verse 33. 

" Take therefore no thought for the morrow : for the 
morrow shall take thought for the things of itself : suf- 
ficient unto the day is the evil thereof." Verse 34. 

Here is a glorious gospel promise ; upon seeking the 
kingdom of God, and his righteousness, all these things 
shall be added to us, viz. meat, drink, and raiment, the 
necessary things that we want, to su]iport us in these 
lower regions, or while we are here in this world ; but 
then, withal, let us remember it must be our first work, 
it must be the chief desire of our souls ; it must be first 
in several senses ; first, as to our young and tender years ; 
first, in the morning of every day ; first, in respect of, 
and before all other things ; first, as it hath pleased God 
to give us a being in this world, and being in the prime 
and flower of our years, we should then devote our souls 
to God, and his work and service, and enter into cove- 
nant with him, with full purpose of heart, and design of 
soul to keep the same truly and inviolably ; for it would 
be better not to make a covenant, than to make it and 
break it ; neither should we slight or put off* the work of 
God till we are old, and in our declining years ; as though 
we give him the refuse, and broken end of our days, 
and conclude, it will better become me when I am old 
to serve him : Oh, no! learn the fear of God truly, and 
practise it when thou art young, and thou wilt not easily 
depart from it when thou art old : as thou wilt find it hard 
to get into a holy life and conversation, when thou hast 


418 SOME onsi RVAT10N3 ON 

been bpciulinf^ thy Aoulh in vanity and folly : " Remem- 
ber thy Civator therefore in the cUn s of thy } outh, before 
the evil day come." Tlie autumn of man's years is here 
in divers respects called the evil day : Oh! it is exceed- 
ing sMTct and ]:)recious to see and be sensible of an inno- 
cent life, and modest, sober conversation in youth ; when 
they are in their bloom inp^, flowery years, to be scented 
with grace and truth, must needs be affecting. When 
youtlis are laden with the fruits of grace, and of the holy 
spirit, how pleasant is the taste of it ; it generally relishes 
Avell \\'ith all men, and naturally brings praise to God, as 
well as peace to the soul. May the youth of this present 
generation, as also generations to come, be such holy 
plants, that God's right hand may be seen in planting 
them : when after being fruitful, and doing the work aiid 
service of their dav, and answering' the noble end of 
God in making and planting them here in this world, 
they may be trans})lanted into the eternal kingdom of 
heaven ; which, doubtless, they will, who first seek his 
kingdom, and the righteousness of it. 

2d. If we consider that our life and being is daily 
granted to us, and we supported by the goodness and 
providence of Almighty God every day, it is but just 
that he should have the first or prime of our thoughts, 
in the morning of the day ; and he (being the first and 
the last) ought to be last, as well as the first in our 
thoughts, also in the evening. The royal psalmist saith 
*' If I prefer not Jerusalem before my chiefcst joy, then 
let my right hand forget its cunning, and my tongue 
cleave to the roof of my mouth ;" much more ought we 
to prefer our Creator to all things, and to have our 
thoughts on him, first and foremost in all things, and 
every day. 

3d. For what are the things of this world in comparison 
of those that are to come, all these are fading and tran- 
sitory ; but the things of that which is to com.e, are du- 
rable, and permanent ; and therefore ought to be first 
and chief in our minds. That which is chief in our 
hearts, may be said to have the first place there ; " One 
thing (says a servant of God) have I desired, and that will 

Christ's sermon on the mount. 412 

I seek after, that I might dwell in the house of God all 
the days of my life." This was the first or prime thing, 
which he and we were, and are to seek for, and after. 
As for the morrow, we need not be too thoughtful or 
anxious concerning or about it, for we know not whether 
we shall live to enjoy it, so that as Christ says, " SufFic- 
ient unto the day is the evil thereof." 
"Judge not, that ye be not judged;" Chap. vii. Verse 1. 

" For with what judgement ye judge, ye shall be judg- 
ed ; and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured 
to you again." Verse 2. , 

A great and wise expression, or sentence, from a right- 
eous and just judge ; the Judge of heaven, and of earth," 
to whom all power in both is given ; by which we may 
easily perceive we are to be very careful in judgement and 
censures of others, and that we are not rash and censo- 
rious therein ; considering that with what judgement we 
judge our neighbours, or fellow mortals, with such shall 
we also be judged ourselves, and that measure which we 
measure out to others, shall be filled to us again ; when it 
comes to our turn to be judged, or censured by others, 
for any thing which we have done or said, we are ready 
then to cry out for charity ; are we so careful to be char- 
itable in our judging and censuring others ! 

It is better to suspend personal judgement, without we 
could see the hearts of men ; and if we think we do, then 
to imitate God and Christ, who mixes mercy and love 
with judgement ; rashness and extremes in judgement, 
being commonly hurtful. 

" And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy 
brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in 
thine own eye ?" Verse 3. 

" Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, let me pull out 
the mote that is in thine eye, and behold a beam is in 
thine own eye." Verse 4. 

" Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine 
own eye, and then shalt thou see clearly to cast out t'le 
mote out of thy brother's eye." Verse 5. 

Most true it is, that the transgressions of others are 
most afflicting to those who fear God, and this is not in- 


tended to hinder the good from reproving the evil ; but 
shews us that we must be clear of evil in ourselves when 
we reprove others, else the guilt of hypocrisy will be, and 
is by Christ cast upon us, and laid at our door. We are 
more to look at our own failings, than at the failings of 
others ; and to take special care that we are clear of that 
which we reprove others for ; and is it not deceit, to set 
up for reformers of others, when there are great defects 
in ourselves ? It is too general a fault in poor mortals to 
be quicker sighted to see the faults of others, than their 
own. It is worthy recitiiig our Saviour's words to the 
Jews, who brought the woman taken in adultery, to him, 
and told him, by their law she ought to die ; he an- 
swers, " He that is without sin, let him cast the first stone 
at her." So they being guilty, and convicted of sin in 
their own consciences, left her to Christ, and went their 
way : and when we have done what w'e can to convince 
others of sin, we must leave them to Christ at last ; whe- 
ther we are in sin, or without it ; but we shall be the 
better able to help to reform others, if we are clear from 
guilt in our own hearts. 

*' Give not that which is holy to dogs, neither cast ye 
your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under 
their feet, and turn again and rent you." Verse 6. 

When we see the biting and persecuting nature, and 
dirty, selfish spirit of men, it is to little purpose, gen- 
erally, to cast before them the precious pearl of truth, 
or to shew unto them the deep mysteries of the kingdom 
of God, or the light of life, they being in a brutish spir- 
it ; but when people are sober, and show forth human- 
ity and moderation, then are holy things valuable to them, 
and the things of Christ's kingdom, and his doctrine, 
precious in their eyes, or esteem. Wherefore it greatly 
behoveth Christ's ministers to minister that to the people 
which is suitable for them, and rightly to divide between 
the precious and the vile, and to give to every one their 
portion, according to their deeds ; mercy to whom mer- 
cy, and judgement to whom judgement belongs; with- 
out partiality, and without h\ pocrisy, or deceit ; and 
not to flatter and daub those who are in the doggish and 
swinish nature. 

Christ's sermon ov the mount. 421 

** Ask, and it shall be given you ; seek, and ye shall 
iind ; knock, and it shall be opened unto you." Verse 7. 

*' For every one that asketh, receiveth ; and he that 
seeketh, findeth ; and to him that knocketh, it shall be 
opened." Verse 8. 

" Or what man is there of you, whom if his son ask 
bread, will he give him a stone ?" Verse 9. 

'* Or if he ask a fish, will he give him a serpent ?" 
Verse 10. 

*' If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts 
to your children, how much more shall your Father who 
is in heaven give good things to them that ask him ?" 
Verse 11. 

Our kind and tender Redeemer would stir up and pro- 
voke souls to prayer and supplication ; he has been lib- 
eral in his holy advice ; and to stir us up to it, here arc 
moving expressions, if thy heart be open to receive 
them. Can we have easier terms if we were to make 
them ourselves with the Lord, than to ask, and have ; 
seek, and find; knock, and the gates are opened; pro- 
vided we ask in faith tenderly, and seek in humility, 
and knock with divine wisdom and submission? Our 
Lord's own practice shows that we should be tender, 
submissive, and fervent in prayer ; and then the fervent 
prayer of the righteous availeth much with the Lord. 
Christ urgeth us to it, and brings ourselves for exam- 
ple. " What man is there among you, who if his son 
ask bread, or a fish, will he give him a stone, or a ser- 
pent?" Surely no: no father would deal thus with his 
child; but when his child is hungry, and wants and asks 
bread, he gives it to him : so when the Almighty sees 
our hunger, and we tenderly seek divine assistance and 
refreshment from him, he, in his own time, satisfies such 
souls with bread from above, and the thirsty with living 
water out of the wells of salvation : Oh! blessed be his 
holy name for evermore. Evil men know how to give 
good things to their children, therefore we may well con- 
clude that our heavenly Father knows how to give with 
much more discretion and understanding the good things 


of his Ivingdom, to true asking, seeking, knocking or 
praying souls. 

" Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men 
should do unto you, do even so to them ; for this is the 
law and the prophets." Verse 12. 

Well may this be called the golden rule ; for if wc 
square our lives and actions by it, it will certainly mete 
us out the true way to happiness and glory. We arc 
generally apt to say, when any one doth ill to another, 
'' Would he be willing to be served so himself?" And 
if we follow this rule in all our concerns, it would be v/ell; 
whether in relation to public or private business ; whe- 
ther in trade or religion, or in our domestic affairs : the 
law and the prophets point at it, and our Saviour plainly 
lays it down as a rule for us to walk by. 

" Enter ye in at the strait gate ; for wide is the gate, 
and broad is the way that leadeth to destruction, and ma- 
ny there be who go in thereat." Verse 13. 

" Because strait is the gait, and narrow is the way, 
that leadeth unto life, and few there be who find it." 
Verse 14. 

It is afflicting to consider how natural it is for people 
to walk in this broad way, and they who walk in it are 
many ; for here is room for people to walk if they are 
proud, \^'horemongers, adulterers, thieves, swearers, liars, 
drunkards, covetous, or in any other evil course of life, 
thi^ broad way hath room enough in it for them to walk 
in ; but let them know, it leadeth to destruction, and the 
end is eternal misery, and their many companions will 
administer no consolation to them, when they lift up their 
eyes in hell. And whereas the way that leads to life is 
called strait, it is only strait to flesh and blood, or the will 
of unregencrate men : Oh ! it is a pleasant way, exceed- 
ing pleasant, when brethren walk together in love and 
unity. The enemy of mankind would persuade souls, 
that it is narrower than it really is, when they have some 
faint inclinations to make trial of it. It may truly be 
said, " Blessed are the undefilcd in this strait and narrow 
wav, who walk in the law of the Lord :" For, " His wa}'s 


are ways of pleasantness, and all his paths are peace." And 
although the way to the kingdom was strait and narrow, 
yet tliere are hills and vallies therein as well as plains, 
until we get through the gate of glory : there shall we 
know no more sorrow, nor pain ; but shall praise and 
glorify God and the Lamb forever. 

" Beware of false prophets, who come to you ia 
sheep's cloathing ; but inwardly they are ravening 
wolves." Verse 15. 

" Ye shall know them by their fruits ; do men gather 
grapes of thorns, or figs of thisiles ?" Verse 16. 

" Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit ; 
but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit." Verse 

*' A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can 
a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit." Verse 18. 

" Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit, is 
hewn down, and cast into the fire." Verse 19. 

" Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them." 
Verse 20. 

The great Shepherd and Bishop of Souls shews the 
care which he takes of his sheep, and forewarns them to 
be careful of false prophets, and deceivers; who though 
they may clothe themselves with words like the true 
ones, yet inwardly they would destroy all who do not 
join with, or receive them ; and they are for biting 
the poor harmless sheep of Christ, and if they could, 
or it were in their power, would devour them, their 
minds being in the ravening nature. But our holy, 
and all-wise Bishop, that we might be preserved from 
them, tells us how we may infallibly know them ; say- 
ing, " Ye shall know them by their fruits," giving us 
to understand the reasonableness of his doctrine and as- 
sertion of knowing them by their fruits. " Do men 
gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles," says Christ? 
Surely no. That is altogether unnatural, as well as un- 
reasonable and impossible. In the grape there is a sweet 
and pleasant nourishment, those fruits being cordial and 
wholesome ; but it is bad meddling with thistles and 
thorns, they behig generally very unprofitable to man- 


kind, and hurt the good seed wherever they grow among 
it. Well, where must we go for the grapes and the 
iigs ? To be sure we must go to the vine, and the fig- 
tree : Christ is the body of this vine, and his people are 
the branches, who bring forth such fruit (according to 
the divine life or sap which they receive) as he taught, 
and teaches to his followers. So that if men's words be 
like the words of angels, if they have never so great parts 
and endowments ; yet if their fruit be evil, if they live 
in sin, and do iniquity, and bring forth the fruits of malice 
and rage, or devouring persecution, they then are none 
of Christ's sheep, though they may have their cloathing : 
*' For every good tree bringeth forth good fruit ; and a 
corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit." So if the fruit be 
evil, the tree is certainly corrupt. 

Our Lord elsewere saith, " Make the tree good, and 
the fruit will be good also : and to be made truly good 
(since we are all corrupt by nature, and in the fall), we 
must be cut off from that nature, and grafted into Christ, 
who said, *' I am the vine, and ye are the branches ;" 
and then our lives and fruits will be changed. And then, 
" A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, nor can a cor- 
rupt tree bring forth good fruit : and every tree that 
bringeth not forth good fruit, is hewn down and cast into 
the fire." It would be very unnatural, and a mere prod- 
igy, for one tree to hew down another, and cast it into the 
fire, as they are natural trees : but that ax (which John 
speaks of) will be laid to the roots of the corrupt trees, 
and will hew them down, and they will be cast into the 
fire, as Christ speaks. This is not a destroying the bodies 
of men that Christ speaks of, but an inward work in the 
soul, shewing the powerful nature of the dispensation of 
the gospel of Christ, which is not material cutting, or 
burning with material fire, or sword : but Christ's word 
is a fire and sword to cut down and burn up the evil nature 
in man. The apostle confirms this doctrine of his mas- 
ter thus, " He that doth righteousness is righteous, but 
he that sinneth is of the devil." The apostle is plain and 
full, as is Christ, who repeats his doctrine over again, 
with, *' Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them." 

Christ's sermon on the mount. 425 

** Not every one that saith unto me, Lord ! Lord ! shall 
enter into the kingdom of heaven ; but he that doeth the 
will of my Father who is in heaven." Verse 21. 

It is not our profession that will give us admittance 
into heaven, nor a name of religion, nor religious per- 
formances, if we love sin and unrighteousness, nor our 
praying, preaching, hearing, reading, or discoursing of, 
or arguing for Christ, if we do the works of satan ; for 
there are many who may go farther than this, and vet not 
have admittance into the kingdom of God and our blessed 
Lord Jesus, as is plainly manifest in the next verse. 

" Many will say unto me in that day. Lord, Lord, have 
we not prophesied in thy name, and in thy name have 
cast out devils, and in thy name have done many won- 
derful works." Verse 22. 

*' And then I will profess to them, I know ye not ; 
depart from me, ye workers of iniquity." Verse 23. 

So that professing Christ's own name, and prophes}- 
ing therein, without working the works of God, will not 
do. Nay, though they may cast out devils, which indeed 
is a great work, and here is not only one devil in the sin- 
gular number, but devils in the plural. They say they 
have cast out devils, and truly there are many devils in 
poor mortals sometimes, as was said by them to Christ ; 
*' Our name is Legion, for we are many." There are the 
devils of pride, covetousness, drunkenness, whoredom, 
theft, envy, murder, lying, swearing, hypocrisy, cheating, 
backbiting, &.c. and abundance more, which cannot ea- 
sily be named ; and though it may be said, and that truly, 
that all these proceed from the devil, who is an evil 
spirit ; yet it may also be said, that there are many evil 
spirits ; and if all these evil spirits are cast out of man, 
and others of an evil nature enter him again, his last state 
is worse than his beginning ; as Christ speaks about the 
strong man armed, who kept the house till a stronger 
than he came, who, when he came, spoiled his goods and 
dispossessed him, but coming again found the house 
(or heart) swept and garnished: swept from many immor- 
alities, and garnished with self- righteousness, and carnal 
security ; and the man ofThis Vv-atch -ind not at hoiU'^ with 
Christ, who is stronger than satan: he then re-enters, and 

I i i 


seven worse spirits with him. So that we had need to 
be on our watch, and keep near to Christ, lest after all 
our experience, and wor.drous works, oi^r last state be 
worse than our beginviiiig, and we shut out of the king- 
dom in the end. For these say, that they have done 
many woiidcrrfui works in Christ's name : so that we may 
work miraculous things, and be sensible of wonderful 
power and strength from Christ ; and yet, without per- 
severing in the way of holiness and self-denial, may fall 
short of heaven. Wherefore ii is bad, and of dangerous 
cor;sequence, to live in sin and iniquity ; or to lean to- 
wards it, so as to plead for it, or believe we cannot live 
Avithout it while in this world. For if we live and die 
in it, we may justly (according to the above doctrine of 
Christ) expect that he will say unto us in the great day ; 
" Depart from me, ye that work iniquity." 

" Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, 
and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man, who 
built his house upon a rock." Verse 24. 

" And the rains descended, and the floods came, and 
the winds blew, and beat upon that house, and it fell not; 
for it was founded upon a rock." Verse 25. 

Oh! what abundance of excellent sayings, and doc- 
trine, what holy precepts has Christ here recommended 
to the professors of his name, and to them who believe 
in him and the Almighty Father and Maker of heaven 
and earth. Surely we are greatly beholden to our Lord 
Jesus Christ for those plain divine sayings. But to com- 
mend them only is but little, or to read them, or hear 
them : the keeping and the doing of them is the main 
thing ; the thing that is needful ; and to press the prac- 
tice of them, Jesus has made this apt comparison. 

1st. " lie who hears them, and doeth them, I will liken 
him unto a wise man." And indeed it is great wisdom to 
keep them (that is, to practise them) and as great folly to 
live contrary to them, aiid jilead against them. 

2d. " Who built his house upon a rock." This rock 
is Christ, die rock of ages, and his holy spirit, or the 
Holy Ghost, as Christ said to Peter, when Christ was 
revealed to him : " Flesh and blood hath not revealed this 
unto thee, but my Father who is in heaven :" " Thou art 

Christ's sermon on the mount. 427" 

Peter," (or a stone or rock) : thou art a man, though thy 
name signifies a rock, and as thy name signifies a rock, 
so " On this rock will I build my church," (that is on the 
spirit of the heavenly Father, who revealed Christ to Pe^ 
ter) and the church of Christ so built, "the gates of hell 
cannot prevail against it." And Peter was one who heard 
these sayings, and did them, when he had received the 
Holy Ghost, or spirit ; for which every true believer 
ought to pray continually, until he receive it ; through 
the help of which he may, without doubt, keep those holy 
sayings. For of ourselves, without it, we cannot do any 
real good, either in speaking, thinking, or acting. 

3d. " And the rain descended, and the floods came, 
and the winds blew, and beat upon the house, and it fell 
not ; because it was founded upon a rock." 

If rain from above be poured out in wrath on man, 
for sin and iniquity, and floods of persecution, or the 
windy words of men come upon this house, it will stand: 
if sickness and death itself, and many other storms, that 
we may meet with here, in this low world, should beat 
against our building, we being built upon the Father, 
Son, and Holy Spirit, shall surely stand. them all out, and 
live through all, if we observe to hear or read Christ's 
sayings, and to practise the same ; then they are on the 
rock, and shall not fall for that reason. 

" And every one who heareth these sayings of mine, 
and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man, 
who built his house upon the sand." Verse 26. 

" And the rains descended, and the floods came, and 
the winds blew, and beat upon that house, and it fell ; 
and great was the fall of it." Verse 27. 

If we read or hear these sayings, or doctrine of Christ, 
and do not dwell in the life of it, nor practise the same, 
it were better we knew it not. For as our Saviour saith, 
" He who knoweth his master's will, and doth it not, 
shall be beaten with many stripes." And doubtless it is 
great folly to be sensible of Christ's holy will and doc- 
trine, and not to do it : if we profess Christianity, and to 
build our profession on Christ, and yet not observe to 
keep his sayings, the foundation of our building will be 
but very loose and sandy ; and when those rains, ancl 


floods, and winds, which Christ speaks of, shall descend 
and beat against this building, it must needs fall, and the 
higher the building is, the greater will be the fall of it. 

Thus ended the best sermon that ever was preached 
by man ; in which is set forth the great truths of God, 
and our Lord Jesus Christ, with blessings and rewards 
to the righteous, and holy believers in him, who put in 
practice his precepts ; and reproof to the disobedient, and 
unfaithful ; with promises of the kingdom of heaven to 
one, and to the other a being shut out of it. And when 
he had ended his doctrine, for that time, and finished his 
divine sayings, the people were smitten with it, to admi- 
ration, as well indeed they might. 

*' And it came to pass, when Jesus had ended these 
savings, that the people were astonished at his doctrine." 
Verse 28. 

*' For he taught them as one having authority, and not 
as the scribes." Verse 29. 

They \^^ere astonished at his doctrine, and well they 
might, for it excelled even the law, and went beyond it, 
as when he tells them, it was said of old time, or in the 
law, "Thou shalt not kill :'" he taught that we must 
not be angry without a cause. And whereas the law 
skives liberty to hate our enemies ; he charges us to love 
them, and pray for them, and do good to them ; again 
the law prohibits adultery ; Christ prohibits lusts, both 
in the eye, and in the heart. And whereas the law com- 
manded to perform their oaths to the Lord ; Christ com- 
mands not to swear at all. Now those who are not an- 
grv, it is not likely they should kill ; those who love 
their enemies cannot hate or destroy them ; those who 
have not lusts in their hearts or eyes, cannot commit 
adulterv ; and those who never swear, cannot forswear 
themselves : all which he with divine power and author- 
itv from above taught. He was not dry and formal like 
the scribes : so likewise his ministers, and the j^reachers 
of his gospel, should wait on him, to be endued with a 
measure of his divine spirit and holy grace, that the hear- 
ers might be edified, and the Father, Son, and Spirit, 
might have the glory, who over all is worthy forever. 


Since T wrote the above, (which was written at sea, iu 
my vo\ Hge from Barbadoes to London), I have heard 
that a learned man hath written upon this excellent ser- 
mon of Christ, (which far exceds what I have done) at 
which I rejoice. For the more Christ is glorified, and 
his faithful followers edified, the greater is our cause 
of rejoicing ; and if it exceeds this, it is no wonder : 
this being done by one who doth not profess to un- 
derstand grammar, neither is master of words, nor 
scarcely of good English. Peradventure through the 
meanness of the instrument, the glory of God, and 
praise of Christ, may the more appear : as said Christ, 
*' Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings thou hast 
ordained praise," or strength : and again, " Thou hast 
revealed these things unto babes and sucklings." And 
the Jews marvelled that the apostles of Christ should 
know the things of God, being unlearned men. But 
I had a concern working a long time on my mind, and 
could not be easy, nor satisfied until I had made some 
little essay towards this work : and considering my own 
weakness, it kept me back a great while ; but in giving 
up to the work, I had peace, and inward satisfaction : 
for I thought it my duty to publish and promote, as 
much as I well could, the doctrine and sermon of Christ, 
my Lord and Master ; since the very life and marrow of 
true Christianity is therein to be found, in a very great 
degree ; and, without controversy, those who live up, 
and according to the doctrine here laid down by Christ, 
in this sermon, will be blessed in this world, and that 
which is to come, of whatsoever denomination the\ 
may be. 









As to the reading the Holy Scripture, either privately 
or openly, that I am not against, but would encourage it 
in all christians, and true believers in Christ : and we 
ought to excite one another thereto, and more especially 
to put in practice what we read to be our duty ; other- 
wise the holy letter will kill, (as said the apostle, 2 Cor. 
iii. 6.) which is to be understood when we practise con- 
trary to what we read therein. As for example, where 
our Lord saith, " Every idle word that men shall speak, 
they shall give account thereof, in the day of judgement." 
Mat. xii. S6. Again, " God will not hold them guilt- 
less, that taketh his name in vain." Exod. xx. 7. 
" That servant that knew his Lord's will, and did it not, 
shall be beaten with many stripes." Luke^ xii. 47. 
These, and many more portions of holy scripture , are con- 
demning and killing to those who live in sin and evil, 
which the letter is absolutely against, and without true 
repentance, accompanied with amendment of life, though 
the Holy Bible be read every day, it will but add to our 
condemnation. But if people truly repent of the evil of 
their ways, and awake to righteousness, and sin not, as 
the holy scriptures themselves hold, and Christ taught, 
then unto such souls they are a rich treasure, and as a 
cabinet full of precious jewels, " Able to make the man of 
God wise unto salvation, through faith, in Christ, (by the 
influence of the Holy Ghost, or spirit.) It is not the read- 
ing divinely inspired writings, or the bible, which is 


scrupled, but the formal reading of formal composed 
prayers and songs, at set times, instituted by such whose 
principle is that there is now no divine revelation, and 
that we cannot live without sinning, while we are in 
this world, acccording to the tenure of the common 
prayer ; holding, that we sin as long as we live, as if 
God's power were not stronger to preserve out of sin, 
than the devil's to keep us in sin, contrary to the work 
and doctrine of the holy apostles, who were sent of God 
to turn people from satan's power, to the power of God ; 
whose glorious, eternal power, is above the power of 
sin, death, and the devil. 

In the common prayer some unsound words, and also 
some scripture expressions, perverted to a wrong use, I 
would a little open, or write a few words concerning. 

1st. As to that expression in the common prayer, that 
*' We are miserable sinners." 

2d. And that " We are full of bruises and putrifying 

3d. And " From the crown of the head to the sole, of 
the foot, there is no soundness in us." 

4th. And that " We have left undone the things which 
we ought to do, and do those things which we ought not 
to do ;" and these to be repeated for life. 

First, then, If people must be miserable sinners all their 
days, to what end did Christ come into the world and 
preach the gospel, and suffer death, the painful death of 
the cross? Did he not come to put an end to sin, and to 
destroy the works of the devil, whose works are sin ? 
Did he not preach against sin, both within and without? 
Witness the 5th, 6th, and 7th chapters of the evangelist 
Matthew. Yea, his birth, life, preaching, suffering, death 
and resurrection, and ascension into glory, were all 
against sin, the devil, death and darkness, and all the 
works and deeds thereof. Christ died for our sins, and 
we should die to them, and live to him : he came to 
save us from the act of sin, as well as the imputation of 
it ; and takes away the guilt of sin on condition of true 
repentance and amendment of life, as the doctrine of 
Chrr?st and his apostles do largely and plainly demon- 


Strate, as any who are come to the years of discretion, 
and who can but read the holy scriptures, may plainly 

The apostle saith, " Whatsoever things are holy, 
whatsoever things are pure, just, and of good report, seek 
after those things." And again, " No unclean thing can 
enter the kingdom of heaven ;" but certainly all sin is un- 
clean. Read over the holy scriptures, from the begin- 
ning to the end, their nature and tendency is against all 
sin ; and as it is true, that we all have been shiners, surely 
therefore all true christians, and true believers in Christ, 
have cause reverently to bow, and to be truly and hum- 
bly thankful, that Christ, our great Lord, by offering 
himself for us, hath taken away that imputation ; so that 
now through faith, and belief in Christ, accompanied with 
true repentance, and amendment of life, the imputation 
of our former sins is taken away ; for this cause we 
praise God, and adore his eternal majesty for ever. 

2d. As to the word " miserable," a christian may in- 
deed be poor ; but since Christ is come to make us 
happy and comfortable, through the hope of eternal sal- 
vation, in his name and power (as we are not to think 
ourselves better than we are) so we cannot say nor think 
we are miserable, unless we are without God and Christ ; 
and then we are miserable indeed ; but no mortal can be 
miserable who hath Christ ; " For he that hath the Son, 
hath life (eternal life) abiding in him:" to be truly in 
Christ, is to be truly liappy ; this doctrine is as clear as 
the sun at noon-day, or as a morning without clouds : 
a soul, when it comes to see itself undone without a Sav- 
iour, and see sin to be exceeding sinful, and is ready to 
cry to the Almighty, Lord, help, or I perish ! save 
me, or I am undone forever ! Then the soul seeth itself 
miserable ; but it is for want of Christ : and when Christ 
is come into, or unto the soul, then its misery vanisheth, 
or flieth away ; but from day to day, and week to week, 
yea, all the days of one's life ; to be miserable sinners, is 
a miserable case indeed, destroying the very nature of 
cliristianitv : wherefore, some tender, conscientious souls, 



cannot join with such miserable sinners and sayers, wh» 
neither say nor do that which they ought. 

3d. As to these sayings, " We are full of bruises and 
putrefying sores, from the crown of the head to the sole 
of the foot, and thdt there is no soundness in us," 

Can any congregation of such people as these (if they 
say truly, and if they do not say truly, what will the con- 
sequence be, let the wise in heart judge) can, I say, such 
a people be the church of Christ, or his spouse, or beau- 
tiful bride ? Christ saith, " If the inside be clean, the out- 
side will be clean also ; and he came to cleanse the souls 
of poor mortals, and to heal them, and wash them from 
sin, and doth it by his spiritual baptism, and the fire of 
his word ; also the abov,esaid church and people, contrary 
to this putrefied and unsound, constant and continual 
confession, do both *' Promise and vow, that they will 
forsake the devil and all his works, the pomp and vanity 
of this wicked world, and all the sinful lusts of the flesh, 
and walk in God^s holy will and commandments, all the 
days of their lives." The very highest pitch of perfec- 
tion any man or christian can attain in this life ! and yet 
contrar}' to those vows and solemn covenants, they tell 
the Almighty, from time to time, that they are unsound, 
nay, that there is no soundness in them ; but that they 
are putrefied from head to foot (as above) and by their 
common practice intend to tell him so as long as they 
live in this life : this is unsound work indeed : and truly 
those who are tenderly conscientious, may well scruple 
to join with it, or with those who are in such ways, 
words and works. 

Those bruised, putrefied, sore and unsound souls, are 
tlherefore tenderly, in christian love, advised to come 
to Christ, the physician of value, and great doctor of the 
soul, that he may heal them, and wash their sinful putre- 
fied souls, and unsound hearts, *' By the washing of 
regeneration, and renewing of his word and spirit." " Ye 
are clean through the word which I have spoken unto 
you," saith our Saviour. John xv. 3. They were cleansed 
by putting his word in practice; for, saith Christ, 


'* He that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I 
will liken him to a wise man;" Mat.\u.24i. so consequent- 
ly, he that doth them not, is foolish, sinful, and unclean. 

4th. And further, say they, " We have left undone 
those things which we ought to have done." Now, do- 
ing the truth, and doing that which is right, is what we 
ought to do ; and committhig sin, is that vvhich we ought 
not to do : certainly any man of sense and understand- 
ing, would think it mockery, if his children or servants 
should serve him so from time to time, and make a com- 
mon practice of it : by this confession (if it be genuine) 
they must needs know better than they practise or do, 
they knowing what they ought to do, but not doing it ; 
and our Lord Jesus Christ saith positively, " He that 
knoweth his master's will, and doeth it not, shall be beat- 
en with many stripes : ' and again, " Be ye not like the 
scribes and pharisees ; for they say, and do not ; there- 
fore be ye not like unto them." 

But what can be expected from those who say they 
sin in their best duties? And if so, they sin whenever 
they read the common prayers ; and by the same rule ; 
the oftener they read them, the oftener they sin ; where- 
fore, how can a sincere, devout soul, who unfeignedly 
loves the Lord Jesus Christ, so as to keep his command- 
ments (for that is to love him truly, and according to his 
own definition of it ; " If ye love me, keep my command- 
ments," saith Christ) ; I say, how can any such sincere 
soul join with such wrong doers and sayers ? it must 
needs be an unsafe practice to do what one knows should 
not be done ; the nature of such doings being very pro. 
yoking, either to God or man : what man in the world 
would like it, in either son or servant ? 

Oh ! what would become of poor, degenerate man if the 
Lord Almighty were not very indulgent if he were not a 
God gracious and merciful, slow to anger, and of great 
loving- kindness to poor mortals ! 

5th. And as to their singing David's psalms in metre; 
how often do they sing that which is not true as to them- 
selves, and also that which is not according, but contrary 
to their states and conditions? As ^vheii they sing^ 


*' That they water their couch with their tears;" and that 
they practice what they know, when they confess they 
*' Do that which they ought not to do, and leave undone 
that which they ought to do." 

1 he apostle said, he would " Sing with the spirit, and 
with the understanding also." And again, *' We know 
not what we should pray for as we ought, but the spirit 
itself rriaketh intercession for us, with groanings which 
cannot be uttered." Bom. viii, 26. In the primitive times 
of Christianity, they prayed and sung as they were helj)ed 
by the HoK Ghost, or spirit, and not by book, or sthited 
or set forms ; but, Oh ! the primitive soui dness of chris- 
tiL.iiity is too much lost and defaced; and therefore some 
"who desire to come ugain to the primitive soundness and 
purity of the christian religion, scruple to join with such 
unsound formalities, and that conscientiouslj', for the 
reasons above, and more which might be given. 

When such scrupks are mentioned, the members of 
the church of Enghuid usually reply, that the scriptures 
viadic.te them in their form, which, how well they do 
so, let it be freely and fiirly examined, not for conten- 
tion, but for editication in the pure love of Jesus. 

1st. " The scripture saith, that there was a people 
that was full of bruises and putrefying sores, &c." 

Answer. Bui that was in the time of the law, when 
the people had transgressed the law, and were under the 
law ; for had they done their duty, and kept the law, 
they could not truly have said so Isa. i. 6. They were 
then indeed gone astray like the lost sheep, and that 
brought them into that sore, putrefied state, and bruised 
condition, and " Their KiW did not make the comers 
thereunto perfect; yet (as saith the apostle) the bringing 
in of a better hope did," which was the hope of the 
gospel ; so that the apostle preaches perfection imder the 
gospel dispensation, though some of our worldly-wise 
meii will not allow of it ; and I \\o\it we are not under 
the law, but under grace ; " And the glorious law of 
the spirit of life, in Christ Jesus, hath and doth set the 
true believers free from the law of sin and death ; so 
that a true christian cannot say truly (with the false and 


rebellious Jews, of whom the prophet there speaks), 
" That he is full of putrefying sores, and that there is 
no soundness in him, and say it all the days of his life." 

2nd. Again the scripture saith, " I was shapen in in- 
iquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me." Psalm 
li. 5. 

Answer. The psalmist was at that time under deep 
convictions for the sins he had been guilty of in the 
matter of Uriah ; but by his expressions in the ninth, 
tenth, and eleventh verses of the same psalm, it is plain 
he believed a better state attainable. And surely these 
expressions cannot be applicable to all men, at all times : 
for we read of them who were sanctified from the womh. 
Neither can it be reasonably or charitably supposed 
that all women, especially chaste and virtuous christians, 
do conceive their children in sin, and bring them forth 
in iniquity: and if it were so, (which God forbid), it 
doth not follow, that we must live in it all our days. No, 
surely, if we believe Christ, and the holy scriptures, 
whose doctrine is holy, and commands holiness, in both 
Testaments. And if people would walk in the holj^ 
light of Christ, who enlightens every man that cometh 
into the world, as recorded in the holy scriptures, they 
would then be cleansed from their sin, from both the 
act and the imputation, as saith the apostle, " If we walk 
in the light, as he is in the light, then have we fellowship 
one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ, his Son, 
cleanseth us from all sin." 1 John^ i. 7. 

3d. " There is none that doth good, no not one." 
Rom. iii. 12. 

Answer. It is beyond all doubt the apostle spoke of 
the people in their unconverted state ; for if they had been 
come to the work of conversion and regeneration, they 
must, and it is impossible but that they should do some 
good ; and though there was a time that none did good, 
it was under the law, and not under grace ; and spoken of 
the unbelievers, and not of believers : especially since 
Christ has brought a covenant of grace, in order to teach 
and help us to live righteous, virtuous, holy, religious, 
and sober, lives and conversations. Titus, ii. 11. 


4th. They object the words of our Saviour to the 
young man in the gospel, where he calls Christ good 
master, asking him, " What good thing shall I do that 
I may have eternal life ?" Christ answered, " Why call- 
est thou me good ? 'J 'here is none good, but one, that 
is God." Alar. xix. 17. 

Answer. And true it is, in our Lord's sense, for 
comparing men to Christ, (who is God) tliere is none 
good; the young man thought he had been speaking to 
a man like himself, and kncvv not thiit he was speaking 
to the good and gracious Son of the most high God ; 
but if we compare men with men, it must be granted, 
that there is, was, and will be some good men, women, 
and children, in that sense and consideration; and our 
Lord sheweth how we may kno\v these good men, wom- 
en, and children. " By their fruits ye shall know them, 
(says Christ); men do not gather grapes of thorns, nor 
figs of thistles ; a good tree cannot bring forth evil 
fruit, neither can an evil tree bring forth good fruit ; 
wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them." How 
plain is the doctrine of Christ, if people would but lend 
an obedient ear, and give him a faithful and sincere 
heart, and serve him in a pure mind, without deceit or 
guile, taking up his holy cross (to the corrupt will of 
man) in true self-denial : the scripture says, '* If we 
confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our 
sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness:" where 
then is the sin, when God has cleansed us from all un- 
righteousness ? Indeed it is very meet, and our duty 
to confess our sins; they truly say, that, 

5th, " The scripture in sundry places excites us to 
confess our sins." 

Answer. For poor mortals have all sinned, and, by 
this sinful nature, we are all children of wrath, and this is 
a strong and mighty motive for us in truth to confess our 
sins, because God is so just and merciful to forgive and 
pass by our iniquities ; arid indeed if the weight of our 
sins were upon us, and the true sense of the heinousness 
of sin and evil, it would certainly bow us in deep rever- 
ence and humility belore the turone of grace, and melt 


our spirits into tenderness before the Most High and im- 
mortal Jehovah ; and then it is that he forgives us, and 
cleanseth us from all iniquity, and would (according to 
the apostle's doctrine) " Purify us to himself a peculiar 
people, zealous of (and for) good works," and against 
bad works and words, and thoughts also : and when God 
hath so cleansed the soul, then, of course, these common, 
and often repeated, dry confes-^ions, full of sin and putre- 
faction, must fall, and we should fear to offend any more. 
Let it be tenderly, and in christian love, asked, how 
often do our common prayer people go into their closets, 
or privately retire into some secret place, and there pour 
out their cries and tears to the Almighty, and humbly 
confess their faults to him alone ? I ask, would not such 
an exercise be more acceptable to God, than a popular 
repetition, daily and formally made ? This I leave to the 
consideration of all sober christians, and to the judge- 
ment of the truly pious. And how like mockery it looks, as 
soon as they come from their prayers and confessions, they 
(many of them) will vainly 1 lugh, and be full of idle words 
and discourse, and some of them curse and swear, and 
take the awful and sacred name which they have been 
addressing (or pretending to address) in vain, and profane 
that holy name of God and Christ, which they have been 
using in their devotion, to which I have been an eye and 
car witness, many a time, to the sorrow and grief of my 
soul, and which hath, in part, occasioned these lines ; as 
also hoping it may be a motive to stir up some to more 
holy living, and that the name of God and Christ might 
be glorified, and the precious dear-bought soul saved. 
Let us also remember, that the Holy Scripture doth 
abundantly require and command us to forsake our sins; 
the holy text says, " He that confesseth and forsaketh his 
sins, shall have mercy." 

6th. And whereas the apostle John, in his first gene- 
ral epistle, chap. i. verse 8, writes, " If we say we have 
no sin, we deceive ourselves ;'' from whence it is object- 
ed, we ought always to confess our sins.' 

Answer. Yes, we should do so whenever we commit 
any, or knowingly do evil ; but when the Almighty hath 


cleansed us from all unrighteousness, then our sins are 
done away by the grace of his Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, 
and we are washed by regeneration ; then it cannot be 
true to say we are miserable and putrefied sinners, when 
at the same time also Christ hath purified and sanctified 
his church and people. 

That is true which St. John saith, chap. i. verse 10» 
(when opening and explaining the 8th verse) " If we say 
we have not sinned, we make him (i. e. God) a liar ;" for 
that all have sinned ? so that it is plain that he speaks of 
the state of man before he comes to the work of conver- 
sion, or to be renewed by grace ; for when we come truly 
to know Christ, and to see and believe in him, then we 
witness a change from our corrupt and evil nature, and 
sinful course of life, which is as clear as the shining of 
the sun without clouds at noon-day, from the same apos- 
tle's words, which I shall transcribe for the information 
and edification of any who may see this. 

The first general epistle of John (the beloved disciple of 
our Lord Jesus) 3d. chap. 6th verse to the 10th : " Who- 
soever abideth in him (i. e. Christ) sinneth not : whoso- 
ever sinneth, hath not seen him, neither known him. Lit- 
tle children, let no man deceive you : he who doth 
righteousness, is righteous, even as he is righteous : he 
whocommiteth sin, is of the devil; for the devil sinneth 
from the beginning. For tliis purpose the Son of God 
was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the 
devil. Whosoever is born of God, doth not commit sin ; 
for his seed remaineth in him, and he cannot sin, because 
he is born of God. In this the children of God arc 
manifest, and the children of the devil ; whosoever doth 
not righteousness, is not of God (and as above) he who 
committeth sin, is of the devil." 

This is naked truth, without any covering, and the 
very sum and substance of pure religion. Oh! that all 
true christians would lay it to heart, and ponder it in 
their minds, and then resolve whether they will be sin- 
ners to the end of their days, or whether they will repent, 
and turn from the evil of their ways ; the latter of which, 
that poor mortals may come to witness for themselves, 
is tlie desire and prayer of my soul. 


If it be further objected, " That our Saviour taught 
his disciples a form ;" he did so ; and a glorious form 
it is ; and they did as they prayed, and were taught of 
Christ, and so they did it truly, and in true faith, believ- 
ing they should witness what they said and prayed to be 
fulfilled. " Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be 
thy name, thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in 
earth, as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread* 
And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive them who 
trespass against us. And lead us not into temptation, 
but deliver us from evil : for thine is the kingdom, and 
the power, and the glory, forever. Amen." 

Christ said to some of old, " Ye are of your father the 
devil, because his works ye do :" And all sin is his 
work, and by our works (as above) we are manifest^ 
whether we are the children of God, or ©f the devil-. 












A good man obtaineth favour of the Lord; but a man of wicked devices 
will he condemn. 

PROV. xii. 2. 

The wicked are overthrown, and are not ; but the house of the right- 
eous shall stand. 

PROV. xii. 7. 

Wo to them who are mighty to drink wine, and men of strength to 
mingle strong di-ink. 

ISA. V. 22. 


To the Tenth Edition of this Letter to a Friend, 

Temperate Reader, 

The longer we live in the world, the more we see the danger 
and many mischiefs, miseries and inconveniencies, intemperance 
occasions to mankind, not only in eating, clothing, buying, and 
selling, &c. but particularly in that great sin of drinking to ex- 
cess. And though a risk is run of incurring the displeasure of 
some ill natured over-overs of strong liquors, the which hath 
been experienced by the author, through some of the former 
impressions ; yet they having found such general acceptance in 
many parts of the world, and being serviceable to people of all 
persuasions, I, for the further service of poor mortals, adventure 
to put forth this tenth edition, with this additional preface, in 
order (if possible) to persuade all rational souls to forsake so 
destructive and vile an evil : which gross sin hath these bad 
effects attending it (with many more that might be set down) 
which affects both the aged and the youth ; for whose sakes 
(viz. the youth) it was at first chiefly intended, in order to stir 
them up to the love of pure religion, and pious and virtuous 

1st. Then, In the aged it hath those bad effects, viz. they are 
bad examples to the youth, who when reproved, may reply. My 
father before me loved strong liquors, as well as I : he loved a 
glass of wine ; he loved a bowl of punch ; he loved good cider 
and good ale, and would be merry with it, and why may not I, 
as well as he ? he was a wise, good man, when he was sober ; 
and pray where is the harm of loving good liquor, and being 
merry ? 

I answer ; The harm is in the immoderate and extravagant 
use ot it. It is only the excess which this letter detects, and is 
intended to discourage. I have known some who have quarrel- 
led with public preaching, because they have been guilty of the 
faults spoke against : and the author expects to be buffeted for 
this publication, by some of these mighty sons to drink wine, 
and to mingle strong drink (i. e. punch, setterena, tiff, flip, &c.) 
I had like to have forgotten Sampson, (as I have several others) 
which so overcomes those men of might, as to get from them 
their precious time, (which cannot be bought with money) and 


their money, besides health and credit, understanding and rea- 
son, and all. And pray where is the difterence thcii between 
the man and the beast, though the man be lull ol da} s ! 

What can we say to the youth of such parents (thai will avail) 
•while their parents sheAv them such evil examples: And as it is 
in that, so it is in all other evils, parents' txamples are very 
hurtfid in evil things, though very helpful in thai av hich is good. 
If a man sees a youth to be out of order, and reproves him ior 
being in drink, evil speaking, pride, coveiousness, &c. and he 
guilty of the same, his child may answer, A\hy, faiher, i had not 
done so, if I had not seen thee (or you) do it ? And it bt ing an 
incumbent duty in a father, mother, master, or mistress, to re- 
prove their youth for evil ; if we are not clear in ourselves of 
what we reprove in our children or servants, and our children or 
servants miscarry through our bad example, what a melancholy 
reflection will that be to us, if rightly considered ! which indeed 
would be this, I have been instrumental to mv poor child's ruin 
and destruction ! A melancholy reflection to any sober christian. 

Also, except there is a large income, instead of taking care to 
put the youth in a reputable way to live in the world, it brings 
them to poverty : and if there is a large estate, it puts them in 
the way to spend it. And, Oh ! how many are spending their 
precious time in taverns, and ordinaries, and at the same time 
their wives and children sufllering and weeping at home i And 
some sober, modest women (for the men are mostly addicted to 
drinking to excess) would sufl'er unspeakable hardships before 
they would expose their husbands; and indeed they that do it 
in such a modest way, being forced to it by such ill practices, 
are much more to be pitied than blamed. 

2d. Concerning the youth, it mightily hurts them (as doth 
it the aged also) as to their religion, reputation, health, and 
estate, &c. 

1st. As to their religion, it not only clouds their understand- 
ing, and darkens the nobility thereof, but it unfits them lor all 
and every religious duty. 

2d. Some who value a good name, had rather lose their lives, 
than lose their reputation through immoderate drinking. For 
if the youth be single, and addicted to immoderate drinking, no 
wise and virtuous person will tie themselves to them for life, 
by marriage ; which state of life, to a wise and virtuous pair, is 
far exceeding in happiness all other company or conversation 
whatsoever. It is better to be one of these than to enjoy a 
kingdom : and, on the other hand, it is better to be a slave, in 
Turkey, than to be married to an intemperate person. 

3d. Intemperance destroys the health of the body, which we 
generally esteem before wealth. And if a man were a king, 


prince, or duke, if he did not enjoy his heahh, what good would 
all his honour, power, and wealth, do him f Oh ! what abun- 
dance of young people have destroyed themselves by this sin ? 
As it is written : "The wicked do not live out half their days ;" 
and where this sin is growing general in a country, that country 
is growing to its ruin and destruction. It wastes the people, 
decays trade, and is very destructive to religion, and an inlet to 
atheism. Good people are afraid to live in such a country, 
bad people flock to it, and often make their exit in it. 

4th. And many a fair estate hath been embezzled and spent 
through intemperance, which honest parents, with great labour, 
care, and industry, have got together, and left to their sons and 
daughters, who have extravagantly spent it upon their lusts; 
and thereby have brought infamy on tht-mselves, their fathers, 
and their posterity, whenever it has pleased God that they have 
left any behind them ; besides (which is worst of all) dishon- 
ouring God, and bringing a scandal on the christian religion. 

Some of our wise kings and queens in Great-Britain, being 
sorrowfully affected with the heinousness of this great sin, have 
made strict laws against intemperance : and where the legisla- 
tive authority makes little or no provision against it, or when 
they do make any, do not take care to put it in practice, such a 
state or colony must needs be in a declining condition. And 
for particular families and persons, we may see too much of this 
evil in our neighbourhoods, almost in all parts of the world 
which causeth solid, sober, pious, virtuous, and truly religious 
christians to mourn, and humbly to bow before the most high 
God, begging of him, for Christ's sake, that he, by his mighty 
power, would be pleased to reform the unregenerate world. 

This is the prayer and fervent desire of an entire lover of 
mankind, both body and soul, and who desires their welfare in 
this, and in the world to come. 




Barhadoes, 1th of 1st Mo. 1718-19; 

My dear Friend, 

It is long since I had a line from thee : but not long- 
since I thought of thee, and thine, with friends of your 
nation ; where I know that the Lord hath a seed, who 
love him, and do desire to serve him, and are accounted 
to him for a chosen generation ; and that ihis generation 
may spread and prosper in the earth, is my earnest tnivail 
in spirit both night and day, at times and seasons. 
There is also an exercise upon my mind for the offspring 
of this seed, the children of those men and women, who 
have confessed the name of Christ before men, in a holy- 
self-denying life, and sober conversation : and I do cer- 
tainly know, that many pious souls join with me in this 
exercise, bowing the knee to the Lord of sabbaths, 
for the peace, prosperity, and eternal welftvre of the pres- 
ent, rising generation. Oh ! how exercising it is to good 
men and w omen to see their youth take those ways which 
lead to destruction, and go in company with the wick- 
ed, whose ways lead to the utter ruining of both body 
and soul, and whose steps take hold on hell. 

It is a great evil, to which many are prone, i. e. keep- 
ing of vain and idle company, which has brought many 
young men, and young women to their utter ruin and 
destruction, both body and soul. How many fair estates 
have been v/asted ! How many fine youths have beea 
destroyed by keeping evil company, and by excess ini" 
drinking, it is really lamentable to consider ! It keeps 
the poor in poverty : it makes the rich many times poor ; 
and brings both rich and poor into disgrace : it breaks 
and destroys llie health and natural good constitation ®f 

M m m 


the body, and Instead thereof fills it with misery and pain : 
and, v\ hich is yet moiv.% it destroys the soul, which is the 
m(»st noble part of man ; so that it is a sore, and three- 
fold evil ; but the last is the worst, by how much the 
soul is the more lastinj^ and better part. Several ter- 
rible instances of this nature I have met with in my 
travels among the children of men ; three or four of 
which I may inform thee of; and it may be affecting 
iinio thee, as it hath often been to my mind, when I 
have thought thereon. 

The First Instance of a Young Man, given to III Com- 
pany and Hard Drinking, 

The first is of a certain beautiful young man, a physician 
b} profession, who was much adchcted to ill company, 
and to drink hard, and was sometimes visited with strong 
convictions ; in one of which visitations he sent for me, 
and told me his coiidition, and made solemn covenants, 
** If God would but that once spare him, he would not 
do the like evil again." At thai time it did please the 
A: mighty to spare him ; but he soon forgot how it had 
be' n with him, and fell into the same sin again ; al- 
though he had a most notable admonition in a dream, 
but a little before. His dream was this, which is very 
remarkable; we being then at sea, in sight of Great- 
Britain. He saw in his dream a great and spacious 
town, the buildings high, and streets broad ; at which 
he landed, and going uj) the street, he espied a large 
sign, on which was written in great golden letters, 
SHAME, to which he went, and at the door stood a 
v f man, with a can of drmk in her hand, who asked 
him to drink; to which he replied, " with all his heart, 
for he said, he had drunk nothing but water a great 
while ;" so he took the can, and drank a hearty draught, 
which, as he sisid, nuide him merry, an<l he went reel- 
ing up the street, when behold, on a sudden, a grim 


fellow met him, and arrested him in the nanne of the 
governor of the place, before whom he brought him. 
This governor, he said, was like a great black dog, the 
largest he ever saw, who grinned at him, and passed 
sentence on him ; and sent him to prison, there to live 
for ever. He told me this dream with such emphasis, as 
made me to tremble, which was interpreted to him. I 
told him that he was an ingenious young man, and might 
easily discern the interpretation of this dream, which to 
me seemed to be on)inous to him. " The great town 
and high buildings are thy great and high profession ; 
the sign on which SHAME was written, with the wom- 
an with the can at the door, sheweth the great shame of 
the sin of drunkenness, and that is thy weakness ; and 
that grim fellow, that arrested thee, is death, who will 
arrest all mortals ; and the great black dog, the gover- 
nor of the place, is the devil; who, when his servants 
have served him to the last, will torment them forever." 
*' God forbid, it is but a dream," was his answer to me, 
I said it was a very significant one to him. 

About three days after, the same person went on board 
a ship, whose loading was wine and brandy ; the master 
gave a can of wine to him, and said the same words, as 
the woman said to him in his dream, and he answered 
with the same expressions, and it had the same effect 
upon him ; for he took such a hearty draught as made 
him too merry, insomuch that he overset the boat, and 
was drowned, much in drink : and I seeing him sink 
down, and his dream so punctually fulfilled, I was very 
heavy in my mind for several days. 

Oh ! methinks I could wish that the many righteous 
judgements of the Most High, might effectually work on 
the hearts of those people, who are in the flower of their 
age, to their conversion and salvation. 


The Setond Instance of a Merchant^ addicted to the lik& 
Destructive Practices. 

The second is of a merchant, about thirty-five years of 
age, whom I saw take leave of, and bid adieu to this 
world : he was one who had spent much time in keeping 
unprofitable company and over drinking, which practice 
wasted his strength and flesh, as it did his time and money, 
ai'd brought him into a deep consumption ; as it has many 
to my certain knowledge ; besides bringing die racking 
painful distemper of the gout, and many other miseries ; 
so that at last it brought him I0 his ch uTi!:>er and then ta 
his bed: and in his sickness he several times sent for me 
and made serious acknowledgments of his " former mis- 
pent time, and hoped, if the Lord would spare him, to be 
moi-e careful for the time to come." But he was no long- 
er to be trusted here in this world ; for he went not out 
until he was carried in his coffin : he held my hand fast in 
his, until he died, and was sensible to the last. 

One day, as he lay on his death-bed, he called me to 
him, into his chamber, and " Charged me to caution 
the young people to be careful how they keep (and spend 
their time in) evil company, for it had been his ruin, and 
now lay as a great and heavy burden on his conscience : 
Oil ! (savs he) if they did but feel one quarter of an hour, 
what I feel, they never would keep such company any 
more : tell this to my former companions. " 

And indeed there is a great deal of hurt done by young 
men getting together 10 drink wine, or other strong 
drink : I wish the wo, mentioned in the holy scriptures, 
may not be the portion of many of them ; " Who are 
mighty to drink wine, and men of strength to mingle 
strong drink ;" and sit late at it, which many times 
brings suflering on parents, wife, children, and servants, 
as well as themselves ; and is a very disorderly practice, 
Ijeing a reproach to all christian societies and families^ 
wherever such things are. 


There is a great concern upon me against this growing 
evil in our young generation ; and I hope, in Christ our 
Lord, that divers heads of famihes will come under the 
like exercise in themselves : and then, if our youth will 
neither hear nor fear the Lord, nor us, we shall be clear, 
and their blood will be on their own heads, as a worthy 
and honourai)le elder, and man of God (of your nation) 
Said : one of whose offspring is the subject of the third 
particular, that I shall mention to thee, of the many I have 
been acquainted with, in my pilgrimage here, in and on 
this part of the globe of the earth and sea ; for these are 
but few instances of many that I have met withal : I may 
therefore thus proceed. 

The Tliird Instance of another Young 3fan, who much 
embraced the same Destroying Delights, 

The fifth of the first month, at Bridgetown, in Barba- 
does, S. E. son of W. E. died. His death was sudden ; 
and, as was reasonably supposed, he destroyed himself 
by drinking and undue company-keeping, and sitting 
long at it. A person, to whom he himself had told it, 
told me, " That he and four more, at one sitting, drank 
above twenty quarts of double-distilled rum punch; 
which put him in a violent fever : so that he ran about 
the streets, with a naked sword, and talked of killing one 
of the neighbours, in this drunken fit." The next day 
he came to me, and asked me, " Whose door the blood 
would have lain at, if he had, in that fit of disorder, killed 
any body ?" By which query, I thought he was not yet 
rightly come to himself: because there were some ordi- 
nary reports about the town concerning him, he reckoned 
those who broached and spread those reports, would 
have been culpable, and must have answered for the 
murder, if he had committed any : but this was but cov- 
ering his sin. 

He seemed to fall out with religion too ; for he said, 
'' He would come no more to worship, till he should have 


justice done him, as to the reports :" though poor soul, 
he had the more need to present himself before his Ma- 
ker, and bow before the most high God, and repent in 
great humiiiatiun. The same day in which he neglected 
his duty, he was taken sick, and that day week was 
buried. He sent for me, and I went to him : he had but 
little sense of his end, as I could perc5"ive, and remained 
so till the night he died. I was by him when he died, 
and saw him fetch his last breath. A few minutes before 
he gave up the gliost, he trembled and shook exceedingly, 
and shrieked ou , to the astonishment of ail those present, 
which pierced my very soul within me : for he seemed 
to go out of the world in an extreme great agony.' 

I never saw any depart the world any ways like him ; 
and indeed it was very amazing, and greatly affected 
my mind with sorrow ; for I thought he was very unfit 
to die. Oh! me thinks I could heartily wish, that such 
objects might be as so many strong motives, to stir up 
and awaken the offspring of good men and virtuous women 
(as also any professing Christianity) to fear the Lord, and 
walk in his vvays, whose ways lead to life, in which the 
stins: of death is taken awav. 

The children of godly parents have much to answer 
for, in slighting or neglecting the wholesome counsel, 
good advice, and faithful admonition, of their faithful and 
careful parents ; whom they disgrace and dishonour, 
contrary to the command of God, who says, " Honour 
thy parents, that thy days may be long in the land, vvhich 
the Lord thy God giveth thee:" and none can truly 
honour their parents, who dishonour God their maker. 

The Fourth Instance of a Young Woman who often ab- 
sented herself from meetings, for the sake of much 
Bad Company. 

The fourth instance, which I shall give thee, is concern- 
ing a young woman, of about twenty-five years of age ; 
who was brought up very finely, tenderly, and delicately. 


with her lockets and chains of gold, and waiting maid : 
but her parents living too high for their income, broke in 
people's debt ; and their children as they grew up, were 
put to their shifts. What pity it is, that youth are not 
brought up to some business, whereby they may get a 
livelihood in the world, if their parents should drop be- 
fore them ! and though parents may have a handsome 
interest in this world, yet it has been thought by some 
great, as well as wise men, that to put out youth to 
trades and business, is both proliiable and honourable : 
instances of the evil consequences of the contrary, have 
been very many, as woful exjxrience doth daily teach 
us; and this young woman was one: for falling into 
evil company, she ran into debt, and was put into prisou ; 
where was a murderer, whom, it was said, she was acces- 
sary to loose from his chains ; and for so doing was put 
in chains herself, along with him, when, he was taken 
again : and now, instead of her gold chain, she must take 
up with an iron one ; and in a little time is to be tried for 
life : and in expectation of death, and being in great dis- 
tress, she sent for me, and entreated me to come ^id see 
her die, and much lamented her condition : " Oh ! said 
she, that I might be a warning to all young people, to be 
careful that they keep not evil company, and spend their 
time which should be spent in worship, in airy company, 
and other vain diversions, when they should be doing 
their duty to God." And then she would weep bitterly ; 
she being very penitent, it very much affectecl me ; and 
I told her, " That I did believe, if she in her heart was 
clear, and no ways consenting to the murder, her life 
would be given her : but then wo and misery would be 
her portion, if she did not amend her ways." And as I 
was leaving her, she charged me, " To warn young peo- 
ple that they might be careful that they spend not their 
time in vanity, and to keep out of vain and wicked com- 
pany," which she said had brought her to that misery 
and shame : " And that they should take the counsel and 
advice of good friends, (which if 1 had done, said she), 
I had not brought reproach on my friends, and on mj 


In a little time after, she was brought to a trial, and ac- 
quitted by the jury. I saw her once since, and reminded 
her of her duty ; which, she said, " She hoped to per- 
form ; and that it should be a warning to her, while she 
lived in this world :" and that such examples may be a 
warning to all people, is the earnest desire of a lover of 
souls, and servant of Jesus. 


Since I wrote the foregoing, there being a person in 
this place, who would be sometimes overtaken in drink^ 
I sent it to him to copy over, hoping it might have some 
good effect on him : and truly before he had copied the 
relation of the first person, he was so smitten ^vith the 
sense of the judgement of the Almighty, that he cried 
out, even to roaring, and said, " He was a condemned 
person, and that he felt the fire of hell." He sent for me, 
and several others, and begged of us to pray for him : 
he was told, " That the hand of God was upon him for 
sin, and desired to take warning in time, and repent, 
lest the Lord should cut him off in his iniquity." The 
Lord did accordingly cut off this person, he dying sud- 
denly, by hard drinking, as I was informed by a letter 
from Barbadoes ; though he promised, " If the Lord 
would spare him then, to be more faithful for the time to 
come ; and was then under deep inward exercise of mind. 
I mention this as a corroboration of the above instances, 
for further admonition. This person was in a consider- 
able post in that government : his name I forbear to men- 
tion, for divers reasons. If thou and friends see meet, 
I could desire, from the exercise that is on my mind, 
that this might be spread ; peradventure it might have 
place with some, for their good. 







Barbadoes, 1st of 12th Mo, 1718. 

Loving friend Aquila Paca, 

Meeting here with captain Swaddle, bound for your 
river, I found a concern on my mind to send a few lines, 
remembering the good opportunities I had at your meet- 
ing in that neighbourhood, together with those few poor 
honest souls that I met with there ; and I desire thee to 
give my dear love in Christ to them. 

Dear friend, I am tenderly concerned in the love of 
God, and his dear Son, to beg of thee, that thou let not 
the world, nor any thing therein, either the riches, pleas- 
ures, or friendship thereof, draw thy mind from that 
measure of grace which hath been manifested to thee ; 
for God hath visited thee in his tender love and mercy, 
as thou well knowest, and hath begotten good desires in 
thee, and convinced thee of the holy truth, as it is in 
Jesus. Oh ! saith my soul, that thou mayst more and 
more grow therein, to thy bringing forth much good 
fruit, to the glory of God, and the eternal good of that 
part in thee, which will never die. 

Salute me to thy wife and children, and the neighbours, 
and their children also, all of whom I wish well in this 

N n n. 


world, and also in that which is to corne,the same I wish to 
all those who love Christ, so as to keep his commandments. 

If thou seest meet, thou mayst read what follows at the 
close of } our meeting on a first day, which meeting I hope 
you keep up in order to worship God in Christ's name; for 
to such as meet in his mime, he hath promised to be in 
the midst of them, wherever they so meet; the which, 
he hath graciously fulfilled at many times. 

Dear friends, it is in my mind to visit you with the 
salutation of brotherly love, in our holy Lord Jesus 
Christ, and ma^ let you know, that though I have becQ 
long absent from you in body, yet have I been often 
present in spirit with you, and you have been often in my 
mind, with prayers to the Lord for your growth in the 
holy truth, which he hath been pleased to make known 
to you, and many times I have desired the Almighty, 
that he would be pleased to preserve a seed in your parts 
that should serve him, and be accounted to him for a 
generation. I have also desired that the Lord would 
visit your young ones, and bring them to the knowl- 
edge of his truth : and I pray God, that the tender visit- 
ation that was on divers of them, when I was present with 
you, may by them never be forgotten, but that they may 
be plants of righteousness, of God's own right hand 

And, dear friends, forsake not the assembling of your- 
selves together, in the name of Christ, remembering how 
you have been visited with the heart-melting power, and 
the sweet presence of the Most High, in your silent wait- 
ing on, and worshipping him in his holy spirit and truths 
as well as when you have been vocally visited by the min- 
isters of Jesus. 

Sue h worshippers (as our Lord said to the woman of 
Samaria) the heavenly Father seeketh to worship him ; 
and those whom God finds under such exercise, such 
find I'iim to be unto them all in all ; he is unto them wis- 
dom, righteousness, justification, sanctification, and re- 
<Jem lotion. 

Oh! dear souls, look to him (who is invisible to the 
outward eye) who is God over all, and is blessed forever r 


and may you, if this comes to you, feel the divine life and 
spirit of Christ, in the reading of this little epistle of 
brotherly love. 

Live in love, for God is love, and all those who dwell 
in divine love, they dwell in God ; wherefore love one 
another, that thereby ye may be known to be Christ's 
disciples : " For, (says he) by this shall all men know 
that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another ;" 
or, " if you love one another;" as one of the evangelists 
hath it. 

And keep low in mind, and humble in spirit ; for the 
humble God will teach of his ways, and the meek he will 
guide in judgement, and those whom he teaches, are 
taught the mysteries of his kingdom, which mysteries he 
teaches to spiritual babes and sucklings, 'glory to his holy 
name!) He often hides those holy mysteries from the 
wise and prudent, and reveals them unto such men, wo- 
men and children, as are little in their own eyes, and des- 
pised by the wise in natural wisdom, or the wisdom of 
this vain world. 

Oh ! mind your heavenly guide, dear friends, let me 
entreat you ; for he leads out of all sin, and out of all 
vanity and evil, of what kind soever ; and as our Saviour 
saith, into all truth. When Christ comes by his grace 
and spirit into the heart, then he opens the soul, and en- 
lightens the understanding, even in our common conver- 
sation; and much more (at times) in our solemn meetings, 
when we meet together to worship and serve him ; so 
that it is good to wait upon the Lord, and to seek him 
with the whole heart. 

Dear friends, though my heart is full of love and good 
will to you at this time, as at many other times also, I 
must now conclude, and commit you into the holy arms 
of him who is all divine love, begging the God of love 
and peace to keep you, and preserve you to his heavenly 
kingdom ; to whom be all glory, and praise, might, ma- 
jesty and divine dominion, through his dear Son, and 
the Holy Spirit, for ever more. 









Christian Reader, 

In order to promote and exalt the kingdom of the dear Son of 
God, (according to the gift and measure of grace received) I 
was concerned to write the following tract at sea ; and consid- 
ering the evil tendency of the belief and principle which hath 
overspread a great part of the professors of Christianity, that 
we cannot be tree from sin in this life, and that it is contrary 
to the doctrine of the holy scriptures of both the Old and 
New Testament, I could not be easy in my mind, without op- 
posing such a dangerous tenet ; for if we Ijelieve that we must 
always sin, this being a sinful faith, " according to our faith, 
so it will be unto us ;" and if we die in our sins, Christ hath 
told us, " Where he is gone, we cannot come." And holy rec- 
ord informs us, " That no unclean thing can enter God's king- 

I have, also, for the satisfaction of the true christian be- 
liever, collected the foUov/ing texts of holy scripture, which 
maintain the doctrine of holiness and perfection ; and directly 
oppose that evil principle, and that doctrine, that we can never 
be free from sin in this life. 

Walk before me, and be thou perfect. Gen. xvii. 1. 

Ye shall be holj', for I the Lord your God ana holy. Lev. 
xix. 2. — XX. 7. — xi. 44, 45. 

And ye shall be holy men unto me. Ex. xxii. 31. 

Noah was a just man, and perfect in his generation. Gen. 
vi. 9. 

Without holiness, no man shall see the Lord. Heb. xii. 
10. 14. 

We should be holy, and without blame before him, in love. 
Eph. i. 4. 

To present you holy, unblamable, unreprovable, in his sight. 
Col. i. 22. 

If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy, 
for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are. 1 Cor. 
iii. 17. 

So be ye holy in all manner of conversation, because it is 
written. Be ye holy, for I am holy. 1 Pet. i. 15, 16- 


What manner of persons ought ye to be in all holy conver- 
sation and godliness. 2 Pet. iii. 11. 

Thou shalt be perfect with the Lord thy God. Deut. xviii. 

The Lord said, Job was perfect and upright. Job i. 1. 8. 

Be ye therefore perfect, (the words of Christ). Mat. v. 48. 

I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect 
in one. John xvii. 23. 

Howbeit we speak wisdom among them who are perfect. 
1 Cor. ii. 6. 

Finally, brethren, be perfect, be of one mind. 2 Cor. xiii. 

That we may present every man perfect in Christ Jesus : 
that ye may stand perfect and complete in all the will ol God. 
Col. i. 28 iv. 12. 

Now the God of peace, &c. make you perfect in every good 
work. Heb. xiii. 20, 21. 

That ye may be perfect and entire, wanting nothing. James 
I. 4. 

Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us 
cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of flesh and spirit, per- 
fecting holiness in the fear of God. 2 Cor. vii. 1. 

Unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the 
fulness of Christ. Eph. iv. 12, 13. 

This we wish, even your perfection. 2 Cor. xiii. 9. 

Let us go on to perfection. Heb. vi. 1. 

Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good. 
Ro7n. xii. 21. 

Ye have overcome the wicked orte ; (this is twice repeated in 
one chapter.) 1 yoliyi ii. 13, 14. 

Ye are of God, and have overcome. 1 yohn iv. 4. 

Whatsoever is born of God, overcometh the world, &c. 1 
John V. 4, 5. 

To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life. 
Rev. ii. 7. 

He that overcometh, shall not be hurt of the second death. 
Rev. ii. 11. 

To him that overcometh, will I give to eat of the hidden 
manna. Rev. ii. 17. 

To him that overcometh, will I give power over the nations. 
Rev. ii. 26. 

He that overcometh, the same shall be cloathcd in white 
raiment. Rev. iii. 5. 

Him that overcometh, will I make a pillar in the temple oi 
ray God, and he shall go no more out. Rev, iii. 12. 


To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my 
throne. Rev. iii. 21. 

He that overcometh, shall inherit all things. Rev. xxi. 7. 

Consider then, courteous reader, I pray thee, what M'as all 
this language of the spirit, all these words of God, and all 
these commands, exhortations, and glorious promises for ? 
What is the end and tendency of them 'i 

If the Almighty commands things that cannot be done, 
what will that make of him ? If his servants labour and ex- 
hort us to things not to be done, where will those absurdities 
land t Surely it must centre in the mouth of the unprofitable 
servant, and such as charge God foolishly. And are all those 
fine and glorious promises made to put us on to fight against 
sin and satan, without a possibility of overcoming ? God for- 
bid ; and may he, christian reader, forbid also that thou 
shouldst believe such a gross and palpable mistake and error. 

Oh ! that the Almighty Lord may send forth more and more 
his holy light and truth, and that thereby he might lead and 
guide the inhabitants of the earth ; so that they might not give 
up the cause of Christ, but manfully resist, even to death, that 
at last they might have a crown of life. 


o oo 


&c. See. 

In the christian world, it is too generally believed, that 
people on this side the grave cannot be free from sin; 
which principle, or belief, is a great let and Iiindrance to 
the glorious work of reformation, and mightily obstructs 
people in their way to eternal glory, and tends to uphold 
the kingdom of satan, which every good christian (with 
St. Paul) should be for pulling down ; and, in order to do 
this, should make use of the weapons which he did, that 
is, the armoiH- of light; which weapons were, and are, 
*' The preparation of the gospel of peace, the girdle of 
truth, helmet of salvation, breastplate of righteousness, 
shield of faith, and sword of the spirit, which is the word 
of God." This is indeed a holy war, to war against sin 
and satan ; and the armour of light is also heavenly 
armour; and this holy apostle was a valiant soldier, who 
was also victorious in this war : Oh ! who would but 
list themselves under Christ's banner, and fight this fight 
of faith, with courage, and true christian valour. Then 
would they witness the truth of that saying of the apostle, 
*' That the weapons of this warfare are not carnal, but 
mighty, through God to the pulling down the strong holds 
of sin and satan." Oh! down with those strong holds, 
down with them ; let every lover of Jesus Christ say, 
and pray, that the kingdom of God, and his Christ, may 
be exalted forever. Sin is the chief support of satan's 
kingdom, which Christ came to destroy and put an end 
to, and to bring in righteousness, actual righteousness, 
as well as imputative ; he came to save his people from 
their sins, not only by imputation, but by holy actiorj 
also ; as his holy doctrine in his excellent sermon on 
the mount, and his many other divine expressions, do 
plainly and abundantly manifest. Now considering the 
great evil of this dangerous principle, I have been deeply 

468 Christ's kingdom exalted^ 

affected on account of poor mankind, to whose utter ruiu 
and eternal destruction it most certainly tends. If we were 
to reason as men and rational beings, with what spirit and 
courage should Ave undertake any business, journey, or 
concern, if before-hand ^^e were grounded in a belief that 
we could not perform our undertaking ? Or what nation 
or people in the world would have any courage to engage 
their connnon enemies, if at the same time they did be- 
lieve they should never overcome them, would not this 
abundantly dispirit and discourage them in their engage- 
ments, let any rational soul judge ? Oh ! this belief of sin- 
ning to the end of our days, is a mighty engine of satan, 
in order to support his kingdom and a wonderful prop to 
uphold it. Pray what signifies all the preaching and wri- 
ting in the world against sin, though ever so elegantly 
or scholastically written or delivered by the greatest of 
orators or ministers, if at the same time, this doctrine be 
upheld and maintained in pulpits, prints, and otherwise, 
&c. and received and believed by the people ? Let truth 
and right reason in t'iiis matter bear rule and be judge, 
and the cause will be determined against sin and satan : 
but the " Kingdom of Christ is an everlasting kingdom, 
and of his dominion there shall never be an end." This 
is a word of encouragement to the followers of Christ to 
be faithful to the commands of Christ. 

Though the devil is a great king, and a mighty prince, 
though he is a king over all the children of pride and 
disobedience, and j)rince of the power of the air; yet 
" the Lamb and his followers will have the victory" 
over sin and him, although sometimes it may fare Avith 
them as with their Lord, who obtained it through suffer- 
ings ; and let it be remembered by them, " That they 
shall in the end reign with him ;" also, " Fear not little 
flock, (says Christ) for it is your Father's good pleas- 
ure to give you a kingdom." By which words, when 
received in faith, the soul is inspired with courage, and 
holy boldness, to resist the tempter ; though we may 
have the disadvantage of being but few, and satan and 
his foil .wers many, who support his kingdom with this 
sinful principle and doctrine above mentioned. One 


great and wily way which he useth to uphold his king- 
dom, is to wrest and abuse the holy scriptures, and strain 
them to his evil purposes, as he served our Lord, the 
captain of our salvation, as will be shewn hereafter : 
and indeed when he makes use of any of the words of 
God, it is for an evil end, and that end must needs be 
wicked, which is to keep people in sin, or to create a 
belief that we cannot live without it in this world ; the 
which, if he can obtain, and cause people to believe, he 
knows he hath a great advantage over them : for Lovv" 
should clay, or dust and ashes, overcome sin, who confess 
they are, and believe they always shall be sinners? 
Wherefore let us examine and see what use he makes of 
those scriptures, which he brings to support people in sin, 
and by which he makes them believe they can never live 
without it ; some of which are as follows, viz. First, 
Beginning with that saying of our Lord Jesus Christ, to 
a young man who asked him, *' What good thing he 
should do to inherit eternal life," calling him good mas- 
ter. Mat. xix. 17. Our Saviour replies, " Why call- 
est thou me good, there is none who is good, but one, 
that is God." The young man thought he was speaking 
to a mortal man ; and it seems to have been the will of 
Christ, by this remark, both to caution hi